PAGENO="0001" 1977 NASA AUTHORIZATION HEARINGS BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON SPACE SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS OF THE COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES NINETY-FOURTH CONGRESS SECOND SESSION ON H.R. 11573 (Superseded by H.R. 12453) JANUARY 28, 29; FEBRUARY 3, 4, 5, 13, 14, 16, 17, AND 19, 1976 [No. 65] VOLUME I Part 2 Printed for the use of the Committee on Science and Technology - US. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 70790 WASHINGTON: 1976 PAGENO="0002" COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OLIN E. TEAGUE, Texas, Chairman KEN HECHLER, West Virginia THOMAS N. DOWNING, Virginia DON FUQUA, Florida JAMES W. SYMINGTON, Missouri WALTER FLOWERS, Alabama ROBERT A. ROE, New Jersey MIKE McCORMACK, Washington GEORGE B. BROWN, JR., California DALE MILFORD, Texas RAY THORNTON, Arkansas JAMES H. SCHEUER, New York RICHARD L. OTTINGER, New York HENRY A. WAXMAN, California PHILIP Ii. HAYES, Indiana TOM EARKIN, Iowa JIM LLOYD, California JEROME A. AMBRO, New York CHRISTOPHER J. DODD, Connecticut MICHAEL T. BLOUIN, Iowa TIM L~ HALL, Illinois ROBERT (ROB) KRUEGER, Texas MARILYN LLOYD, Tennessee JAMES J. BLANCHARD, Michigan TIMOTHY E. WIRTH, Colorado DON FUQUA, THOMAS N. DOWNING, Virginia JAMES W. SYMINGPON, Missouri WALTER FLOWERS, Alabama ROBERT A. ROE, New Jersey JIM LLOYD, California TIM L. HALL, Illinois HENRY A. WAXMAN, California MICHAEL T. BLOUIN, Iowa CHARLES A. MOSHER, Ohio ALPHONZO BELL, California JOHN JARMAN, Oklahoma JOHN W. WYDLER, New York LARRY WINN, Ja~, Kansas LOUIS FREY, JR~, Florida BARRY M. OOLDWATER, JR., California MARVIN L. ESCH, Michigan JOHN B. CONLAN, Arizona GARY A. MYERS, Pennsylvania DAVID F. EMERY, Maine LARRY PRESSLER, South Dakota Florida, Chairman LARRY WINN, JR., Kansas JOHN W. WYDLER, New York LOUIS FREY, JR., Florida DAVID F. EMERY, Maine JOHN L. SWIGERT, Jr., Executive Director HAROLD A. GOULD, Deputy Director PHILIP B. YEAGER, Counsel F1tANK'R. HAMMILL, Jr., Counsel JAMES E. WILSON, Technical Consultant J. THOMAS RATCHFORD, Science Consultant JOHN D. H0LMWELD, Science Consultant RALPH N. READ, Technical Consultant ROBERT C. KETCHAM, Counsel REGINA A. DAVIS, Chief Clerh MICHAEL A. SUPERATA, Minority Counsel SUBCOMMITTEE ON SPACE SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS (II) PAGENO="0003" CONTENTS WITNESSES January 28, 1976: Edward Z. Gray, Assistant Administrator for Industry Affairs and Technology Utilization; accompanied by Clare Farley NASA Page Deputy Assistant Administrator for Technology Utilization 1 Lyman M. Edwards, technical assistant to the president, petroleum and mining operations, Dresser Industries, Inc., Houston, Tex 4 D. W. Barlow, general manager, 0. E. M. Products, Inc., Brandon, Fla 9 Alan Lovelace, Associate Administrator, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology, National Aeronautics and Space Administration 21 Robert E. Smylie, Deputy Associate Administrator, Office of Aero- nautics and Space Technology, National Aeronautics and Space Administration 23 R. D. Ginter, Acting Assistant Administrator, Office of Energy Pro- grams, National Aeronautics and Space Administration 34 January 29, 1976: Roy Gibson, Director General, European Space Agency 169 Charles W. Mathews, NASA Associate Administrator for Applica- tions 179 February 3, 1976: John F. Yardley, Associate Administrator for Space Flight of NASA~ 370 February 4, 1976: Dr. Noel W. Hinners, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science 479 February 5, 1976: Gerald M. Truszynski, Associate Administrator for Tracking and Data Acquisition 613 Arnold W. Frutkin, Assistant Administrator for International Affairs, National Aeronautics and Space Administration 643 Field hearings: Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala 673 Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans, La 777 Johnson Space Center, Houston, Tex 785 February 17, 1976: William E. Lilly, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Comptroller; accompanied by Charles T. Newman, NASA, Director, Office of Resources Analysis; Gen. Robert H. Curtin, NASA, Director, Office of Facilities; and Gerald J. Mossinghoff, NASA, Assistant General Counsel for General Law 867 February 19, 1976: Hon. Walter B. LaBerge, Assistant Secretary of Research and De- velopment of the U.S. Air Force 1219 Elmer S. Groo, NASA, Associate Administrator for Central Operations 1239 (111) PAGENO="0004" PAGENO="0005" 1977 NASA AUTHORIZATION WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 28, 1976 U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SUBCOMMITTEE ON SPACE SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS, Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 8 am., in room 2318, Rayburn House Office Building, Don Fuqua (chairman of the sub- committee) presiding. Mr. FUQUA. The subcommittee will come to order. We are pleased to open the first of our second series of hearings on fiscal year 1977 NASA authorizations. In initiating this series of hearings it is clear that the potential for NASA's contribution to the Nation is not being fully utilized. As we proceed with these hearings, we need to closely examine how to best gain the maximum utility from the program presented be it scientific exploration or applications of technology. Of equal importance is the need to look ahead and arrive at a rational structure for future program plans, a structure that will be unambiguous, understandable to the public, and of sufficient range so necessary critical debate can occur. We are pleased to have as the NASA witness to discuss the pro- grams of technology utilization and space technology and energy- related R. & D. May I add, we are pleased to have ERDA accompany NASA as they discuss their interrelated programs. The first witness will be Mr. Gray for technology utilization. STATEMENT OF EDWARD Z. GRAY, NASA ASSISTANT ADMINISTRA- TOR FOR INDUSTRY AFFAIRS AND TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION, ACCOMPANIED BY CLARE PARLEY, NASA DEPUTY ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION Mr. GRAY. Mr. Chairman, I am very pleased to be with you this morning. I am always pleased to have an opportunity to discuss with you our activities in the NASA technology utilization program [slide 1]. Today, in the interest of time, I will not describe in any detail the basic elements of our program, which are shown on our first slide, and with which you are familiar, but I will discuss the progress we have made in each of these elements since February 1975 when I last had the privilege of appearing before the subcommittee. (1) PAGENO="0006" 2 TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION PROGRAM PURPOSE TO PROVIDE FOR THE WIDEST PRACTICABLE AND APPROPRIATE DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION CONCERN ING ITS ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS THEREOF NATIONAL AERONAUTICS & SPACE ACT OF 1958 PROGRAM ELEMENTS * PUBLICATIONS * INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS CENTERS * APPLICATION PROJECTS * PROGRAM EVALUATION & BENEFITS ASSESSMENT NASA HO KT761913 (1) SLIDE 1 First of all, withm the publications program in 1975, we published almost 600 innovations, which include NASA tech briefs and com- pilations This brings the total to nearly 10,000 since the program's inception These innovations were carefully screened from the many more new technology items reported by contractors and NASA l~1xu'~tories for their potential utility to the nonaerospace sectors oftlfe economy Interest stimulated by these new technology announcements generated over 28,000 industry requests for further technical docu- mentation Also, in 1975 we received nearly 17,000 inquiries from interested individuals and companies generally seeking technical information of some kmd on the nature and services of the TI-I pro- gram [slide 2] PAGENO="0007" 3 Based on an analysis of the news clipping service we subscribe to, almost 1,500 TU-related articles appeared in the trade press, magazines, and newspapers during the year. The trade press is known to be a very effective medium for transferring technology and it is interesting to note that more than half of the articles ap- peared there [slide 3J. SLIDE 2 PAGENO="0008" 4 Technology utilization publications and other TU services offer a potentially valuable resource to entrepreneurs and established companies alike. Today, our first witness, who represents one of our country's larger companies, has had considerable experience in acquiring externally generated technical information, and he will briefly describe how this NASA resource has been particularly helpful to his company; At this time, I would like to introduce Mr. Lyman Edwards, technical assistant to the president of the petroleum and mining operations of the Dresser Industries, Inc., from Houston, Tex. Mr. Edwards. [Prepared statement of Mr. Edwards appears in Volume I, Part 3.] STATEMENT OP LYMAN M. EDWARDS, TECHNICAL ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT, PETROLEUM AND MINING OPERATIONS, DRESSER INDUSTRIES, INC., HOUSTON, TEX. Mr. EDWARDS. Mr. Chairman and members of the subcommittee competition in the industrial world, especially in industries involved in the development and production of somewhat sophisticated equip- ment, services and hardware for the energy industry, requires that considerable time, money and effort be expended in the search for, creation and use of new technology. In~house research is indispensable, not only to maintain a pro- prietary position, but also to quickly solve problems essential for SLIDE 3 PAGENO="0009" 5 upgrading a company's products and to produce new designs from new concepts, if the company wishes to be a leader in the field. Technology can be generated locally by means of an innovative research program. It can be procured from academic institutions, industrial research groups and governmental sources whose charters provide for the orderly dissemination of technology to the public and private sectors. From 1955 to the present time, the Federal Government has a]lo.. cated more than $175 billion for research and development in scientific and technological programs. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, it appears to us, above all others, has recognized its obligation to share the vast amount of technology developed for its mission in space with industry to improve the benefits to mankind. The company I represent, Dresser Industries Inc. with a present annual income of more than $2 billion is a highly technical, multi- faceted company engaged in the development and production of hardware and services for energy producing companies. Recognizing the need for acquisition of technology, both our in-house research facilities, of which we have several, and from all available outside sources, we sought a method for reviewing and using the vast store- house of technology produced by NASA. Dresser has worked with several of NASA's Industrial Applications Centers and has received special literature searches and related information services. Through one of these centers alone we have acquired extensive retrospective searches on some 20 specific scientific subjects pertinent to our research needs. We attended the symposium on heat pipe technology sponsored by the NASA Industrial Applications Center in New Mexico. We submitted a bid to perform engineering services in connection with the construction of the Alaska Pipeline which, although not the suc- cessful bid on that contract, proposed the use of these specially designed heat pipes to conduct the heat away from the ground in which the pylons support the pipeline. This prevents thawing of the permafrost which would be disastrous. The line is now being con- structed utilizing these special heat pipes for that very specific purpose. Overheating of electronic components in sophisticated instruments used for downhole measurements in deep hot oil wells and for logging geothermal hot holes can be a perplexing problem. Technical informa- tion acquired at the New Mexico symposium was instrumental in enabling us to design a system using heat pipe conductivity principles to control the heat generated by these critical components. We also attended the NASA symposium in Salt Lake City on the licensing procedures available to industry on NASA patents. At this conference NASA encouraged industry to profit from these Govern- ment-owned patents and explained how a company can take ad- vantage of NASA-developed technology. Dresser representatives also attended NASA's Technology Utiliza- tion Conference for the Gas Industry at Lewis Research Center in Cleveland. This conference reviewed NASA's literature, computer programs, hardware and concepts specifically selected for interest and value to those involved in all phases of the gas industry. The Tech- nology Utilization Office subsequently published the proceedings of this conference as a Special Publication. PAGENO="0010" 6 Several of NASA's publications pron~oting the awareness of new technology provide excellent reference material for our company. NASA's Computer Program Abstracts are received regularly. The nature of each program is scanned and forwarded to appropriate computer programing personnel in the con~pany. Dresser receives NASA's Patent Abstra~ts listing their patents and copies of update~l lists of new patents is~ued. Through my office, patents pertaining to tly~ product lines of specific~ Dresser companies are forwarded to thos9' companies for their information and use. Likewise, we receiv'e NASA's tech briefs, and specific briefs are duplicated and forwarded to appropriate Dresser engineering departments. We have also found the Technology Utilization Offices at NASA Field Centers to be effective in making available the technical informa- tion related to their Center's activities. The Technology Utilization Officer and the staff at the Lewis Research Center provided structural analysis information which we used successfully in solving a fatigue problem occurring on the large jack-up oil drilling rigs of Dresser Offshore. The NASA information enabled us to analyze the cyclic action of sea waves causing the prob- lem, and corrective measures were taken to repair and preserve the integrity of these drilling rigs. Information also made available through the Technology Utiliza- tion Office and Earth Resources Program Office at Johnson Space Center assisted Dresser Minerals Division and our geophysical com- pany, Dresser Olypic, to gain an insight into the potential uses of space imagery. Much of the multitude of space imagery Dresser needed for study of the geology and oil and mineral potential for areas of the world in which we had interests was obtained through the assistance of one of NASA's Industrial Applications Centers. Through them, we also obtained documentation necessary for the understanding, use and application of this imagery to our geologic needs described above. * As chairman of the Houston Chamber of Commerce Science and Technology Committee for 1974 and 1975, I organized a conference sponsored jointly by the National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- tration and the Houston Chamber of Commerce called "First Houston Technology Transfer Conference." This conference was quite successful in informing the public and industry of the availability of technology and its application to their business interests and product improvement. The proceedings of this conference, which were widely distributed, contained a number of NASA-sponsored scientific projects and their successful application to new industry projects to benefit mankind. This conference also included many of NASA's life sciences and medical applications projects. Conferences similar to this are planned annually. PAGENO="0011" 7 Our firm conviction in the search for new technology is that NASA's vast technological storehouse fulfills a distinct need and valuable assistance to industry in its quest for new products and services for the betterment of mankind. Mr. FUQUA. Thank you, Mr. Edwards. You mentioned some of the publications they have made available. Can you put a dollar value on that to your company? Mr. EDWARDS. I would say it is in the thousands of dollars, because we have utilized portions of every one of them, some more than others. The helpful ones, the tech briefs, which I do not have a copy of here, contains certain technical solutions to problems that apply to many of our electronic companies and circuitry can be evolved from those. S Tech briefs like these have been used extensively. A number of improvements in our down-hole logging instruments for oil wells have come from selected tech briefs and other information received from NASA. S We worked very closely with NASA. We frequently visit the John- son Space Center and know all the people there; they have been very kind to us and generous to us in helping us to secure this technology. Mr. FUQUA. Would that information have been available to you otherwise? Could you pay somebody to look it up for you? Mr. EDWARDS. Not without NASA's assistance in putting the information in the form where we could use it. There are areas where you can go for technology but not in the vast storehouse that you have at NASA. This is by far the largest and most general coverage. I would say it has been one of our most helpful points of interest. Mr. FUQTJA. Do you think they should be doing more than what they are doing? Mr. EDWARDS. They have plenty of technology; the problem is the dissemination of technology. It is the fault of people like me not knowing more about the availability of this technology. Perhaps by publicly proclaiming this, as I have done in many of the conferences where I have been, more people would use it. I recently started two companies, and it is just a matter of getting used to this information, and now they have formed a department in the company to pursue the same thing we have been doing. I think it is a matter of information, getting to the right sources. Mr. FUQUA. Thank you very much. We appreciate your being here today. Mr. GRAY. Thank you, Mr. Edwards. The NASA Industrial Applications Centers have shown steady growth in spite of the recession in 1975. Last year, the number of clients served by the applications centers increased 76 percent over the previous year. As a measure of the centers' activities, there were in excess of 50,000 applications center-to-client interactions during the year (slide 1). PAGENO="0012" 8 We have also expanded the centers' coverage in a number of new areas of concentrated industrial activity. Existing centers have estab- lished sales representatives in San Francisco, Chicago, Buffalo, Phila- delphia, Cleveland, New York City, and Dallas to market their services and provide technical assistance to firms in those areas. Technology coordinators representing the applications centers have been located at three NASA field centers during the past year to facilitate responses to client inquiries. We also have recently initiated a joint experimental program with the Small Business Administration to provide the small and minority business firms in the southern California area access to the technical services available from our Applications Center in Los Angeles. NASTRAN continues to be the most widely used computer pro- gram available from our Computer Software Center at Athens, Ga. However, sales of other programs increased substantially in 1975. At this point, in order to give you a better understanding of our program I will have our next witness describe for you how the tech- nical information and services he recieved from an applications center have assisted him in establishing a new company to manufacture new solar energy heating systems. He is Mr. D. W. Barlow, general manager, O.E.M. Products, Inc., Brandon, Fla. Mr. FUQUA. Mr. Barlow, we are very happy to have you come up here from Brandon. [Prepared statement of Mr. Barlow, Sr., appears in Volume I, Part 3.] SriDE 1 PAGENO="0013" 9 STATEMENT OP D. W. BARLOW, GENERAL MANAGER, O.E.M. PRODUCTS, INC., BRANDON, PLA. Mr. BARLOW. Mr. Chairman and members of the subcommittee, I appreciate this opportunity to share with you my thoughts on a matter of great importance, not only to me and my small firm but to many other persons and firms over this entire Nation. This matter concern NASA's operation of technology repositories such as its Industrial Applications Center at Research Triangle Park in North Carolina, where businessmen or other interested people or firms have access to an immense amount of technical information which can have a profound effect upon those of us in the business community- including individuals, firms of all sizes, or even entire industries. As a result of a news release in a national business publication which appeared in 1974, I learned that NASA had an immense storehouse of technical information available for sharing with business people. The Washington, D.C., name and address was supplied, and I wrote as suggested. I had a prompt answer which referred me to the NASA Industrial Applications Center at Research Triangle Park in North Carolina. Within a few days I had a telephone reply from this Center concerning my specific needs. As a result of that con- versation, the Center instituted a search for the material I desired which had to do with energy-with particular emphasis on flat plate solar energy receivers. Within a few days I received a sizable packet of documents loaded with information far more extensive and more detailed than I had dreamed possible. As a result of careful investigation of this informa- tion concerning work which had been done previously, we were able to cut the Gordian knot of our own research and development to a minimum, and begin to manufacture production prototypes in the fall of 1974. Additionally, as a direct result of our study of the information supplied by the NASA Industrial Applications Center, we proceeded directly to the design of aluminum extrusions for the solar collector case and also the collector bed. We were able to compress time to the extent that we have dies built, extrusion samples tested, and limited production of complete solar collectors begun by late 1974. Our products are the direct results of building on the base provided by NASA, either in work NASA itself had previously done, such as test results, design techniques and material specifications, or because of the tremendous assemblage of knowledge which is being shared by NASA. In fact, the information provided by NASA led to my decision to disband a trucking equipment firm of which I was president in order to devote my energies and resources into the development of a product line based on the use of solar energy. I can honestly state that I cannot conceive how our small firm with its limited resources could possibly have otherwise assembled the technical knowledge necessary for the development of our Solarmatic Solar Heating Systems. These are viable systems which work and work well, and have numerous indus- trial, residential, and agricultural applications. PAGENO="0014" 1~0 We are shipping these products throughout the United States, particularly in the southernmost tier, and we are now actively engaged in an export program, with shipments to the Caribbean area and to Europe on a test and evaluation basis We expect to have extensive sales in these areas due to the high cost of alternative fuels As I have stated before, we are a small firm, blessed with neither sizable funds for research nor the time to laboriously track down myriad facets of information required even to start in the solar equipment business. Had we not had accessible to us quickly and at reasonable cost the information needed for us to get our start in solar energy-which I am convinced will have an enormous positive impact on those nations learning to utilize it-it is doubtful that we would have been able to enter the solar equipment business at all At best, we would be many months behind and with a less efficient, less desirable and less saleable product I will therefore close with an acknowledgment of deep gratitude that this NASA program existed when we had a need for it and the fervent hope that you gentlemen will not only see to its continuance but will enhance it. Gentlemen, Mr. Chairman, thank you. Mr FUQUA Thank you very much, Mr Barlow Do you think that based on the information that you have received from NASA that your company will be able to provide the technology for it to continue to grow? Mr BARLOW Yes, sir We are in the process of growing now, providing information and literature We have been complimented not only on the format of the literature, but also the content from quite large firms around the country who are quite impressed with the product and the way we talk about it Very frankly, all of this information is a result of what we picked up through NASA. Mr FUQUA I asked a similar question of Mr Edwards, but do you think that your company would have had the availability of this information had it not been through this program? Mr. BARLOW. I have thought about that a lot. I have no idea where I could have gotten it otherwise. Mr FUQUA It would have been a considerable expense to your company, maybe to the point you would not have been able to even have afforded it at that juncture in your infancy as a company Mr BARLOW If I had known where to find it, sir, I am certain that it would have taken such a long time and been such an expense that probably we would have had to enter some other field, certainly not enter this one Mr FUQUA Thank you very much, Mr Barlow We appreciate your being here this mormng Mr. GRAY. Thank you, Mr. Barlow. In the technology applications area, we continue to demonstrate that many problems in the public sector can be solved using existing NASA technology Based on the needs identified by our seven applica- tion teams we now have 61 active projects underway in conjunction with user institutions and our NASA field centers [slide 1]. PAGENO="0015" 11 APPLICATION TEAMS *BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS * STANFORD SCHOOL OF MEDICINE * RESEARCH TRIANGLE INSTITUTE * UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN * LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER * TRANSPORTATION *STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE * URBAN CONSTRUCTION & SAFETY *TECHNOLOGY & ECONOMICS, INC. * PUBLIC SAFETY * PUBLIC TECHNOLOGY, INC. NASA HO KT76-1912 (1) 1-20-76 SLIDE 1 PAGENO="0016" 12 It is interesting to note that 14 Federal agencies have co-funded projects of this type with our office over the past 2~ years. The total funds from other agencies over this period are now approaching $1.5 million [slide 2]. APPLICATION PROJECTS USITERAGENCY COOPERATION ($1.457M) * DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE * DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR * DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION * TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS CENTER * FEDERAL RAIL ADMINISTRATION * FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION * U. S. COAST GUARD * ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ADMINISTRATION * DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION & WELFARE * VETERANS ADMINISTRATION * SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION * U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE * U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY * NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NASA HO KT76-1911 (1) 1-2076 SLIDE 2. PAGENO="0017" 13 SLIDE 3, 70-079 0 - 76 - 2 PAGENO="0018" 14 [Slide 3] Representative applications projects include a high tech- nology residential house at Langley Research Center [slide 4], a cataract surgical instrument being developed at the Lewis Research Center to reduce the hospital care time from weeks to days [slide 5], a meal system for the elderly project at the Johnson Space Center to SLIDE 4 PAGENO="0019" 15 SLIDE ~; PAGENO="0020" 16 provide an easily prepared balanced diet for old people, and a ship- board firefighting module at the Marshall Space Center to improve the effectiveness of the Coast Guard [slide 6]. Others were described at the hearing yesterday. A number of additional application projects are scheduled for fiscal year 1977, including Project Fires. This project will be conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center for the National Fire Prevention and Control Administration of the U.S. Department of Commerce. New materials developed for aerospace programs will be investigated for their use and applicability to improve firefighters' equipment, including protective garments and firefighting implements and tools. We will report to you next year on these projects which may greatly assist and enhance vital areas of public concern and we see no reduction in the number of public sector problems that can be solved with NASA technology. The numbers are only limited by our available resources. Our technology transfer followup activities continue, including the documentation of verified cases of technology transfer. One product of this effort is a space benefits notebook entitled, The Secondary Application of Aerospace Technology. This is the latest copy. SLIDE 6 PAGENO="0021" 17 I will leave with you a copy of the latest printed edition. This document cites only a few hundred of the thousands of cases in which NASA technology has been adapted or used on a continuing basis. An updated version will b~ available early in the year with additional cases. We are also publishing a 1975 report of our technology utilization activities called Spinoff, 1976. It will be ready for distribution in February, and I will see that each of you receives a copy. In conclusion, I would like to briefly highlight our proposed initia- tives for fiscal year 1977. We plan to modify our tech brief program and expand their dis- tribution. For example, we will aggregate tech briefs into groups and distribute them selectively on a quarterly basis in order to increase their usefulness and impact. We will also expand their distribution, in cooperation with the Small Business Administration, to selected lists of small business concerns [slide 7]. TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION PROGRAM NEW INITIATIVES FOR FY 1977 * INITIATE QUARTERLY TECH BRIEF JOURNAL * EXPAND PUBLICATION DISTRIBUTION SBA, TRADE PRESS, TRADE ASSOCIATIONS * CONTINUE EXPANSION OF APPLICATIONS CENTER NETWORK & AWARENESS PROGRAM * ESTABLISH TWO (2) NEW APPLICATION TEAMS IN AGRICULTURE & MANUFACTURING PROCESSES * EXPAND EVALUATION PROGRAM AND IMPROVE BENEFITS DOCUMENTATION NASA HO kT761910 (U SLUE 7 PAGENO="0022" 18 We expect to establish arrangements with the trade press and trade associations in order to achieve broader readership of NASA tech- nology. We are committee to a major increase in the number of users of NASA tech briefs during the coming year. In fiscal year 1977 we will continue to expand the accessibility of the Industrial Applications Center network by adding additional offsite representatives and technology coordinators, and by experi- menting with new institutional arrangements. Planned new starts in the applications project demonstration area include the establish- ment of two technology applications teams, one in the field of agriculture and the other in manufacturing processes. We plan to continue our application projects at the same level as this year. Finally, we know that the technology utilization program is effective in accelerating the transfer of NASA technology and broaden- ing its user base throughout the Nation. We also know that there is room for continued growth and have plans to bring this abou~ in an orderly way (slide 8). TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION PROGRAM FY 1977 BUDGET REQUEST (IN THOUSANDS) FY FY TRANS. FY 1975 1976 PD. 1977 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS PROGRAM EVAL. & BENEFITS TOTAL.... $2,414 $3,145 $ 850 $3,245 2,373 3,500 950 3,640 713 855 200 1,015 $5,500 $7,500 $2,000 $7,900 NASA HQ KT76-1009 (1) 1-2076 SLIDE 8 The fiscal year 1977 funding level of $7.9 million will support a modest growth in our plan, provided we are successful in increasing the co-funding by other agencies of our program elements. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. This ends my statement. I would be glad to answer any questions you may have. PAGENO="0023" H Mr. FUQUA. Thank you very much, Mr. Gray, for discussing ~ part of NASA that I think we are all very much in support of a~hd) :~ ~ although this is not intended as a criticism, but hope that more of this information gets out to the public so they understand whr~ ~ their tax dollars are being spent. It is a question of whether inforn~a~ ~ tion is available to them. I wonder, you mentioned in the last slide of new programs ~OU were talking about, how you were going to have more activity witI~ the Small Business Administration in working with those smail businesses. Not all small businesses have affiliation with the Small Business Administration, just those that borrow money I think it would be good not to just limit to those through th~ ~ Small Business Administration. That is certainly good, becauset ~ certainly many small busmesses benefit from your organization I was particularly impressed by the agriculture and manufacturing~~ I wonder, if you had more money, what would you do with it? Mr. GRAY. As we told you last year, if we have increased funds, we~ *ij~A have plans to have a nationwide network of these applications centers. It is quite obvious wherever we locate one of these, there is. a marked increase in the users of NASA technology in the geographi& area that it serves. H With additional funds, we would increase that coverage. As you noted in my testimony, we have already increased it some. We believe by an institutional relationship, we can even make it more~ effective, but that costs a little bit more money. We also believe that we can improve the awareness of our program~ This year we intend to start a modest advertising program just to~ make people aware that there are these Technology Applications .` Centers available to them and ready to serve them. We will try that as an experiment, and we believe, based on the information provided, a client such as Mr. Barlow, that by making people aware through the various trade publications that we will get more people to partici. pate. We also expect to increase our activities in the applications area, and expect this effort to present new opportunities for the application of NASA technology. Mr. FUQUA. Very good. You mentioned from your publications program that you had 28,000 industry requests. Do you have any figures on the followup of the requested data? Mr. GRAY. One of the organizations we are working for is called the Denver Research Institute. We have had them following up on the users of the Tech Briefs. They have found that based on a sampling they have made that about 14 percent of the people who are receiving our Tech Briefs are actually receiving economic benefit by incorporating that in- formation into their products or processes. We think it is a remarkably high usage rate based on the normal usage that we find occurring within industry for technical information. Mr. FUQUA. You also mentioned in your printed testimony about the clipping service program. Have you analyzed this as to what the effectiveness of it is? PAGENO="0024" 20 [Material referred to above follows:] Clippings received via Bacon's News Clipping Bureau reveal steady coverage of NASA technology in the trade press, regional and local newspapers, popular magazines, and national papers and letters such as the Wall Street Journal and Kiplinger Washington Letter. Five hundred and ninety-nine (599) different mag- azines and newspapers published such articles in 1975, as shown in the following breakdown: Trade Press, 306; Regional/local newspapers, magazines, 254; popular magazines, 21; and National papers/letters/serials, 18. Clippings recieved from Bacon's are placed in one of 7 categories; These are (1) New technology announcements, (2) nonaerospace technology applications, (3) benefits, (4) TILT program activities/services, (5) NASA general, (6) NASA program activities, and (7) professional journal articles. Of the 1,429 clippings received in 1975, 822 were classified in categories 1-4, indicating a high proportion of readership interest in the potential or actual use of NASA technology for purposes other than those for which it was originally created. More than 100 articles appeared on Benefits, alone. Effectiveness of the articles appearing in different elements of the media can be difficult for NASA to assess. One trade magazine published by the American So- ciety of Mechanical Engineers, Mechanical Engineering (circ. 56,000), devotes one full page in each issue to NASA Tech Briefs. We assume the editor considers that a worthwhile utilization of space in his magazine. Occasionally, articles appearing in the press refer the reader to the NASA Headquarters TU Office for further information. In May of 1975 we reviewed the requests generated by such articles, and some typical results are shown here: Industry Week (Feb. 3, 1975), "Solder Application Tool"-250 inquiries; Kiplinger Washington Letter (May 31, 1975)-8,538 inquiries; Popular Science (March 1974), 11 Tech Briefs described-5,000 inquiries; Tampa Tribune-Times (Jan. 12, 1975), "A Practical Solar Energy Heating and Cooling System"-750 inquiries. Mr. GRAY. That is a little more difficult to assess. What we have done in those particular cases is made sample followups from the clippings to find out how effectively those com- panies are using that information. I don't have any figures there. We could provide it for the record, if you like. Mr. FUQUA. You said if you had more money you would put in some more Applications Centers. You also mentioned sales representa- tives. Would you like to elaborate on that? Mr. GRAY. What we have done, in order to get greater coverage at minimum cost is to start fanning out from our existing Applications Centers, such as the one in Connecticut. They have now placed sales representatives in New York City and Buffalo to start servicing the people in those particular areas. We have found that is an effective way to broaden our geographical coverage in providing services to new industrial users. However, I fundamentally believe that in order to really get the type of coverage down to the small business as well as to the large business, we need to have a better association with the State agencies involved within the particular State boundary. Therefore, we are planning to open discussions with State industrial improvement agencies, which various States have, and also with the State system of higher education and see if we could enlist the support of various State agencies so that NASA technical information can be widely distributed within the State. For instance, we are talking with the State of Florida to see how they might aggregate all of the State institutions in one network to service the industry throughout the State. We think that could be a very cost-effective way to make information available. Mr. FUQUA. We would be happy to work with you on that. PAGENO="0025" 21 I do not remember whether it was last year or sometime back, it was suggested by someone on the subcommittee that there be some kind of logo on your spinoff products. Have you considered that? Mr. GRAY. You would be interested in knowing that the National Space Institute is going to start a logo program in which they will be putting a logo onto products that have been identified as having space spinoff. Mr. FUQUA. Very good. I am glad they are going to do that. You mentioned in your closing testimony about a report that was coming out shortly in February, I believe, Spinoff 1976. What are the plans for the distribution of this report? Are you getting any feedback on the merits of the report? Mr. GRAY. Based on our experience last year, we printed 20,000 reports on our activities and we have distributed all of them. This year we intend to increase that number somewhat, based on the level of interest generated by last year's report. We will probably end up making them available to the Visitors Informatioii Center that we have at the Cape and at our seven other centers, as well as to the users of NASA technology. We plan to send the report out to them and also to rilech Brief users. Mr. FUQUA. Thank you very much, Mr. Gray. We appreciate your testimony and the fine job that you are doing, and I think it is one of the real selling points of NASA, that it is a spinoff of space technology, and I am very pleased that industry is receiving this and that more efforts will be made in this coming year. Mr. GRAY. Thank you. It was a pleasure being here. Mr. FUQUA. rpI~e next witness this morning is Dr. Alan Lovelace, Associate Administrator of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. [The prepared statement of Mr. Alan M. Lovelace appears in Volume I, Part 3.j STATEMENT OP ALAN M. LOVELACE, ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRATOR, OFFICE OP AERONAUTICS AND SPACE TECHNOLOGY, NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Dr. LOVELACE. Mr. Chairman, it is a pleasure for me to appear before you this morning. As you have observed, I have my deputy at the table with me, Mr. Smylie. We have prepared written testimony which I would like to submit for the record; and in the interests of time Mr. Smylie and I will outline the content of that this morning. As I am sure you are aware, the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology has a unique role within NASA. Unlike the other program offices that are responsible for systems and missions in space, we are responsible for technology to support those activities. Probably the most difficult task that we face in technology planning is the matter of selecting the correct technology and seeing to the development of that technology in a timely way. A key to the accomplishment of those tasks is a good set of future goals, and this past year, we were substantially assisted by two items, the soon-to-be released "Outlook for Space" report; and your sub- PAGENO="0026" 22 committee hearings on "Future Space Programs 1975." These activi- ties have been and will continue to provide a basis for focusing our planning and setting our new technology goals. We have started that process already. Let me conclude my statement with some brief comments on the 1977 budget shown in Figure 1. It reflects a modest increase in the overall program, more specifically in the experimental programs which contain some additional activity focused on Space Shuttle payloads; a very modest increase in the other programs. OFFICE OF AERONAUTICS AND SPACE TECHNOLOGY SPACE FY 1917 BUDGET REQUEST ($M) TRANS 1976 QUARTER 1977 SPACE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY $14.9 $19.3 $82.0 RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY BASE 61.1 15.7 62.1 SYSTEMS STUDIES 1.8 .4 1.6 SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS 2.2 .6 3.1 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS 3.1 1.1 6.9 LOW COST SYSTEMS PROGRAM 6.1 1.5 8.3 NASA HQ RM76-1960(1) 1-21-76 PIGUBE 1 Mr. FTJQUA. What is the low-cost systems program? Dr. LOVELACE. I would ask Mr. Gray if he would like to respond to the question. Mr. GRAY. The low-cost systems program is set up in order to spearhead activities in NASA to save money. The primary emphasis the program has had is to get some standardization on the equipment being used for our hardware. We have developed now, or are in the process of developing, 12 different standard items. The idea is that once the items are developed, let us use them over and over again on succeeding programs. Mr. FUQUA. How much of that is in the Shuttle program? Mr. GRAY. The only thing we are deve1~oping, so far, is the tape recorder, which will be used as a part of the Shuttle program. PAGENO="0027" 23 Most of the equipment that is being developed will be used on the payloads which will be carried on the Shuttle. Mr. FUQUA. All right. So it is indirectly related to the shuttle? Mr. GRAY. Directly, if you consider that the Shuttle will carry payloads. Mr. FUQUA. What I was referring to was the Shuttle itself. Mr. GRAY. As far as the Shuttle itself, the only item we are develop- ing is the tape recorder. Mr. FUQUA. Thank you. Dr. LOVELACE. The final comment I would like to make, Mr. Chairman, is that clearly the long-term investment in space technology must expand in the future to make sure that our national space goals can be met. I think that Jim Fletcher also made reference to that in his statement. That concludes the remarks that I would like to make. Mr. Smylie will now highlight our proposed fiscal year 1977 part of the space technology activity. Mr. FUQUA. Mr. Smylie? [The prepared statement of Mr. Robert E. Smylie appears in Volume I, Part 3.] STATEMENT OP ROBERT E. SMYLIE, DEPUTY ASSOCIATE ADMINIS- TRATOR, OPPICE OP AERONAUTICS AND SPACE TECHNOLOGY, NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Mr. SMYLIE. Thank you Mr. Chairman and members of the sub- committee. I am here this morning to talk to you about technology, space technology in particular; but it is clear, as the testimony by Mr. Gray has emphasized, that technology cannot always be so neatly categorized. It applies in many areas and it does not ebb and flow like the tide, but flows more like a river, sometimes full, sometimes in a trickle, but always from a reservoir from which we all can draw for many Purposes. I would say this morning that that reservoir is far from empty; the technology stream continues to flow. It has brought us from the 25-pound Explorer to the 250,000 pound Skylab, and next to the shuttle in some 15 Or 20 years. Opportunities exist to increase our capabilities in space; and based on the criteria that information is the primary product of our space programs, at least in the near future, we believe that opportunities exist in all the areas of space technology in which we have worked, such as electronics, materials, propulsion, structures, and power, to increase our space systems capability one thousandfold, and at the same time reduce the real cost of utilizing space. To illustrate what may be of some historical significance I would like to refer to Figures 1 and 2 which, in technical terms, and with popular analogies, show where we have come in the past 15 years and where we think we can be in the next fifteen in imagery, data storage, energy storage, and electronic devices. PAGENO="0028" 24 FIGURE 1 PAGENO="0029" 27 & I I I I 1 1 I TIME NASA HO 6676-1863 (3) 116-76 FIGuRE 5 We believe that the opportunities exist to turn this current trend around; and we are proposing a program in fiscal year 1977 to do that. We believe that we can cause the software costs to fall rapidly enough that we can turn that curve over and make it come back down, as indicated by the overlay. We do this by taking advantage of the increasing capability and lowering cost of the hardware by producing simple higher order languages, and automating the conversion from higher order language to the computer language, and also by automating the checkout of the software systems. We believe that this program will show results in time for the shuttle payload era and that it can be utilized in the 1980's. MULTI-PURPOSE USER ORIENTED SOFTWAI~E. TECHNOL~GY HARDWARE / MICRO PROCESSORS PAGENO="0030" 28 Propulsion is a key element in all of our space programs. It repre- sents one of the major recurring costs. We believe that through technology we can decrease this cost and increase the performance of future space propulsion systems. Our planned chemical propulsion technology is illustrated on figure 6. We have programs in advanced low-cost propulsion, building on a substantial Air Force program and addressing peculiar and unique NASA needs such as sterilizable solids for planetary landers, long- term storability, and restart capability to add flexibility to the low- cost advantage of solids. In the area of retropropulsion for planetary orbiters, we are pro- posing a program in space storable propellants which substitutes fluorine for nitrogen tetroxide in the propulsion system. This offers up to a 25- to 30-percent increase in specific impulse of such systems, therefore, reducing the weight of the system for a given mission. This improved performance can be traded off in terms of more science at the planets, better orbits at the planet or shorter trip times. We are proceeding with flight weight component designs this year, leading to the assembly and test of a propulsion breadboard in 1980, in time to be used in the planetary missions of the 1980's. In near-Earth transportation, we are working on technology for liquid oxygen/hydrogen, reusable systems for orbit-to~orbit transfer. FIGURE 6 PAGENO="0031" 29 This work also contributes to future Earth-to-orbit transport vehicles for complete reusability and `ow cost. We are working on life limiting components such as pumps, regeneratively cooled thrust chambers, high expansion ratio nozzles, and so forth. This work continues and we will demonstrate performance, life, and reusability in fiscal year 1977. The lower righthand portion of figure 7 indicates the potential for Earth to orbit transportation which might be realized some day from our very long-range propulsion research; we call it our New Horizons propulsion technology. INFLUENCE OF PROPULSION PERFORMANCE ON SINGLE STAGE TO ORBIT GROSS LIFT OFF WEIGHT (65,000 POUND PAYLOAD) 10 x io~ . CURRENT SHUTTLE 02/H2 PROPULSION TECHNOLOGY 8x10 9 C, ~ 6x10 ADVANCED CURRENT PROPULSION SHUTTLE TECHNOLOGY 4x10 NI I I NEW HORIZONS ~2x10'. PROPULSION 1~GE f..~-SINGLE STAGE FULLY REUSABLE REUSABLE NASHoRs76.2o55(,) FIGuRE 7 The current shuttle, with the expendable tank~ and the reusable solid motors has a gross lift-off weight on the order of 4 million pounds. If we used the impulse currently available from the skuttle lox hydrogen engine in a single stage-to-orbit vehicle built with today's technology, it would weigh on the order of 10 million pounds, with the attendant large recurring and first costs for such vehicle. But our studies are showing that with advanced propulsion technologies, for example such things as mixed mode using high-density fuels in parallel with low hydrogen systems, or utilizing two-position or multiposition nozzles, it will be possible in the future to design a single stage-to-orbit vehicle, with a 65,000-pound payload having the same 4 million pound gross lift-off weight as the current partially reusable shuttle vehicle. 70-079 0 - 76 - 3 PAGENO="0032" 30 In our New Horizons area, we are conducting basic research on atomic and metallic states of hydrogen and other excited. species of gases that have the potential to produce very high specific impulse at very high thrust. If this very long-range program should produce practical results, then there exists the possibility in the far distant future of a gross lift-off weight on the order of 1 million pounds. As figure 8 illustrates, we continue to work on auxiliary electric propulsion and primary solar electric propulsion. These are very low thrust systems that operate for very long periods of time. The small engine is to be used for satellite north-south station keeping applications. In this application it would improve the payload capability by up to 30 percent over chemical systems, thus directly adding to the number of communications channels on communication satellites. The primary propulsion systems would be used for planetary missions, primarily. Some missions are otherwise impractical without this kind of propulsion, for instance certain comet rendevous missions. Many of the planetary missions would obtain greater science return if this kind of propulsion system were avaflable. We are continuing endurance testing of thrusters for these systems in this year. This- the thruster itself, and the power conversion part of it, is applicable to nuclear electric propulsion in the future, where you replace the solar arrays with a nuclear reactor to provide the electrical power to operate the system. FIGuRE 8 PAGENO="0033" 31 Turning now to materials research, the materials program is very broad, and is central to all advances in technology. This has been so since the days of the steam engine, and will continue to be so, I believe. We work in the area of solid state materials for electronics, materials for high-temperature, high-pressure use in propulsion systems, and materials for structures to increase their temperature stability, increase their life, and reduce their weight. The one I would like to address this morning is the composites program, illustrated in figure 9.. The current state of the art in resin matrices for composites is an epoxy mi~terial that operates up to about 3000 to 350F. Much of this material is currently used in the shuttle. ~elop th PAGENO="0034" 32 Fiscal year 1977 will be a planning year for us to understand what research value We can get from the shuttle, and we will be pro- posing to conduct aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic kinds of experiments on the shuttle~itself in the future. This program will be carried on during the orbit flight test program and after utilizing the flight data system as well as added instrumentation. We are continuing the definition phases of the Advanced Technology Laboratory, which I hate discussed with you before. This Advanced Technology Laboratory is our use of the Space Lab for carrying out technology experiments in space. The Long Duration Exposure Facility, which is the free flying p~ssive satellite we have discussed previously, is reaching. m~turity. We plan to issue an announcement of opportunity for experiments to be flown on this spacecraft within this fiscal year. I believe that the activities we have underway represent a healthy, forward~looking program. Our planning, the Agency's ptanning, and your support~and interest is helping* to focus this work. I think the projection of a thousandfold increase in capability at reduced costs is achievable, and I believe that if we continue the pro~ram and keep it healthy we will contribute significantly to maintaining our Nation's technological leadership in the world. Thank you. Mr. FuquA. Thank you, Mr. Smylie. We appreciate your testimony and Dr. Lovelace's~ Dr. Lovelace, one ~conclusion of a recent report on your research activities was that there was a tendency for the university as a tracii- tional role of univer~ities on a source of innovation research ideas to be overly inhibited. Mr. FUQUAI What are you talking about? Dr. L0vELACE. Mr. Chairman, the concern I have is that NASA, in its support of the universities in their traditional role as a source of knowledge and forward thinking, be very careful not to inhibit that role in anyway by imposing the thoughts of our own scientists and engineers on the content of the `university program. We have taken steps to insure that the kinds of proposals that flow to us from universities receive a fair and impartial assessment so that we indeed maintain the health of' the university research programs and the health of the relationship between NASA and the universities. Mr. FUQUA. Did the review panel look at the research funded by the other program offices, or only that in the OAST? Dr. L0vELAcE. The review that you referred to, Mr. Chairman, was performed only on the basic research program of OAST. The programs conducted in the other program offices, not being as funda- mental in nature, were not reviewed. The OAST has the principal responsibility for the very basic research within NASA, and the review was focused entirely on the OAST basic research program. Mr. FnquA. You mentioned the long range goal to extend OAST's space research and technology program. What time frame have you adopted for achieving this goal? Dr. LOVELACE. As I indicated in my statement, we are looking at using the prospectus of the "Outlook for Space," as well as the hear- ings that your subcommittee held in July, as a basis for a 10- to PAGENO="0035" 33 20-year view of the technology requirements to meet the kinds of missions that we may see as national space goals. As I also indicated, we will then scope the program to hopefully insure that we can deliver the technology required to meet those goals in a timely way, not too soon, not obviously too late, to allow for the missions of that time period to be accomplished. Our expectations and views have to consider at least 20 years into the future, if not 30 years, in order to insure that we are adequately considering the proper technologies. Mr. FUQUA. Is this just within your office, or is this discussed with the senior management of NASA? Dr. LOVELACE. This is not just within OAST and really cannot be for the reason that OAST is not the user of the technology. Our customers reside in the other program offices and in industry. We thus have set up a process of dialog, if you will, within the agency and external to the agency to insure that we set goals that are in consonance with national goals and with the agency goals to meet those national needs. We have this year started a new process to in- sure that we strengthen that dialog. Mr. FUQTJA. What is the structure that you are planning? Dr. LOvELACE, In space technology, we are setting up review com- mittees from selected areas that will involve personnel from the Centers and from the appropriate program offices within Headquarters. This has several salutary effects. One, it allows us to insure that we are focusing on the right goals. Two, it facilitates the process ulti- mately of transferring technology to the potential user; so it is both a planning and an implementation process that I view as a dynamic and continuous way, not in a one-time way, of doing business in this area. Mr. FUQUA. Many experiments that are underway require an advanced pointing control system. Are you serving as a lead office in NASA in the development of such a system? Mr. SMYLIE. We are conducting research programs that would be applicable to both the sky-looking and earth4ooking needs of the OSS program and the Office of Applications. As I am sure you know, there is a pointing system which is part of the Spacelab program. But there will be a need beyond the capability of that system in the future, so the research we are conducting in our program is looking beyond the capabilities of the basic system. Mr. FUQUA. What new starts and proposals did you submit to NASA, and subsequently to 0MB? Dr. LOVELACE. Mr. Chairman, the process, as I am sure you are aware, is one of selecting from inputs from our Centers and from all sources. I have a responsibility to priorities and winnow those down and present those selected to the management of NASA, the OAST portion, and, in turn, we assemble the Agency's budget in that overall process. There were indeed several programs that we would have and did originally propose to start in fiscal 1977 that are not currently con- tained in the request before you. I would say that principal among those, in my view, was a laser information transfer experiment that we at NASA felt, because of the overall pressures on our budget, could not be included. We also have PAGENO="0036" 34 a program that we refer to as Sphinx B/C that is not contained in the request this year, and some propulsion technologies that we had pro- posed. In all cases, I participated in the prioritization of the programs, and we did not remove from the program the highest priority items. The programs that are contained in our fiscal year 1977 request are the highest priority. These programs I just mentioned fell out, if you will, of the submission. Mr. FUQUA. Mr. Wydler? Mr. WYDLER. Mr. Chairman, I have some questiOns, but I really think these questions would be appropriately placed in the record; with your permission I would like to submit them for the record. Mr. FUQUA. We will be happy to have you do that. I have one other question, Mr. Smylie. What have you been doing in evaluating the benefits and risks? How successful have you been? Mr. SMYLIE. We do evaluate, particularly the neW start programs, for the benefits to the scientific or other missions of the Agency, and attempt to prioritize our technology program `according to their benefit to these missions. In the world of technology, we have `to be careful not to' overdo that kind of thing, because the use of the `technology in the final analysis may be different from what you thought it was going to be. when you started in a given program. When we get into an experimental program where we are concerned with a particular mission application of that technology, we can do fairly significant benefit analysis and relate that to the cost of bring- ing that technology to the point where the user program can imple- ment it. We do use that process in our budget formulation. That was' related to some of the things I was saying in my testi- mony concerning the increased mission return, redtiOed trip time, better orbits,, and so on. Mr. FUQUA. Thank you very much, Dr. Lovelace and" Mr. Smylie. We appreciate your testimony. Our next witness will be Mr. R. D. Ginter, NASA's assistant Administrator for energy programs. [Prepared statement of Mr. Ginter appears in Volume 1, Part 3:] STATEMENT OP R. D. GINTER, ACTING ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR, OPPICE OP ZN~ZGY PROGRAMS' Mr. GINTER. Good morning, `Mr. Chairman. It' is a pleasure to be here again. I would like to introduce Mr. Ralph LaRock, my Director of Energy Technology Applications Division. Mr. Chairman and members of the subcommittee, I am very pleased we have the opportunity to update the progress of the Office of Energy Programs. In November we stated that the broad go&l of the Office of Energy Programs was to assure the effective" use of aerospace capabili- ties and experience of the National Aeronautics and Space Admmistra- tion in direct ~upport of the National energy' research and development needs. PAGENO="0037" 35 This is a long term effort because the aeronautics and space tech- nologies continue to expand and mature, and because the energy problems also shift in definition as the perception of future needs and options are clarified. This process, which we term "Technology Identification and Verification," leads to the formulation of technology advancement p~lans which may be accepted with confidence by agencies such as the Energy Research and Development Administration-ERDA---'and the D~artment of the Interior-DOT--for their consideration. Reimbursable agreements are then negotiated to initiate and carry out the technology advancement work. We have established an effective dialog with ERDA, the DOl and the Office of Management and Budget ~OMBj. Both middle and senior management levels have been briefed on our perception of the appropriate role for NASA in support of "customer" agency program needs. I am pleased to report that it appears these agencies understand the concept of "Technology Identification and Verification" and agree that such NASA work is a necessary initial effort. I would like now to report a few of the mQre significant accomplish- ments which have occurred since November. First, the windmilF-MOD-O--., installed at the Plum Brook Facility operated by the Lewis Research Center, has successfully completed all tests to date and delivered the rated 100 kW of electric power for the first time on December 18, 1975. ERDA wants us to build two more of these machines and have them in operation early in 1977 in order to obtain practical operating experience by utilities as quickly as possible. The next step in this project will involve the development and testing of a larger and more cost-effective machine-MOD-i. This machine will be similar in general concept to the present windmill, but will have up to 15 times the generating capacity and will feed its power directly into a commercial electrical distribution network. Requests for Proposals .from industry will be issued in March for the detail design, construction and testing by early 1978 in a utility environment. The Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project we are conducting at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-~JPL---a1so continues on schedule, We now have a total of 20 contracts in force with 14 more in the final stages of negotiation. These include an initial procurement of 46 kilowatts of state-of-the-art solar cell arrays from five different com- panies, three of which are small business. Three contracts have been signed with the remaining two contracts anticipated by the end of January. Requests for proposals for an additional 130 kilowatts were issued in mid-December to 67 companies including 34 small business concerns. A complementary effort which requires the development and testing of concepts for integrating the solar cell arrays from the JPL Project into a variety of practical applications has been assigned to the Lewis Research Center. First applications will be in remote ai~eas followed by demonstra- tions in residences leading up to large commercial applications in the late 1980s. PAGENO="0038" 36 You will recall that ERDA has assigned the hardware development portion of its role under the 1974 Solar Heating and Cooling Act to NASA. This responsibility is being fulfilled by the Marshall Space Flight Center-MSFC. Five requests for proposals were issued ii~ October and responses have been received for three of them. Our current plan is to evaluate~ the proposals and let contracts in the amount of about $4 million during the period from March to July. In addition, we reached an agreement with ERDA inDecember to assist them in the evaluation of the proposals they received in response to Program Opportunity Notice DSE-75-2, the Commercial Demon- stration Program. At this time, MSFC is evaluating the 300 pro- posals submitted to ERDA, considering both the technical and busi- ness factors. Results of this evaluation will be provided to an ERDA Source Selection Board for their selection of contract awards. As you can imagine, this represents a very sizable effort on our~part due to the large number of proposals received by ERDA. MSFC will subse- quently assist ERDA with contract negotiations and then manage the resulting contracts. We are continuing our efforts to define a specific rore for the Lewis Research Center in the E~RDA solar heating and cooling advanced technology program. ERDA has agreed in principle to the Lewis Research Center's role and is supporting initial in-house work. Agreement should be reached on the details of a more extensive, long-range program in the next few months. The experimental solar heating and cooling collector test field at our Langley Research Center is in its final stage of construction. The Lewis Research Center has contracted for a total of 600 solar collectors based on seven different designs selected from proposals solicited from industry. They should be in place at Langley by March and initial operation of the 13 ,000-.square-fOot collector field is planned to start in late spring. In the broad area of energy conversion, we are continuing approxi- mately on schedule with the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). Results of the phase II, conceptual design effort are scheduled for a presentation on February 17th and 18th. The presentation is to the ECAS steering gro~ip, comprised of representatives from NASA, NSF, and ERDA. We are still holding to our schedule for comple~ tion this very comprehensive investigation by next summer. In addition, w~ have continuing discussions with ERDA concerning utility gas turbine technology. Outline documents have been transmitted and initial program planning has been initiated. Also, we have recently agreed to support an ERDA request to technically review a United Technology Corpo- tion of ration proposal concerning the FT-50 utility gas turbine. Discussions have been continuing with ERDA in the area of ground propulsion and we have received authority to continue the gas turbine automobile engine work keyed to the Chrysler engine which we have been conducting kr the past several years. Our expectation is that within the next few weeks we will complete negotiations with ERDA to initiate a modest effort with regard to electric vehicles and may also be able to continue some work with regard to the hydrogen injection concept at JPL. PAGENO="0039" 37 With regard to the work we are doing for the DOT, Bureau of Mines, the Systems Analysis Definition Study of advanced coal energy extraction has been initiated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and a new task concerning~4the study of reliability and maintainability problems in the longwall mining system will start within the next few weeks. Our project directed toward the automation of the tongwall / Shearer at the Marshall Space Flight Center seems to be making excellent progress. Of the methods currently used for underground mining of coal in the United States, the longwall system appears to offer the greatest potential for improving coal production efficiency in the near future. In addition to increasing production efficiency, this system should also improve the quality of the mined coal, conserve coal resources by obtaining more of the coal in the seam and improve miner safety. Our first project objective is to determine the sensors and controls which should be developed as part of the Bureau of Mines overall effort to achieve automation of this system. Unless the coal shearing portion of the system can automatically determine the coal interface and appropriately correct itself, total automation of the system cannot be achieved. Seven different interface detectors are curreiflly being evaluated by MSFC. From these, the most promising will be selected and developed for actual test in a mine environment. Our current effort is designed to complete this evaluation and submit appropriate recommendations for sensor and control system development to the Bureau of Mines in October of this year. Briefings and initial discussions have also been conducted with ERDA in the interesting and important area of satellite power systems. Since the majority of concepts currently under consideration involve the conversion of solar energy to electric power for subsequent trans- mission to earth, our coordination activities have been with ERDA Division of Solar Energy. In addition, the Senate Subcommittee on Aerospace Technology and National Needs of the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, chaired by Senator Ford, has recently conducted 2 days of hearings on this subject. Witnesses included representatives of indus- try, a university, ERDA, NASA, and the private sector. Interest in the long-term potential of this concept for supplying a portion of the Nation's future energy requirements remains high. The general consensus of opinion is that within the next 25 to 30 years, this source of power may be competitive with other future alternatives. Because of the many technology advances required to achieve this capability, a definite determination cannot be made at this time. However, it is significant to note that no absolute barriers have yet been identified. Continued investigation of the technologies concerned requiring only a modest funding commitment over the next few years, is war- ranted to enable a more precise definition of the magnitude of the effort and risks involved in making a commitment to a dedicated tech- nology advancement decision. The reimbursable project responsibilities we are fulfilhtig for ERDA and the Bureau of Mines are continuing to expand. We received about $3.5 million in fiscal year 1974; over $12 million in fiscal year 1975, and the total in fiscal year 1976 will be very close to $50 million. PAGENO="0040" 38 We believe this represents tangible evidence that the capabilities of NASA are being recognized and applied to energy-related problems. The NASA fiscal year 1977 budget does not request any R. & D. funding for energy programs. This reflects a recent policy decision by the administration that such direct funding for energy H. & D. for terrestrial application will be provided by ERDA. Because this decision was made in late December, there was insufficient time for ERDA to include specific provisions for NASA energy R. & D. funding in the ERDA fiscal 1977 budget request. However, we have been discussing this problem with ERDA management and expect that it will be possible to arrange for an appropriate allowance so that the technology identification and verification function of the Office o~ Energy Programs can be continued. Our t$ssessment, at this time, is that we have a lot of work which must b4 completed during the balance of fiscal year 1976, and we have th~ funds to do that. We h~ive reached agreement in principle with ERDA and the ad- ministr~tion concerning the need for the technology identification functi~. We / also have the initial manpower required to effectively perform this function at the centers doing energy-related work with the ex- ception of the Jet PropulsiDn Laboratory. We believe that during the balance of the fiscal year, it will be possible for ERDA and NASA to reach agreement concerning the level of B. & D. funding required to enable NASA, including the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, to continue participation in this critically important function. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Mr. FUQUA. Thank you. You discussed* the fact that there were no energy funds in the budget this year as proposed by the President. Was there any discussion between NASA and ERDA prior to this decision by 0MB not to include funds? Mr. GINTER. No, sir,not to my knowledge. Mr. FUQUA. So it was kind of an arbitrary decisio~i on their part- you do not have to agree or disagree with that. I am only making a statement-to make that decision without discussions prior to that? Mr. GINTER. Mr. Chairman, of course, there were a number of discussions between NASA and 0MB. Those I am familiar with. Mr. FtJQUA. Prior to the decision? Mr. GINTER. Yes, sir. There was a considerable dialog about this. However, I cannot state- Mr. FUQIJA. Why was it not included in the budget? Mr. GINTER. I cannot speak to the OMB-ERDA discussions. All I know about are those that directly impacted NASA, sir. Mr. FUQUA. You stated that the NASA energy-related funds were used to develop the understanding of the user problem and narrow the solution of options to those with the highest payoff potential in program plans for support by the user agency. Since you do not have any money, what are you going to do? Mr. GINTER. At this point in time, we do have funds to allow us to continue through the balance of fiscal 1976, including the transiti9nal quarter. At this time of year we have to hope that we will achieve PAGENO="0041" 39 some sort of an accommodation that will provide the essential "seed money", to enable us to continue to perform this vitally important function. Mr. FUQUA. Dr. Teem of ERDA testified before the Senate last week regarding satellite power and testified that there were no funds in the fiscal year 1977 ERDA budget for these studies. What in-house studies has NASA furnished to ERDA and so forth to be evaluated? What other means are you working on, if you are, to evaluate the satellite solar power? Mr. GINTER. Mr. Chairman, I would like to emphasize that the decision by the administration was made in late December, so there has been a very limited amount of time to work the problem, if you will, between ourselves and ERDA. However, we did have a meeting with ERDA last Friday, We have started the discussions and the initial preparatory work to com- municate to ERDA what we know about satellite power system and begin to understand from them what they will need to be able to conduct the evaluation that was referred to last week. Mr. FuQUA. Are they going to call on NASA to continue to manage that program, or are they going to move the management completely into ERDA and the contractor will report to ERDA, or to you, or has that been resolved yet? Mr. GINTER. That really has not been resOlved, but the general outline of the way we are proceeding is that ERDA has established a single point of contact for us to work with. They did that this week. His name is Dr. Robert Summers. We have not yet had an opportunity to talk to Dr. Summers. Our expectation is that in the interest of moving with some quickness on this that ERDA will primarily be attempting to evaluate and under- stand those data which we have. There has been no discussion at this point in time concerning trans- fer of the management of this activity. Mr. FUQUA. Mr. Wydler? Mr. WYDLER. Talking about the solar heating and cooling part of your testimony, as I understand what is going on, ERDA has turned over to NASA all of the actual hardware development work that is going to be done in this field. Is that a correct statement? Mr. GINTER. I do not think that is quite correct, Mr. Wydler. They have assigned to us, as we stated, the responsibility for d~velop- ment of systems for demonstrations. I do not think that we or ERDA construe that to include all-of course, as you know, what is develop- ment and what is something else sometimes generates interesting discussions. We do, however, have a very significant role to play. Mr. FUQIJA. I think at this time-it is my understanding that the ERDA representatives are here. It might be wise to bring them to the witness table. Maybe they have some comments in relation to that. Mr. John Brogan, Director, Division of Transportation and Energy Conservation, Dr. John Belding, Director, Division of Conservation Research and Technology, and Mr. Don Beattie, Deputy Assistant Administrator for Solar, Geothermal and Advanced Energy Systems. PAGENO="0042" 40 Mr. WYDLER. If I understand what you have said, 1~RDA has given this responsibility in some part or a major part to NASA and you have given it to Marshall and Marshall is requesting it to be done by industry. Is this how it is working? Is anything being done at Marshall? Mr. GINTER. Mr. Wydler, I would like to have Mr. Lt~Rock give you a brief outline of the way that program is structured. Mr. LAROCK. The primary responsibility for management of the solar heating and cooling development for demonstration activity of course, is invested in ERDA and the Marshall Space Flight Center will be the operating agent for that agency. In consonance with policy which has evolved over the years in NASA, NASA will attempt to coordinate the industry efForts tht~t we feel are necessary to make the solar heating and cooling demonstra- tion program a success. Mr. WYDLER. You say hardware development is now given to NASA, NASA is doing it at Marshall. What are they doing at Marshall? Mr. LAROCK. Marshall will be primarily involved in-house with the testing and evaluation of some of the hardware which has been proposed for demonstration and seeing that the performance specifica- tions which have been laid down for the equipment are met by the participating contractors. Mr. WYDLER. The system as Marshall tests it, they come up with a result and then it comes back to headquarters and headquarters goes over and tells ERDA about it? Mr. LAROCK. No, it does not work that way. Marshall will, in the operation of the program, be directly responsive to the ERDA management. Our headquarters progr~tm office in NASA is primarily responsible for insuring that the requisite NASA support for Marshall continuing in this operation will be received. Head- quarters does not directly manage the technical aspects of the program. Mr. GINTER. Mr. Wydler, if I may, I would like to add a little emphasis on that. In the overall relationships we are establishing with ERDA on this work, our office, called the program office at Headquarters, has a fairly distinct responsibility during the seed money and the initiation phases. It is the type of headquarters to field center program Manager-Project Manager relationship that has been characteristic of NASA As that project matures and a reimbursible agreement is set up then one of Don Beattie's staff becomes the program manager in our terms-we make every effort to assure that the communications line between the ERDA program manager, who has the overall responsibil- ity for progress in his area, to the project managers at our field centers is as direct, clean and uncluttered as it can possibly be. That is merely a translation of our experience over the years. My office tends to stand aside from any technical direction. We, in effect, provide assistance to those more mature activities; in an assist mode even including making sure that staff officers do not impede that program project manager relationship. Don, would you like to add anything? Mr. FUQUA. Would you like to identify yourself for the record? PAGENO="0043" 41 Mr. BEATTIE. Don Beattie from ERDA. I am Deputy Assistant Administrator for Solar, Geothermal and Advanced Energy Systems. The program is a rather complex program, Mr. Chairman, in the solar heating and cooling demonstration. There are four key parts to the program: demonstrations, development in support of the demon- strations, research and development and technology utilization and information dissemination. Those are the four key elements of the demonstration program. The Marshall Space Flight Center is supporting that program in one area at this point in time, which is the development in support of demonstrations, and the funding for that particular effort is included at this time within the ERDA fiscal year 1977 budget. I would suggest that if you have further questions on the roles of the various agencies in the program that you refer to our document ERDA 23A which is the solar heating and cooling demonstration plan. We have attempted in that document to lay out rather clearly the responsibilities of the various agencies, which include not only NASA, but IIUD, GSA, DOD and a number of other agencies. The NASA part is a very vital part since they are charged with bringing the components and systems up to speed for later cycles of the demonstration program. They are also involved, as was indicated earlier, in evaluating the responses to our PON which will be demon- strated in this fiscal year. Mr. WYDLER. You say there are 300 proposals. Would you happen to know-I remember receiving a proposal, I think it was, I am not sure, from the County of Nassau in my congressional district, to do some sort of a solar installation in a county building. Would you know if that is one of these 300 proposals we are talking about? Mr. BEATTIE. I am not sure, Mr. Wydler, if it is. We have also been receiving unsolicited proposals. We are preparing this week a listing of all the people who have proposed in response to our PON. That will be available by the end of the week to the Members of the Congress, so they will know if people in their districts have responded to the PON. I am not sure if that particular one is a response. Mr. WYDLER. You say they are being evaluated. How many of the 300 are going to be acted on? Is there a number that we have? Mr. BEATTIE. The funding we have available at this time is $4 million to fund the projects that have come in as a result of that solicitation. We are not in a position at this time to say how many projects will be funded, because we do not know what they are requesting for funds. Mr. WYDLER. The next thing I note in regard to your testimony is the defining of the role of Lewis Research Center in the ERDA solar heating and cooling technology program. How is thatgoing to coordinate with the sol~ar energy research insti- tute that ERDA is planning to establish? How are those going to operate together? Mr. GINTER. Mr. Wydler, I will make a couple of comments and then ask Mr. Beattie again for help. We are in the process, as I indicated, of defining a fairly specific and well-bounded role for Lewis in their historic role of advanced research and technology. PAGENO="0044" 42 The concept is that that activity would be directly supportive of the Marshall function of development for demonstration in the classical advanced technology relationship. I do not think we ourselves are in a situation where we can speak to how that will relate to the solar energy research institute which is still under consideration and has, to our knowledge, not been all that fully defined as a function. Mr. BEATTIE. Would you care to add to that? Mr. WYDLER. I think it has been pretty well defined. They are in the process hopefully-we had Mr. Seamans here a few days ago, his testimony, as I remember it, was essentially in a few weeks they would be putting out the actual guidelines of what they wanted in the way of a site for the project. He told me that they hoped in 5 months to be able to decide where it was going to go. So it would sound to me that this construc- tion could be going on a year from now, and we could have a center in a couple of years. I always understood that was essential. That was to be the focus point of all the solar energy research in the country. I do not know what you are doing at Lewis, but the language you use here, it seems to me it is going to be doing something, some part of this work. I just wonder how this is all going to work together when you finally have a Solar Energy Research Institute in existence. Can you answer that? Mr. BEATTIE. Mr. Wydler, we see the Solar Energy Research Insti- tute as having a very important function in the total program. How- ever, I do not believe that the Solar Energy Research Institute will be doing all functions of the program. There will be a number of other laboratories involved. We see a continuing role for many government laboratories as well as private industry and universities, even after the Solar Energy Research Institute is functioning and operating completely, which obviously would take some time. The research and development that may be conducted by the Solar Energy Research Institute will be coordinated through our Division of Solar Energy with the other functions that are going on in other parts of the country. Mr. WYDLER. I understand that answer. It would seem to me that you should have done this thinking before you assigned anything to Lewis Research Center. You should know what you are going to do, how this is all going to work. This is what Lewis is going to do. This is what SERI is going to do. These other laboratories and so forth, you should have that in mind at this point before you assign any roles to this. Mr. BEATTIE. If I gave the impression that we did hot know how we were going to coordinate that, I am sorry. We do have a very clear idea, I think,~of how we will coordinate it and where the roles will be. The Lewis role is one that has been developing for 2 years. Mr. WYDLER. What will it be. Tell me; that is what I would like to know. * Mr. BEATTIE. What will what be, sir? Mr. WYDLER. The role, the defined role that you just told me yoti know. I would like to know what it is. What is the defined role for Lewis? PAGENO="0045" 43 Mr. BEATTIE. The defined role for Lewis- Mr. GINTER. Mr. Wydler, I think as you can appreciate, a precise definition is not available. But, as we testified in November and have previously here, Lewis Research Center has been working on solar collectors in particular, materials associated with solar collectors, test and evaluation, standardization of test data, so that it is comparable. Lewis has a number of high-quality test facilities for the testing of solar collectors. As you know, they have a strong materials technoli~y capability and I believe that I am correct that Lewis andMinneapolis- Honeywell were last year, 1975, awarded one of the industrial research magazines IR-ioo awards as one of the top research activities in the country for their one particular solar collector activity. So that the role, if you will, will be for making use of that unique capability at Lewis as a Ipart of ERDA's overall program effort. I guess at this point in time, that is about as tightly as we can define this particular role. Mr WYDLER. This is going to get very complicated. I personally agree with the general theory of how this whole thing is going to be managed. I can see a great many problems arising. When you get into the actual details of trying to assign out the various functions of solar energy research and end up with anything in SERI at all. This was something I was kind of interested in how they were going to work this. That is why I asked the question. I do not think that there has been too much real, down-to-earth thinking about this. This is a general concept of coordination and it will all work out and so forth. Maybe it will. Obviously, before they can give Lewis anything or anybody else anything, they have to be able to figure out what they are going to have left themselves. Otherwise, you will have a center with nothing to do but will probably take credit for everything that the other centers do. I would like to see SERI end up being something really significant and productive and useful for the country. You talk here about the ground propuli~ion program. What are you doing with the gas turbine? I thought that was something that private industry figured was no good. Are we going to make them anyway? What is going on with the gas turbine? There is nothing new abqut that. That is an idea that goes back to the thirties. Mr. GINTER. I do not think the idea of gas turbines for ground propulsion is particularly new. People have been working on that for a long time. My colleague Mr. Brogan can correct me, but I believe I am correct when I talk about the Chrysler gas turbine that is in the Lewis Test Center. I think that is a sixth generation Chrysler turbine, and they are themselves working on a seventh generation. Mr. WYDLER. Chrysler is doing this work? Is that what you are saying? PAGENO="0046" 44 Mr. GINTER. Yes; we are supporting John Brogan's organization and have I been since about 1971 or 1972 making use of the gas turbine technology base that exists at Lewis which was developed primarily for aeronautical propulsion. Certainly, with regard to materials, structures, dynamics, seals, lubricants, all of those things that go into a turbine, they are not all that different when you want to use a turbine in a different application. The technology base, the number of test facilities, overall design concepts, are applicable. Somewhat of a misconception that maybe I would like to correct is that it appears that there is a large amount of interest in tJ~ie auto- mobile industry of the potential of gas turbines. General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler are all to one extent or another working on por- tions of gas turbines. It does offer one of a very attractive potential replacement for the internal combustion that is currently in use. It has problems in cost, reliability, some in fuel consumption, but inherently, it is a clean engine and it has inherently good characteristics by virtue of the type of en- gine. Those who maybe know it best, believe it can perform as suc- cessfully on ground propulsion terms as it does in aeronautics. I think it is fair to state that the production parts of the automobile industry are not building gas turbines at a great rate. But in the technology parts of the automobile industry, their research and technology organizations are widely interested in that engine as a potential for the future. Mr. BROGAN. I would like to comment. You may recall back in 1964-65, Chrysler ran a 50-car demonstration fleet across the country. That was a fourth generation engine. They started their development work after World War II. It takes time to get that far. Chrysler had progressed to the point by 1970 where they had developed a sixth generation of that engine, still with~major problems appearing in high cost and poor fuel economy and relatively high NOX emissions. The ongoing ERDA gas turbine program which has been greatly assisted by NASA started in 1970 in the Environmental Protection Agency. The purpose was to de~c*e1op alternatives to the internal combustion engine that were inherently clean and could then meet the standards that were mandated in the Clean Air Act Amend- ments of 1970. The gas turbine was one of two systems that were selected as having the potential for being inherently clean and in meeting these standards. Using the 1970 version of the Chrysler engine as a baseline, the EPA, Chrysler, and NASA proceeded into the development of the next generation of this engine, which should prove to be energy efficient and meet the stringent emission standards. Mr. WYDLER. I am surprised Chrysler would go for an arrange- ment like that, going into a joint venture like that. Would it not be public property? Mr. BROGAN. That is right. Engine design and development being what it is, they are still ahead of the rest of the field. To make a long story short, we have relied heavily on NASA, Lewis Research Center, in particular, for the design of the rotating machinery in the new engine. The new and improved engine will be tested in May of this year. PAGENO="0047" 45 Mr. WYDLER. Could you quickly give me some idea of what a long wall shearer is, so it means something to me? Mr. GINTER. It is one of two systems, either a plowlike arrange- ment that is drawn across up to a thousand feet of a coal seam face. The coal goes onto a conveyor belt and goes out through long shafts. That is a longwall shearer. Also longwall shearers use rotating drums. You probably have seen pictures, where there would be~ a rela- tively wide drum going up and down a face. These are thinner drums, usually two, one high and one low, which also runs back and forth this track. The coal again goes onto a conveyor. Its advantage is, when all lined up correctly advancing along the face, if everything worked perfectly, you could just keep it going. They have relatively few people close to the machine, and it is a much more efficient production technique. We attempted to show a picture of it when we were here in No- vember, and the pictures are not much more clear than my description, sir. Mr. WYDLER. I think I have a general idea. Finally, the satellite power system you are talking about. Is this the type of thing where you pick the energy up in space and transmit it to Earth? Is that what you are talking about? Mr. GINTER. Yes, sir. Mr. WYDLER. You say that is something that could be realized 20 or 30 years from now. Mr. GINTER. Twenty to thirty, yes, sir, given a lot of other things. Mr. WYDLER. I would have a question about that, but there is another committee coming in at. 10. I will stop questioning and just ask again that I have some other questions that I would like to submit for the record, Mr. Chairman. Mr. FTJQUA. Yes, I have some questions too that we would like to submit to you. We have another committee meeting, a full committee meeting here at 10, and we do have to adjourn. The subcommittee will be adjourned until tomorrow morning at 9:30 in Room 2303 of this building. We appreciate your presence here this morning, and your contributions. Mr. GINTER. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. [Whereupon, at 9:30 a.m., the subcommittee adjourned, to reconvene Thursday, January 28, 1976, at 9:30 a.m.] [Questions and answers submitted for the record follow. Also see Volume I, Part 3 for additional questions and answers.] 70-079 0 - 76 - 4 PAGENO="0048" 46 ~UESTIO~jiQ~ - Re your Publications Program and your 2~,00O industry requests: Do you have any figures as to follow-up on the requested data, i.e., license requests, etc.? ANSWER: The Denver Research Institute has, under contract to NASA, conducted an industry request follow-up activity for the past several years. The purpose of the follow-up activity is essentially two-fold: (1) to analyue the relative value of the NASA TIJ PublicatiOns Program as a viable technology transfer mechanism, and (2) to document specific instances of technology transfer for subsequent industrial use. Feedback from the follow-up questionnaires (mailed on a 10% ran- dom sample basis) have yielded the following information: o Fourteen percent (14%) of Tech Brief users have identified economic benefits 6 months after receiving the NASA infor- mation. o Approximately 31% of users indicated that they used the information for problem solving. o Approximately 15% stated that the NASA technology received contributed in part to a new or improved product. o Approximately 14% indicated uses of the NASA information in connection with new or improved processes. o New technological concepts provided by NASA were useful to 22% of the users. In addition, approximately 64% of all questionnaires mailed (40, 240) in the past six years have been completed ~nd returned. This high rate of return has generally been considered to reflect positive support and interest in NASA's efforts to disseminate new, arid useful technology through its TU publications activity. PAGENO="0049" 47 QUESTION NO. 2: You mention your analysis on the news clipping service: Can you elaborate on this analysis? Do you have any figures on effectivenes? ANSWER: Clippings received via Bacon' s News Clipping Bureau reveal steady coverage of LASA technology in the trude press, regional and local newspapers, popular magazines, and national papers and letters such as the Well Street Journal and Kielinger We.shi~' ~ton Letter. Five hundred and ninety-nine (599) different magazines and newspaoers pub- lished such articles in 1975, as shown in the following breakdown: Trade Press -306 Regional/Local Newspapers, Magazines -254 Popular Magazines - 21 National Papers/Letters/Serials - 18 Clippings received from Bacon's are placed in one of 7 categories; These are: 1. New Technology Announcements 2. Nonaero.9pace Technology Applications 3. Benefits 4. TU Program Activities/Services 5. NASA General 6. NASA Program Activities 7. Professional Journal Articles Of the 1,429 clippings received in 1975, 822 were classified in categories 1 - 4, indicating a high proportion of readership interest in the potential or actual use of NASA technology for purposes other than those for which it was originally created. More than 100 articles appeared on Benefits, alone. Effectiveness of the articles appearing in different elements of the media can be difficult for NASA to assess. One trade magazine pub- lished by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Mechanical Eqg~ineeri~g (circ. 56,000), devotes one full page in each issue to NASA Tech Briefs. We assume the editor considers that a worthwhile utilization of space in his magazine. Occasionally, articles appearing in the press refer the reader to the NASA Headquarters TU Office for further information. In May of 1975 we reviewed the requests generated by such articles, and some typical re- sults are shown here: Industry Week (Feb.3, l975),"Solder Application Tool"- 250 inquiries; K~pllnger~ W~mshingbon Letter (May 31, 1975)- 8,538 inquiries; Poeuiar Science (March 1974), 11 Tech Briefs described- 5,000 inquiries; 7gqpa Tribune-Times (Jan. 12, 1975), "A Practical Solar Energy Heating and Cooling System"- 750 inouiries. PAGENO="0050" 48 QUESTION NO. 3: On your Industrial Applications Centers you nention o~t Page 2: What is the function and could you describe what you mean by Center established Sales Representatives? ANSWER: Remote sales representatives have been attached to individual Industrial Applications Centers (IACs) in order to permit greater outreach to existing and prospective users by the IACs. (On the average, a sales representa- tive can cover a territory of only about 100 miles in radius from his hace of operations). The remote sales representatives are full-time employees of their respec- tive IACs whose basic functions are to enlist new users for IAC services and to assure that existing users are being provided the services they require. PAGENO="0051" 49 QUESTION NO. 4: At one time the Committee made a recommendation that NASA considered some kind of logo identifying the product as a spin-off from the Space Program. Was this suggestion ever considered? Are there plans to introduce such a plan in the Technology Applications area? ANSWER: The suggestion was considered, including alternative approaches to irnplerrentation. However, the National Space Institute has initiated such a program which should be adequate for this purpose. PAGENO="0052" 50 QUESTION NO. 5: On the top of page 4 of your prepared testimony you mention the report on Spinoff 1976 ready for distribution in February? What are your plans for this repOrt? What is the dissemination? Do you plan to have any feedback process? ANSWER: `Spinoff 1973' illustrates the many ways in which NASA activities can and will impact life on Earth. For that reason we expect it to be a popular report. Early in- dicatio~c a~e th~t we will need to icorint it in about six months if we are to meet the expected demand. Initial plans for distribution of "Spinoff 1976" include the general and trade press (4,000) copies, business and community leaders (2,000), major libraries and federal depositories (2,500), responses to inquiries (22,000) and conferences and seminars (1,000). We plan to establish a feedback mechanism to maintain pertinent information for future analyses. 0 PAGENO="0053" 51 c~ucsL~on No. 1 Dr. John B. Teem of the ERDA in testimony before the Senate Aeronautical and Space Sciences Committee last week (Jan. 21, 1976) stated that the ERDA was given responsibility to exam:ine Satellite Solar Power but that no funds are included in the FY1977 ERDA budget for this project. Based on bhis: What studies both in-house and contractor has NASA furnished to the ERDA to evaluate Satellite Solar Power? Answer NASA has furnished to ERDA the following Satellite Power Systeln-relate(j documents: 1. Feasibility Study of a Satellite Solar Power Station, by Peter F. Glriser et ol., NASA CR-2357, February 1974 2. Copy of material presented by ECON to MSFC on Space Based Solar Power Conversion and Delivery Systems Study, durinq the Third Performance Review, Contract NAS8-3l308, January 8, 1976. This material was the basis for ECON's testimony before the Senate Aeronautical and Space Sciences Committee, Janyary 21, 1976, now available to ERDA. 3. Program Review, Satellite Power Systems, (NASAi Off ice of Enerpy Programs, November 24, 1975. 4. Assessment of a Solar Photovoltaic Power Conversion System for Central Station Application, by C. B. Bell, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Report 900-702, Juno 1975. 5. Survey of Several Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power Plant Design Concepts, by N. K. Selcuk, Jot Propulsion Laboratory Report 900-714, August 1975. 6. Comuarative Assessment of Orbital and Terrestrial Central Power Syatems, Quarterly Review for July, August and September, 1975, published November 1975. Recent ECON and Boeing testimony on Satellite Solar Power bofore the Senate Aeronautical and Space Science Committoc is also available in the record. PAGENO="0054" 52 SC a laO No. 2 Do Lliosc studies .indicaLe that an early start should be made on the demonstration of a Satellite Solar Power Systom? IUlsWer: No, they (10 not. They do, however, indicate that an aqqrossivc and detailed system definition effort is required and that a niqnificant amount of advanced technology work should be initiated. PAGENO="0055" 53 Foqu.i - Queoti 00 No. 3 Whut NASA in-houso studios and experimental work directly related to Satellibu Solar Power are underway in the NASA? An swer NASA's activibits directly related to Satellite Solar Power have consisteLi oE system studies and microwave energy technology investigations. In addition, a study to compare the relative potential of satellite power systems with terrestrial power systems of the future is now in proccss. PAGENO="0056" 54 Qucst:iori No. 4 WhaL work and what ~undinq sources are anticipated for work in Satellite Solar Power development by NASA in FY 1977? An swo r Satellite powor systems planning for FY77 includes efforts in total ;ystem definition, and studies of SPS cosLs, environmental effects, and other impacts and benefits. As stated in the testimony, funding must be obtained from ERDA. PAGENO="0057" 55 Question No. 5 Which technologies are critical to the development of Satellite Solar Power and what lead time is anticipated for their development, given adequate funding? Answer Our in-house and contractual studies have identified nine sub-program areas that are critical to the development of Satellite Solar Power. system definition, and potential environmental effects (as well as other SPS impacts and benefits), comprise two of the nine areas. The seven remaining critical areas are advanced technologies, as follows: microwave energy tran~mission, space structures, space transportation, attitude control and station keeping, power conversion, and operations. Given adequate funding, a ten year lead time is antici- pated for achievement of technology readiness. Question No. 6 Dr. William B. Lenoir of NASA in his testimony before the Senate Aeronautical and Space Sciences Committee on January 21, 1976, stated that a subscale, orbital demonstration of a Satellite Solar Power System is required. He further points out that a five year program of approximately $230 million dollars is estimated for the initiation of a program. Based on this: What funding for FY1977 would allow proceeding with the program Dr. Lenoir discussed? Answer Dr. Lenoir referred to a five-year program to resolve the critical technology areas. A FY77 funding level of approximately $12.0 million would be required. PAGENO="0058" 56 Q~JESTIQN No. 1: W~iat were the number of innovations published in the T~chnology Utilization Publications Program for FY'70 through FY'74? a~w many industry requests stimulated by these new tech-. r~ology announcements were received for those same fiscal *ars? W~at do the trends in these figures mean in terms of the effectiveness of NASA's marketing in technology? is the Small Business Administration currently involved ~n disseminating information on NASA'S technology utili- ~ation innovations? 1~NSWER: Technology Total Publ. CY Tech~~efs. Compilation Item~ Innovations_ L970 726 396 1,122 3~97l 536 270 806 1972 756 198 954 1973 528 256 784 i~974 301 495 796 1975 339 310 649 I~uring the period CY'1970-75, over 236,000 requests for 1~echnical Support Packages (TSP) were filled by the NASA i~echnolo~Y Utilization Program, as follows: CY TSP Requests 1970 16,996 1971 51,731 1972 68,144 1973 40,485 * 1974 31,067 1975 ______ TOTAL 236,528 The number of TSP requests is affected by three factors: 1) The number of innovations announcod~ 2) The completeness of the information contained in the announcement medium, and 3) The number of people receiving the announcements. PAGENO="0059" 57 2. You will note that TSP requests increased substantially during the 1971-73 period at the height of a previous NASA/SBA joint publication effort. During 1972-73, for instance, over half of the TSP requests received resulted from the NASA/SBA joint program. Subsequent study has revealed, however, that less than 25% of the technology transf~ which took place during that period resulted from the NASA/SBA program. This reflects the different types of announcement media used in this program which, for the most part, described the technology in less detail than does the Tech Brief. Thus the user was required to request the TSP in order to determine the usefulness of the technology to his business, whereas, in contrast, Tech Briefs often contain information complete enough to permit implementation of the technology, or at least complete enough to permit the potential user to more fully evaluate the innovation before requesting a TSP. Nevertheless, the NASA/SBA program was considered success- ful in that it did introduce a number of small firms to the services of the Technology Utilization Program and result in several technology transfers that would not otherwise have taken place. Consequently, we have again entered an agreement with SBA to cooperate with them in announcing the availability of NASA Technology Utilization services to small businesses. TO get a clearer picture of the success of NASA's Tech- nology Utilization marketing program, independent of the NASA/SBA joint effort, it is useful to compare CY 1970 (before the NASA/SBA program) with the years after the SBA program: CY TB's Pub. Compilations Pub. TSP Requests 1970 726 22 16,996 1974 301 28 31,067 1975 339 20 28,105 These data reveal that although the number of Tech Briefs published in 1974 and 1975 was less than half of the number published in 1970, (due to decreased R&D activity) the number of TSP requests has nearly doubled. Though we are pleased with this trend, we are presently making changes to make our publications more useful to the user, and planning action to increase the number of recipients of NASA Tech Briefs. These steps should substantially increase the number of TSP requests as well as the number of transfers which take place. Part 4 of this Question is the same answer as Question No. 15. PAGENO="0060" 58 QUESTION NO. 2: How do the 1500 technology utilization related articles compare with the previous years' figures (i.e., 1970-1974)? ~Ihat fraction of the trade press journals which receive technology utilization information published a related article during 1975? The oc~umi number ef clinpings received via the Bacon's Clipping Bureau Service in 1975, and which fell within the scope of the classification criteria, was l,4?9. For the years 1974, 1973, 1972 and 1971 the numbers were 1,300, 1,435, 1,476, and 1,452, respectively. Based on clippings received from Ba4n's, 306 different trade press magasines published one or moz4e of the 821 articles that appeared in that element of the media during 1975. PAGENO="0061" 59 QUESTION NO. 3: Mr. Edwards, what arrangements do you make for systematically sur- veying the technology transfer value of NASA innovations for your business? ANSWER: NASA Technology is constantly being reviewed by peresal of current documents such as NASA tech briefs, NASA patent abstracts, NASA cotcputer pro~roms and other NASA-supplied documents. According to content and their relation to specific products and services of the various Dresser companies, they are forwarded to those appropriate companies. After rcaie;~~ innovation and application bp thc speci- fic companies, a follow-up report by those companies is sent back to rca to determine the reletive value of that documentation to Dresser's specific use. In this manner, the applicability of new technology thus obtained can be evaluated. PAGENO="0062" 60 QUESTION NO. 4~ * Please supply a breakdown of Industrial Applications Centers (IACs) center-to client interactions by center? ~re certain centers more effective at marketing than others? What is the explanation for such differences in perform- ance? ANSWER: The breakdown by center of Industrial Applications Center client interactions for calendar year 1975 is as follows: Aerospace Research Applications Ceriter(ARAC) 12,437 Knowledge Availability Systems Center(KASC) 8,443 North Carolina Science and Technology Research Center (NC/STRC) 3,439 New England Research Application Center(NERAC)...34,4l0 Technology Application Center (TAC) 2,917 Western Research Application Center(WESRAC) 892 62,538 Yes, certain centers are more effective in their marketing efforts than others. The variations in performance among the IACs in their marketing efforts are 6ue to differences among the IAC regions with respect to industrial density (it is more difficult to market effectively in Wyoming than in New York); the ratio of small and large businesses among regions; and the distribution of businesses within a given region, e.g. manufacturing vs. banking. PAGENO="0063" 61 QUESTION NO. 5: Can you outline any policy changes in the aistributior~ and/or sales of computer programs through COSMIC? ANSWER: Although we are constantly reviewing the effectiveness of our programs, there has not been a policy change in the distribution and/or sales of computer programs through COSMIC. 70-079 0 - 76 - 5 PAGENO="0064" 62 QUESTION NO. 6: In what areas have Industrial Applications Teams (IAT) been most effective? ANSWER: We assume by the term "the Industrial Application Teams" the Committee meags the Applications Teams, both, the Biomedical and Technology Applications Teams. In the Biomedical Applications Teams' the areas where the Teams have been most effective have been in the following: rehabilitation medici~ie, software and systems technology and clinical instrumentation. With regard to the Tech- nology Applications Teams the following areas most effectively impacted are: public safety, State and local government, and transportation. PAGENO="0065" 63 QUESTION NO. 7: What have you learned about necessary ingredients for success of,the IATs? ANSWER: The principal necessary ingredients for success for Applications Teams include: 1. thorough understanding of the user's need, the NASA technology solution, the markets' aggregated demand, and present economic structure; 2. early partnership with NASA technology gener- ating center and industry partners to assure widespread utilization through the potential commercialization if the NASA solution proves feasible; and 3. appropriate brokerage through the entire applica- tions effort to assure successful addressing of any social, legal, or econoaic technology barriers. PAGENO="0066" 64 QUESTION NO. 8: The IACs are selling a service which is similar to services provided for by other government agencies. What are the general guidelines for obtaining such reimbursement? ANSWER: To our knowledge there are no government-Wide guidelines to offset costs charged to clients. The fees charged to IAC users are applied to the cost of the computer time, labor and supporting documentation. PAGENO="0067" 65 QUESTION No. 9: How widespread are the geographic areas covered by the IACs? -. ANSWER: As can be seen from the attached map, the geographic areas covered by individual IACs vary greatly im size. This is generally due to differences in population and industrial densities within individual regions. PAGENO="0068" (I) cl .~ C. I-i a) 4) 11 a) C) to C 0 4) a) C) ri ~0 4) Co 4) C 0) -`4 14 C-) 66 PAGENO="0069" 67 QUESTION No. 10: Mr. Barlow, we understand that the ERDA prognosis for the role of solar heating and cooling to the end Qf the century is less rosy than previously accepted projections. How does this change in climate reflect in sales pro- jections for heating and cooling units? ANSWER: "In my opinion, most of the current predictions need to be thrown up in the air for the moment, so that we can wait ~ee what we can really do. Some of the larger firms have already successfully installed solar panels in ].arqe buildings for preheating purposes. Based on their favorable results, we have received inquiries from other large firms concerning the possibilities of installing our systems. "The market for home solar collector units has undoubtedly been adversely affected by the recession, but substantial energy savings in this market were nevertheless achieved. As I indicated in my testimony, I am very optimistic regarding the prospects for our Solarmatic heating systems. PAGENO="0070" 68 QUESTION NO. 11: We understand that the activity of the Aerospace Safety Research and Data Institute at Lewis will probably be discontinued. Is this a function that the Technology Utilization Office night properly take over to provide an industrial service. ANSWER: The ASRDI function, and its relationship with other NASA programs, including Technology Utilization, are under evdluation ard no d~ci~inn has yet been reached. PAGENO="0071" 69 QUESTION NO. l2~ What criteria are applied to an applications project to determine when is the proper time for marketing? ANSWR: Typically, for projects that are classified as commercial applicatzons engineering projects the Technology Utiliza- tion Office has started preJiminary marketing surveys to identify valid market factors, projected needs, and pertinent technical and economic competitive factors. In :..ult~HJ.o yc~ir projects roverz3i market studies are usually dome to revalidate market factors. The commercial partner with NASA is the best judge of the proper time to market their potential commercial product. NASA involvement basically ends with completion of field evaluation of the applications project. PAGENO="0072" 70 QUESTION NO. 13: What kind of progress has been made in technology trans- fer to small minority-owned businesses? ANSWER: As a result of a series of Technology Transfer Conferences held during 1975 in six major cities, minority firms were exposed to the data, information and services available throu~b for the dcvelopment and commerciali- zation o~ pioducts or processes. The acminars had certain developiaenthi and experimental aspects in search of the beet rnethcx9 to facflitate the transfer of NASA (including other fedsual PeJ;) technology to minority businesses. As a result of the data and consultation that was disseminated, it is much too early to determine whether or not `commercial transfers were achieved. Attending firms who initiated searches must independently decide if they wish to incorporate the technical informa- tion into their business operation. PAGENO="0073" 71 QUESTION NO. 14: Is `Scinoff i92~" the 1975 version of the 1974 publication called "iechiolcr~y U cilization Program Report"? las, `fi'~-ff~76" the 1U75 verolon of the 1974 publication called "Tcchnolo'fr Utilizatthn Procreai Roport". Since 1976 is the bicentennial year, we broadened the scope of the publication in Uu~h u J, :coap~aa:~re end a peorecbiwe cease. In that respect, it diff era from earlier TU Program thports. PAGENO="0074" 72 QUESTION No. 15: Can you give us some detail on what measures you will take to distribute technology through SBA? ANSWER: NASA and the Small Business Administration are presently cooperating, under a one year agreement, in a joint publication rrogram to disseminate NASA technology to the smell business community. The purpose of this pro- gram is primarily to introduce small manufacturing firms to the publications and services available through the i~hSA Technology Utilization Program and technical assistance available from the SEA. Two types of publi- cations are involved: Compilations of technology, which are reprints of previously published NASA documents, and flyers. Approximately 7,500 copies each of two Compi- lations--Electrical and Electronic Devices and Cornponen~ and Analytical and Test Eguipment--will be mailed in the near future to small firms identified by SBA. The flyers will describe technical innovations developed by NASA, offer Technical Support Packages to enable these small firms to apply the technology to their own problems, and provide convenient access to other NASA Technology Utilization Program publications_-including Tech Brief s-- and services through the use of reader service cards. These flyers will also be mailed to firms to be chosen by SBA. PAGENO="0075" 73 QUESTK)N NO. 1 In our hearings in November, Dr. Lovelace discus3ed a report by the NASA Research and Technology Advisory Council Panel on Research on the health of research within NASA. a) Please provide a detailed summary of the conclusions and recommendations of this report. b) Dr. Lovelace stated that one conclusion was a tendency for the universities' traditional role as a source of innovating research ideas to be overly inhibited. Describe the steps NASA is taking to more loosely couple university research to strengthen their role in providing innovative ideas. c) Did the Panel Review look at research funded by other Program Offices or only the research funding by the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technologfl d) Does NASA have any plans to review the total research funded by NASA? ANSWER a): In its meeting on April 3 and 4, l97b, the Research and Technology Advisory Council Panel on Research met to consider sub-panel reports on the health of NASA-OAST Research Programs and their relationships with universities in three areas: materials, fluid mechanics, and gas-phase physics and chemistry. On the basis of the oral reports and discussions, the Panel on Research arrived at these general findings: 1. The research programs in the three areas studied are generally sound, but there are weaknesses. ~. The climate for in-house research has improved since the time the Panel on Research began its activities 3 or 4 years ago. a. The improvement is seen in the attitudes of the researchers themselves. b. It has resulted from the efforts of senior managers who perceive and communicate the values in research. c. The improved climate has compensated for the tiaum of the early 1970's caused by cuts in research and elimination of a Research Division in OAST. PAGENO="0076" 74 2 3. There are wide differences among the research programs studied in approach, program independence, and university contacts. In many instances, however, university research supplements thc in-house programs. 4. There are the well- recognized problems due to limited budgets and inflation which cut into research programs. 5 rj~~ is general recognition of the need to infuse new ideas and approaches into the CAST research effort through the hiring of young engineers and scientists which Ii in~t been generally possible in recent years Based on the~c findings and the details of the sub-panel reports, the Panel recommended that OAST should seek a better balance between closely-coupled and loosely-coupled (more independent) research. OAST needs to provide direction and added funds for a suitable program in independent research that properly complements the in-house programs. Specific recommendations were as follows 1. OAS'r should retain and strengthen the basic materials research effort at the Ames Research Center. 2. University researchin fluid mechanics should be increased and made more independent of direct support for in-house programs ~ NASA should retain its research program in gas-phase physics and chemistry which contributes to the entire corpus of this research in the U. S. 4. Members of the Panel on Research will participate in the detailed reviews of Center research programs conducted annually by the OAST Research Council as appropriate. ANSWER b): Starting with FY 1975, OAST established a separate fund for supporting loosely-coupled, innovative research which would be administered by the CAST Research Division and the CAST Research CouncJ In FY 1975, this fund for independent research amounted to $300, 000; in FY 1976, the planned amount is $i~ 000, 000; and that level or slightly higher is scheduled for FY 1977. At the present time, we rely on unsolicited proposals from universities as the source of ideas to be supported by this fund. PAGENO="0077" 75 `3 / ANSWER c): Tue review conducted by the Panel on Research of RTAC considered only OAST-funded research, ANSWER d): Yes, the Agency does review its entire program in basic research through in-house as well as external advisory groups. For example, resoarch in the area of space sciences is reviewed and evaluated through the Space Program Advisory Council, and the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Science; in Aeronautics and Space Technology, the basic research program is reviewed by a Research and Technoloqy Advisory Council panel, the OAST Research Council and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board of the National Academy of Engineering, PAGENO="0078" 76 QUESTION 2: Dr. Lovelace has stated a long range goal to expand OAST's space research and technology program. (a) What time frame has been established to reach this goal? (b) Does NASA Senior Management concur with this goal? ANS (a) As stated in my testimony, the long range goals will require expanded space research and technology. The more specific goal of enhancing future space system effectiveness by a factor of a thousand is directed toward a nominal 1990 technology readiness date. (b) NASA Senior Management is aware of and concurs with the broad implications of OAST goals. We are currently generating technology planning alternatives, associated schedules and costs to accomplish these goals. This effort should, during this coming year, provide estimates of future resource needs. These options will, of course, be evaluated to develop proposed long- range plans for Agency approval and commitment. PAGENO="0079" 77 ~UESTION No. 3: What OAST new starts, pr~g:am augmentations etc. were submitted to upper management of NASA Headqiarters? Please list with a 3hort description o~ objective, mile- stonea, aod benefits. Which of these were submitted to the 0MB? ANSWER: The following tablu provides the Space Research and Technology new initiative proposals 0AS'~' made to NAS management and which of the pc)posals NAS'~ submitted to 0MB and to Congress. Brief descriptions o~ each proposal follow the table. ~ P00MB To~ress P~osed_Prqj~ct FY77 TAC FY71 TAC FY 77 TAC 1. Space Plasma High Voltage Interaction Experiment Satelliten (sPHINX B/C) .8 6.6 .8 6.6 - - 2. Advanced Space Trans- portation Propulsion Systems Technology 2.0 6.0 2.0 6.0 - - 3. Long Life Chemical Propulsion Systems Technology .7 2.9 .7 2.9 .7 2.9 4. Mukti-Purpose User- Oriented Softwire Technology .5 3.8 .5 3.8 .5 3.8 5. Space Technology Shuttle Payloads Auqmentation 2.5 Cont. 2.0 Cont. 1.7 Cont. Total Proposed 6.5 Cont. 6.0 Cont. 2.9 ~ ~aiec~. Descri~t ions 1. SPHINX BJC(~A" was lost when Tita~Centau~p~oof flight failed) SPHINX B/C would be shuttle launched in December, 1980. The spacecraft (B and C) would separate when in orbit and return data for two years sweeping through most of the earth's electrical fields. The objectives of spacecraft 70-079 0 - 76 - 6 PAGENO="0080" 78 2. B would be to obtain design data for (1) high voltage space power systems, (2) advanced solar cell experiments, and (3) for advanced solar array experiments. The objective of spacecraft C would be to demonstrate an auxiliary ion engine system in terms of spacecraft com- patibility and its capabilities for long life station keeping and attitude control missions on geosynchronous satellites. 2. Advanced Space Transportation Propulsion Systems Technol~gy The objective is to conduct systems level testing on two candidate advanced cryogenic tug engines for technology readiness demonstration by FY 1980. The justification for this effort is the need for more reusability and higher performance on future transportation systems. 3. Long Life Chemical Propulsion Systems Technology The objective is to demonstrate technology readiness of high performance, long-life spacecraft propulsion systems for use on planetary orbital missions starting in 1983. This project would provide an alternative to the expensive high technology requirement of upgrading current space- craft propulsion systems (i.e. Mariner `71/Viking `75) to their maximum capability to accomplish future planetary orbiter missions with earth storable propellants (N2 04-MMH). 4. Multi-Purpose User-Oriented Software Techn~logy (MUST) The objective is to develop a lost-cost, reliable, machine- independent flight software generation and verification capability which permits simple use for a wide range of mission and experiment applications. Justification is based on cost savings resulting from moving away from unique software for every project. 5. Space Technology Shuttle Payloads Augmentation The objective of this proposal is to develop and fabricate the necessary hardware to conduct research and technology in space using the Shuttle, Spacelab and free flying space- craft. This program will provide for a broad array of space experiments and demonstrations which will be planned, scheduled and developed. These experiments and demonstra- tions will result in a more timely flow of technology into the user realm by using the unique characteristics of space as a technology laboratory. PAGENO="0081" 79 QUESTION No. 4 Have any new concepts for large erectable rp~ce etructures such as .~olar arrays been identified? What technology, if any, is needed to enable the construction of large solar arrays? When can we expect the demonstration of this technology? ANSWER: Numerouc concepts for large erectable space structures have been identified For antennas, variot~s xrdterials and .~tructural configurations are being evaluated to determine how best to provide the critical surface accuracie~ required with large spae ~nternas which must be packaged in minimum volumes for 1~unch For large aolar array~, urface accuracy i~ le~ critic-al, roll-out or unfolding (crcepts appear the most attractive for moderate sizes and erectable modules for larger a;izes. The technology required for these arrays is primarily involved in providing the necessary stiffness in thin panel~; which will permit compact packaging and developing effective methods for extension or assembly in orbit. Becau~e of the low density and large size of these structures, demon-'tration of the technology will require orbital flight experiments to provide a low gravity environ- ment. It is anticipated that such experiments will be appropri~ate in the mid.40's utilizing the Shuttle PAGENO="0082" 80 QUESTION No. 5. Is OAST exploring techniques for reducing the acoustic and vibration levels of payloads in the Space Shuttle bay? Are any of these techniques being adopted by th~ Shuttle program~ ANSWER The answer is yes OAST is investigating the effectiveness of mechanical isolation in reducing the vibration levels of payloads for the Space Shuttle This work is being done at the Langley Research Center In addition at Goddard OAST is studying the possibility of protecting the noise critical areas of a payload from acoustic loads by the use of shrouds. These studies complement OSF studies to reduce the noise and vibration levels in the payload by attenuating the noise at the launch pad and by acoustically treating the cargo bay All of these studies are based on model tests and calculations of anticipated noise and vibration levels within the carqo bay While such calculations are reasonably accurate in the high frequency range large errors can result in the frequency range below 150 Hz and they should be confirmed by experimentation. OAST is planning to do this by instrumenting a payload known as LDEF (Long Duration Exposure Facility) which will be flown on one of the early Shuttle flights and which will permit acoustic and vibration measurements to. be made throughout the entire Shuttle exit flight These measurements will subsequently be used as the basis for design data for future payloads PAGENO="0083" 81 QUESTION NO. 6 - What is the status of the tunable diode laser for miiuring atmospheric constituents? Have flight tests been initiated? When is development of this instrument for use on satellites planned? What are the benefits, if any, to be derived from using this technique for measuring atmospheric constituents as compared to other techniques in existence or under development? ANSWER - Tunable diode lasers, operating in a heterodyne mode, are being used in the laboratory for detailed measurement of the spectral response of several gases. The lasers emit radiation over the 4 to 15 micron region of the spectrum and are capable of detecting gases such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (03). The detection of freons and chlorine monoxide (CLO) radicals is also being investigated. Temperature compensation techniques for packaging the tunable diode lasers have been developed and we are now assembling a breadboard system for flight evaluation. Aircraft flight tests of a tunable diode laser operating in a passive heterodyne mode are planned for mid FY 1977. Development of a laser heterodyne spectrometer using tunable diode lasers for satellite detection and measurement of atmospheric constituents will be initiated in FY 1977. A Shuttle Payload flight experiment to demonstrate this technology is planned during CY 1981. Use of the tunable diode laser in a satellite-borne laser heterodyne spectrometer offers the advantage of remotely measuring atmospheric constituents from sea level to over 60 kilometers altitude compared to present in-situ methods. This approach permits rapid, broad area measurements at costs estimated to be 20 times less than in-situ techniques. It also permits the detection of atmospheric gases and pollutants with extremely high specificity because the diode lasers can be tuned to a unique wavelength for each gas, thereby, minimizing interference from the spectral signature of other gases and background noise. In addition, the tunable diode laser technique provides near real-time measurements over a full 24 hour period in both the upper and lower atmospheres. Other remote measurement techniques such as gas correlation spectrometry and high speed interferometry are very complex or require bulky equipment and expensive computers to produce meaningful data. Passive radar techniques can complement PAGENO="0084" 82 2 the laser spectronieter approach by providing remote measurements in the spectral ranges beyond infrared. The use of these techniques and developnent of components operable in the millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths is under investigation. PAGENO="0085" 83 QUESTION NO. 7: It is our understanding that OAST is ~~ting~th Shuttle Avionics Program with tests as part of 01ST's Fly-by-Wire Program. Are these tests being funded by the Shuttle Program? If not, why isn't this funding support included as part of the OAST funding of technology in support of the Shuttle program? N4SWER: The portion of OAST's Fly-by-Wire Program that supports the development of the Shuttle Avionics Program is being funded by the Shuttle program, and, thus, is not included as part of the OAST funding outline. PAGENO="0086" 84 QUESTI~!~8 - Several programs within NASA have experiments which require advanced pointing and control systems. Does OAST serve as the lead office in the development of these systems? Are the requirements of the different programs being coordinated to develop a single systen for all users? ANSWER - OAST is serving as a focal point for the coordi- nation of all Shuttle Payload experiment pointing mount efforts within NASA. The Instrument Pointing System being developed by the European Space Agency is intended to serve the majority of user requirements1 though complementary systems may have to be developed for small payloads and to meet Earth-pointing requirements. An experiment pointing mount working group ~ all interested parties and coordinating with the Shuttle Payload Requirements and Analysis Group has been established. User requirements and pointing systems concepts are ~urrently being evaluated by this group to develop a coordinated plan for time-phased pointing systems development. PAGENO="0087" 85 QUESTION 9: OAST has been attempting to define a methodology for measuring the benefit and risks of new initiatives in research and technology base programs, a) How successful have you been with these attempts? b) Has the methodology been critiqued by economic experts? c) Have these efforts been helpful in gaining acceptance of your new initiatives by the 0MB? ANSWER: a) Our capability has advanced to the point that we now incorporate analysis of the benefits as one of several criteria used in assessing the larger discrete system technology and experimental programs. The R&T base work, which by its nature is further removed from application, presents a more difficult problem. While research is being conducted on potentially applicable methodology for similar assessment of R&T base activity, it is too early to judge when or whether such assessment will be successful. b) Experts in the areas of program formulation and economic analysis are now and will continue to be involved in this work. In addition to in-house staff, consulting economists from Princeton University, the West Va. College of Graduate Studies and Econ, Inc., have assisted us during the past year. c) In the case of the experimental programs and system technology such analyses have proven useful in refining, evaluating and advocating proposals at various decision levels including the 0MB. It should be noted, however, that these analyses are by no means the sole criteria for decision. PAGENO="0088" 86 QUESTION 10: Please provide a breakdown of the major tasks being funded from the systems studies program in FY 1976 and the major tasks planned for funding in FY 1977. ANSWER: During FY 1976 the Space Systems Studies support are directed toward: 1. For Future Earth-to-Orbit Transportation identifying, particularly for single-stage-to-orbit concepts the attendent, enabling technology and its benefits cost and risk in achieving an order-of- magnitude reduction in cost. 2. For Earth Application Satellites ---- information system improvement candidates thru determining long range technology requirements, performance and cost sensitivities. Future Landsat and Seasat systems are currently being studied. 3. For Future Planetary Mission Concepts ---- studies of sample return from planetary bodies, solar- sailing missions, and nuclear-electric powered automated, planetary laboratories". 4. For Shuttle and Future Payloads ---- data system requirements to determine end-to-end software and hardware needs, limitations and high potential technologies. 5. For Potential Long-Range Research ---- Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Feasibility Study includes the generation of a rationale and proposed program for a national commitment to such a search. These efforts will continue into FY 1977 with some change of emphasis. Additionally, consideration is being given to studies of libration point utilization, extra-solar probe mission technology, earth orbital transfer techniques and an automated station at synchronous orbit for earth applications. PAGENO="0089" 87 QUESTION No. 11 - What major structural components are being considered for laboratory testing in the Composites for the Advanced Transportation Systems program? Will any of these components be full-scale? If so, is the design such that they can be easily accommodated for flight testing'? ANSWER The components being considered include the Shuttle elevons and body flap It is planned to select one compon- ent for design and fabrication of a full-scale laboratory test article One advantage of using a full-scale primary control surface is that it could be substituted on the Shuttle orbiter for flight testing with minimum impact on the vehicle Such flight testing is not now included in the program plan, however PAGENO="0090" 88 QUESTION No 12 Please describe the accomplishments of the Low Cost Systems Program ANSWER Standard equipment efforts have primarily focused on the needs of large L~arth Orbital missions As of December 1, 1975 fifteen flight hardware standard components have been established for multi-mission spacecraft use These items range from a simple pyrotechnic initiator to a very complex transponder The standards are made known to potential users through a Catalog of Available and Standard Hardware (CASH) A major LCSO accomplishment involved the definition of a multi-mission spacecraft bus for large earth orbital missions This approach which has been accepted in the Agency is planned for initial implementation under the Solar Maximum Mission proposed in the FY 1977 Budget and for future new start ~rograms which come within this category En addition improved program and business practices approaches are being developed to achieve lower cost within the Agency PAGENO="0091" 89 3UhSTION No. 13 hi the FY 1976 NASA authorization hearings new lower gost nethods of testing, reliability, and quality assurance were dLScUssed as part of the Low Cost Systems Program. Please describe in more detail these new lower cost methods~ ANSWER Investigations are presently being conducted to determine the relative cost effectiveness of testing at the component, subsystem and system level. These studies are expected to result in the development of a standard test specification. The objective of the analysis of reliability and quality assurance criteria is expected to result in a decrease in the R&QA requirements imposed by NASA on its contractors. It is believed that a reasonable decrease in R&QA requirements can be achieved without a degradation in the confidence level and with attendant savings in total program costs. PAGENO="0092" 90 QUESTION No. 14 Has the Low Cost Systems Office assessed the impact of spacecraft retrieval and in orbit servicing on experiment costs. ANSWER No, however, conceptual studies conducted by other elements of NASA have consistently indicated cost benefits for both retrieval and in orbit servicing approaches. This assessment is being continued to determine the most cost effective operat- ing mode. PAGENO="0093" 91 QUESTION No. 15 What is being done or planned to assure that the stan- dardized equipment developed by the Low Cost Systems Program is being planned for use to the extent possible by all payload pro~ams. ANSWER An Agency policy has been established which requires new projects to utilize declared standards or request a waiver to use other equipment. The primary criteria for granting waivers is lower cost although schedules and technical re- quirements are considered. In addition, the Low Cost Systems Office reviews candidate projects to ensure that available standard equipment is considered and used, where feasible. PAGENO="0094" 92 QUESTION No. 16 How much of the effort in th~ Low Cost Systems Program is in support of Spacelab payloads? ANSWER Spacelab payloads will be supported by our Program Practices effort. Since improved practices will be implemented for all NASA programs the development of Spacelab Payloads, as well as other NASA projects, will benefit from the cost effective changes from prior prac- tices. In addition, about half of the experiment packages standardization effort will be in support of Spacelab Pay- loads. PAGENO="0095" 93 QUESTION No. 17: Please list the OAST new starts, program augmentations etc. which are included in the FY 77 budget requests. ANSWER: The new 1~iitiat1ves included in the OAST Space Research and Technology Budget request are as follows: o Multi-Purpose User-Oriented Software Technology o long Life Chemical Propulsion Systems Technology o Space Technology Shuttle Payloads Augmentation 70-079 0 - 76 - 7 PAGENO="0096" 94 QUESTION 18 Has OAST attempted to assess the benefits if any, which the capabilities of the Space Shuttle and Spacelab will provide for your space research and technology programs? ANSWER: OAST will use the Shuttle/Spacelab systems for in-space research and technology investigations under any of the following conditions: 1. The environment of space is mandating for the experiments (ground base simulation is not possible or satisfactory). 2. Investigations in space are shown to be the cost effective approach. 3 In-space demonstration will accelerate the acceptance of new technologies by a large number of ultimate systems operations. More detailed evaluations of the benefits of experimentation in space versus on the ground are planned on an experiment by experiment basis. PAGENO="0097" 95 QUEST1Op :~, 19. OAST has received some criticism in the past for expending more effort in support of the programs of the Office of Space Flight than in support of the Office of Applicr~tions and the Office of Space Science. What steps have been taken to improve this situation? What percentage of your program supports each of the other Program Offices (OA, OSS, OTDA, OSf~ etc.)? ANSWER: The proposed OAST program for FT 1977 has been analysed to determine the breakout for the NASA Program Office supoortcd. In such an analysis some parts of the program support sore than one Program Office. For example, the technology for an extended life altitude control system for an OSS application would also have part of the technology in common with an OA requirement and the portion of the technology Judged to apply is charged to the OA breakdown. In like mennor the entire program has been reviewed and the totul dollars for each Program Office is added together and divided by the total OAST space technology proposed budget to obtain percentages. When this is done the resultino percentages total approximately 123 percent (synergism) Using this method the following percentages by Program Office supported is obtained: of FT 77 Proposed Budget Office of App) ications 33.0 Office of Space Science 36.6 Office of Space Flight 36.7 New Mission Capabilities* 17.0 *Research that, if successful, will open up new capabilities beyond the scope of programs currendy envisioned. As you will note the tpchnology supports the three major NASA Program Offices almost equally. Several years ago the Space Technology Coordinating Office was established to identify the most critical technology requirements of the other Program Offices and to coordinate the OAST programs with the other Program Offices. Improving coordination and understandings between the offices has helped to balance the OAST program support between the major Program Offices. PAGENO="0098" 96 QUESTION No. 20: In the November Fl 1977 Authorization hearings dual mode propulsion was discussed. What are the major differences between dual mode propulsion and mixed-mode propulsion? What are the advantages and dis- advantages of these two propulsion modes? ANSWER: The term "mixed mode propulsion" refers to a con- cept in which a vehicle carries two fuels on board (liquid hydrogen and a high density fuel like PP-I) that are burned with one oxidizer (liquid oxygen). Ideally, the high density fuel is first burned to completion with part of the oxygen and then the rest of the oxygen is burned with the hydrogen. The advantage of this concept is that for a given payload delivery capability, the resulting vehicle is much smaller and lighter than one designed for either oxygen/hydrogen or for oxygen/RP-l. Since vehicle size and weight are a measure of cost, a mixed mode vehicle will have correspondingly lower recurring and non-recurring costs compared to the much larger bipropellant designs. The mixed mode propulsion concept is especially attractive for very large vehicles such as a single-stage-to-orbit. The term "dual mode propulsion" has also been used on occasion to refer to tne same basic conept. PAGENO="0099" 97 QUESTION 21: When are the current studies on advanced earth-orbital transportation systems scheduled for completion? What is the level of funding for these studies? ANSWER: Current studies of Future Earth-to-Orbit Transportation at Langley Research Center are planned at least through FY 1977 and possibly to continue further as a sustaining study effort. The contracted studies with Martin and Boeing at about $200K each, are scheduled for completion June 1976. Contract extensions are being negotiated at approximately $l2OK each to explore varia- tions from the LOX/Hydrogen baseline configuration. The principal variation is based on the use of high pressure, high density propellants for dual fuel engine systems. PAGENO="0100" 98 QUESTION 22 What is the anticipated reduction in the cost of ownership of an advanced earth orbital transportation system such as the single-stage--to-orbit concept? ANSWER: The cost savings associated with the utilization of a SSTO vehicle is not known at this tine but is being addressed in the current studies of vehicle concepts by NASA and industry Initial results of these studies will be available next year Forecasts have been made that predict as much as an order of magnitude cost saving potential It is anticipated that the SSTO launch vehicle will reduce both operational and investment costs Operating costs will be reduced by eliminating launch site assembly operations Further reductions are anticipated from appreciable savings in operations and spare part require- ments Investment costs will be reduced because fleet size requirements will come down significantly for any given traffic model. This reduction is attributable to an increase in flight time availability per launch vehicle deriving from the gains in ground launch and preparation time. PAGENO="0101" 99 QUESTION NO. 23 - Does OAST have any plans in the near future to prepare a flight experiment to demonstrate the use of lasers for communications? ANSWER - OAST has no firm plan for testing laser communi- cations in a flight experiment at this time. Our proposed Laser Information Transfer Experiment to test a C02 laser communication link in a joint program with the Air Force was deleted from the FY 1977 program due to limited funds and relative program priorities. We are continuing development of the C02 laser transceiver as part of our technology program and will propose to demonstrate it as a Shuttle Payload flight experiment in the 1980 time frame. PAGENO="0102" 100 QUESTION No ?i~ How much of the effort of hedt pipe coobng techniques is devoted to heat pipes that will operate at cryogenic temperatures? ANSWER In re~por e to the neede for cryogenic heat pipe identified at the OAST summer work~hop, both the technology for ~nd the flight demon~tration of cryogenic heat pipe are being eirphasized In FY 76, ~`ity percent of our heat pipe program will be devoted to cryogenic heat pipe In FY 77 the cryogenic heat pipe erea will be over ~O% of the heat pipe program. PAGENO="0103" 101 QUES~ION NO. 25 - Please discuss the potential of passive radar techniques for stratospheric remote gas/pollutant detection and measurement. What is the time frame required for this technol'ogy to mature? ANSWER - Passive radar techniques offer the potential for highly sensitive detection and measurement of gases and pollutants in the upper regions of the atmosphere and the stratosphere (30 to 130 kilometers). Systems operating at microwave frequencies, e.g. 0.001 to 30 gigahertz, have very limited use for this application because most gas sources radiate at frequequemcies in excess of 150 gigahertz. Millimeter and submillimeter components and systems offer the possibility of extending passive detection capabilities to frequencies as high as 800 gigahertz. In these regions, many gases radiate naturally and system studies indicate detection to sensitivities of 0.01 parts per billion are possible. Thus, passive radar techniques using very short wavelength components offer the potential for detection of minute quantities of gases such as are expected to be encountered in the stratosphere, and extend the spectrum of coverage from the optical and infrared frequencies of laser sources into the upper regions of the microwave frequencies. Successful utilization of passive radar techniques requires the development of antennas, receivers, local oscillators and mixers capable of operation at millimeter and sub- millimeter frequencies. Limited component development at the lower end of these frequencies has been initiated. System tests with these components in a laboratory or aircraft environment should be feasible in 1 to 2 years with flight qualified systems following in an additional 3 to 5 years. Development of components and systems at the upper extremes of the submillimeter band have not yet been initiated and will require a significant technical effort. An estimated 5 to 7 years from the inception of component development will be required to bring systems to operational readiness in this frequency region. PAGENO="0104" 102 QUESTION No 26 In the Budget book discussion of low cos solid propulsion an improved version of the interim upper stage (IUS) is nentioned In what context should we view this concept? Does NASA anticipate it will require an improved version of the interim upper state? ANSWER: One element of the OAST solid propulsion technology program has been focused for several years on higher per- formance, low cost solid motors designed for use on small earth escape ctages for planetary missions With the advent of the solid propellant.IUS, much of this technology along with other technologies being advanced by DOD can b4 incorporated in the I1~S design to provide maximum performaz~ce canability Those advanced technologies not quite ready may be introduc~ed at a later date as a. product improvement program to provid~ improved capability if it is cost effective to do so PAGENO="0105" 103 QIJESi ION NO. 0 What additional funds would be required to proniol the cody Lpplication of nuclear electric propulsion to future NASA YfliO5iOlLO? ANSWER: Appilci Lion of nuclear electric propulsion to NASA tb oJ9O; requires initiation of a development program for uuch~r rook r power system in the early 1980's. For proper executk n of d(Velopment program, the proper technological basio most first be .;tablished through an expanded research and toennoijy proqroin. Currently funded programs contributing to the technok gy base include efforts on solar-electric propulsion, Brayton- cycle power conversion, heat-pipe technology, ther.mionic power con- version reso~rcli, md space nuclear power systems analysis. Additional efforts are required, however, particularly in the areas of heat-pipes, thermie~ Pc converters, fuel materials, and systems design analysis, leodina k demonstration test (non-nuclear) of all elements of a typic~d power conversion module in the early 1980's prior to commit- ment t development program. These additional efforts would require more funds, mpprooirnutely $1 M in FY 1977 and a total of $15 M -$17 M throup~ FY 19ii1 PAGENO="0106" 104 QUESTION No 28 In the November hearings OAST provided a list of advanced propulsion concepts which are under study. For each of these concepts, what level of manpower and funds is being expended in FY 1976 and what level of nanpower and funds is planned for FY 1977? What additional funds would be required to accelerate methods for determinir~g the feasibility of these advanced concepts' ANSWER Funding and manpower being expended in FY 1976 andj that planned for FY 1977 for the advanced propulsion conceptis under study in OAST are listed below along with additional funds that could be used where appropriate to accelerate prograns towards determining concept feasibility Where no additional funds are listed it is felt that the work is progressing at a suitable rate and additional resources would not significantly accelerate the program. The funding levels vary considerably between concepts, depending on the type of work being performed Some of these more advanced concepts are in the theoretical study phase which is performed under university grants and requires a low leve~ of resources expenditure at this time. When the research moVes into the experimental phase, such as nuclear electric propul sion, gaseous core nuclear reactor research, and atomic and rietallic hydrocen expenditures for materials equipment and test support become much greater as the listed funding level~ indicate Additior~al FY 1976 FY 1977 FY 1977 Conce~ $K MYS $K MYS Nuclear Electric 1000 10 1000 10 1000 Propuls ion Solar Sailing 50 1 * * - Laser Propulsion 150 2 150 2 100 Gaseous Core 1000 2 1000 2 400 Nuclear Engine Atomic and 500 20 500 20 - Metallic Hydrogen High Pressure 65 1 65 1 50 Hydrogen Storacie in Solids PAGENO="0107" FY 1976 ___ $K MYS Excited State 50 Helium Magnetic Field/ 15 0.5 Electrically Conducting Fluid Inter- actions *Fy 1977 resource allocation will depend on the results of the FY 1976 study. 105 -2- QUESTION No. 28 (Cont'd.) FY 1977 ~ MYS 50 1 15 0.5 Additional FY 1977 $K 50 PAGENO="0108" 106 QUESTION NO 29 - Which of the more than 200 experiments i~a7T~in the summer workshop have been selected for fundinq~ ANSWFR The experiments which have been selected for definitionl studies in FY 76 are listed below by title. These studies. will icsult in the determination of the feasibility of the proposcd e>periment the justification for doing it in space and the techniLal and programmatic recruirements to develop and im~1oment the experiment At the completion of the study, a determination will be made for continuing the effort to the dcvclopmLnt and implementation phase 1 The Orbiter Research and Technology Experiments Program which currently includes four experiment study forts a Development Flight Instrumentation data anaiys4 b Lee-side heating c. Windward-side heating d ~ir data system 2. The Atmospheric Sensing Module which includes: -i Laser FJeterodyne Experiment b. Microwave Radiometer Experiment 3 The Modulir Instrument Pointing Technology Laborato~y which is ~ facility that accommodates these experiments a Video Guidance Technology Experiment b Annular Suspension System Demonstration 4. Propulsion Contamination Effects Module 5. Ion Thruster Exhaust Plume and Efflux Characteriza-. tion Experiment 6 Cryogenic Propellant Management Module 7 Super-fluid Helium Cryogenic Properties in Zero-gravity 8 Column Density Monitor 9 Large Space Structure Experiment 10. Advanced Concept Heat Pipe Experiments PAGENO="0109" 107 QUESTION No. 30. Provide a breakdown of the supporting research and technology OAST is providing to the Shuttle program in FY 1976; in FY 1977. ANSWER: FY76 FY77 Chemical Propulsion 0.5 - Entry 2.9 2.8 Materials 1.0 0.8 Structures 1.4 1.0 5.8 4.6 PAGENO="0110" 108 Question No. l.a. NASA has submitted or plans to submit several Program Development Plans to ERDA including: a) Solar heating and Cooling Development for Demonstration For this Program Development Plan provide the following information: 1) When was the PDP submitted to ERDA? 2) What objectives and milestones were established in the PDP? 3) How much manpower was requested for FY 76 and FY 77? Were reimbursable R&PM funds requested for this manpower? 4) How much R&D funding was requested far FY 76 and FT 77? 5) To what sector of ERDA was the PDP submitted? 6) What, if any, has been the respofls* from ERDA? When did the response take place? If none, when is response anticipated? 7) How much manpower and funding has ERDA agreed or planned~ to provide for FY 76 and FY 77? 8) What objective and milestones in the PDP has ERDA agreed to support? Answers: 1) The PDP was originally submitted to ERDA in April 1975. -. was later revised to reflect funding changes and resubm: in September 1975. 2) The primary objective of the Development Program is to develop cost-effective, reliable, and acceptable solar heating and coolinq for use in the demonstration programs. More detailed objectives were to: a) Support the demonstration of residential and comeercial solar heating and cooling systems. These will be both retrofit and new applications and will be demonstrated in the various U.S. Climatological regions. b) Initiate the long-range development effort to support large-scale applications and demonstrations in the next dec c) Develop analytical tools, system analysis, and design analysis techniques by which technical judgements can be ma4e on the developmental and operational testing program. d) Provide special design guidelines, standards, and criteria for technical performance specifications, qualification, testing, and manufacture of solar heating and cooling hard~ ware components, subsystems, and systems. PAGENO="0111" 109 2 2) e) Support the overall development of a viable and competitive solar heating and cooling industrial and commercial capability in the United States. Th~ major milestones were: a)!Release requests for proposals in five technical areas. October 15, 1975. b) Award contracts in five areas March to June 1976. c) Complete test facilities at MSFC - August 1976. 3) NA~$A requested 54 equivalent manyears of effort in FY 1976 ar~ 58 manycars in FY 1977. In both years, reimbursable ft4ids were requested (same level in Transit. Quarter). 4) Ir~FY 1916 the funding request was $S.SM, in PY 1977 it w ~ $9.OM ($2.SM in Transit. Quarter). 5) Th~ PD? was submitted to the Solar Energy Division under th~ Assistant Administrator for Solar, Geothermal, and Ad~ranced Energy Systems. 6) Ar~ Interagency Agreement was signed by ERDA and NASA on October 8, 1975. It was based on the revised PD? and made E~A FY 1976 funds available to N~SAS 7) Ir~ FY 1976 F;RDA has provided reimbursable funding authority of~ $5.5M and agreed to 54 manyears equivalent level of efIort. In FY 1977 ERDA has tentatively agreed to support our request for $9.OM o- reimbursable funding authority and a ~8 manyear equivalent level of effort. 8) Th~y have ajreed to support all the milestones and objectives inj the PDP, contingent on receiving their planned future buj~gets. 70-079 0 - 76 - 8 PAGENO="0112" 110 Question No. Lb. NASA has submitted or plans to submit several Program Development Plans tO ERDA including: b) Photovoltaics For this Program Development Plan provide the following information: 1) When was the PDP submitted to ERDA? 2) What objectives and milestones were established in the PDP? 3) How much manpower was requested for FY 76 and FY 77? Were reimbursable R&PM funds requested for this manpower? 4) How much R&D funding was requested for FY 76 and F! 77? 5) To what sector of ERDA was the PDP submitted? 6) What, if any, has been the response from ERDA? When did the response take place? If none, when is response anticipated? . S 7) How much manpower and funding has ERDA . agreed or planned to provide for FY 76 and F? 77? .* S 8) What objective ~mnd milestones in the PDP has ERDA agreed to support? . . S Answers: NASA is supporting the ERDA Solar Photovoltaic Energy Con~ version Program in two prOject areas: lb(1) Low Cost Silicon solar Array pro~eet (JPL) (advanced production technology so that co8te of solar cell arrays can be reduced to competitive `levels). lb(2) Photovoltaic Test and DemOflettatiOfl project (LeRC) * (complementary effort requiring the development and testing of concepts for integration of the solar cel]. " ` `I arrays stemming from, the JPL project into a variety of . .*. practical terrestrial applications). Answers to the eight questions are provided separately for these two project areas as follows: . * lb(l) Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project (.WL) (1) November 20, 1974 (to NSF) PDP (2) The primary objective is to aeve].op, by 1985, the technological and industrial capability to produce silicon solar photovoltaiC arrays at a rate of more than 500 mega~.. watts per year at a cost of less than $0.50 per peak watt':"~ (constant 1974 dol lars) . By 1980, demonstrate the technical feasibility of the primary goal. PAGENO="0113" 111 2 To achieve the above, the following intermediate objectives must be accomplished: (a) Develop a jrocess for obtaining solar cell quality raw silicon material at a cost of less than $35 per kilogram. (b) Develop and demonstrate automated processes for producing simple crystal silicon sheets. (C) Develop and demonstrate automated processes for the complete fabrication of solar cells into array systems. (d) Develop encapsulation materials and techniques for arrays with a design operating life time greater than 20 years. (e) Develop a capability and produce single crystaL silicon cells for tests of 200 KW, 400 KW, and 600 KW systems with decreasing unit coat goals (subsequently changed to increasing annual procurements of solar cell arrays) as follows: Fiscal Year Q~antit~ 1976 170KW 1977 150KW 1978 270KW 1979 510KW 1980 1,010KW 1981 2,000KW 1982 3,000KW 1983. , 4,000KW (3) . Reimbursable JPL Man~er irernents - ~anyears Ray. I4nyears. !4i~~L O~jna3~,~D~ p~y 1976 ~ 1976 & 76T 35"' 48 1977 To be `identified in FY 1977 AOP (approximately 8/76) (4) * $M.' . . $M . Fiscal Year Origin~PbP Revised FY 76 A0P'.,"'.'~ 1976 & 76T 24.5 ,": . 22.3 1977 To be identified in FY 1977 AOP (approx~ 8/76) (5) The PDP was sent to NSF Pr~~~t was transferred to ERDA when established. SUb*~jUentFY 1.976 Annual ,. Operating Plan was sent to Di~jsion of Solar Energy Research, ERDA. " `` PAGENO="0114" 112 3 (6) ERDA approved initial PDP on January 17, 1975. ERDA approved revised AOP on December 12, 1975. (7) Negotiations for FY 1976 manpower and funding are only partially accomplished. It is anticipated that ERDA will provide support as follows: Approximate Approximate Fiscal Year Man~ear8~ Funding,~$M 1976&76T 48 15 1977 * * * Nego~itiOn5 for FY 1977 manpower and funding to begin approx4mately August 1976. (~) ERDA has approved the objectives and milestones as presented in the PD? and subsequent detail for the FY 1976 Annual Operating Plan. lb(2) Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project (LeRC) (~) Draft POP submitted to NSF November 6, 1974. FY 1975 Annual Operating Plan (AOP) submitted March 5, 1975. FY 1976 AOP submitted January 9, 1976. (2) This has been a dynamic process. Detail objectives, milestones, and funding needS are strongly dependent on the prior definition of the complementary Low Cost Silicon Solar Array project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These are now in negotiation with ERDA. * Major objectives are: . (a) Determine operating characteristics for a variety .~ of photovoltaic convetaioit'BYstelfl* and sub5yStM$.:~ Confirm by tests and demOfl$tratiofl$ that these systems can satisfy potentially attractive appli~; cations having National impact. (b) Insure availability of reliable test methods arid. univeristy participants in the ERDA National Photovoltaic Conversion program. (c) Determine the endurance of solar cell modules, and module materials under bOth accelerated and real- time environmental conditiOns of intended use. (3) NASA manpower requirements* ares Fl 1976 - 26 manyeare Fl 1976T - 12 manyear$ .~. Fl 1977 - approximately SOrnanysara *reimbursable from ERDA PAGENO="0115" 113 4 (4) FY 1976 -` $2.106M rv 1976r - 678M t\ 1977 $3-4M (present estimate) (,) Draft (W was sent to NSF Project was transferred to LRDA when ~stab1ished Subsequent APO modifica- tions ~nL to DLvision of Solar Energy, ERDA (6) I~Y 197j Aol approved by ERDA on May 15, 1975 PY 1976 AOP in neqotiation (approval expected by mid-February 1976) (7) Negotiations for FY 1976 manpower and funding support are in proccss It is anticipated that ERDA will provide support as followas Fis~a1 Year Macyears Funding, $M 1976 26 2 106 1976r 12 678 1977 Approximately Approximately 50 3-4M (8) ERDA has approved major objectives as presented in rv 1976 AOl Detail milestones are in process of negotiation PAGENO="0116" 114 Question No. l.c. NASA has submitted or plans to submit several Program Development Plans to ERDA including: Wind Energy For th i_s Progr~tm Dcvelopmont Plan provide the following information: 1) When was the E~DP submitted to ERDA? 2) What objectives and milestones wore established in the POP? 3) 110w much manpower wa:3 requested for FY 76 and FY 77? Were reimbura~th1e R~PM fund3 requested for this manpower? 4) How much R~D fundinj was requested for F'? 76 and F? 77? 5) To what s~cLor 01 ERDA was the PDP submitted? 6) What, if any, he; bo~'u the response from ERDA? When did the rCspQn3e Lake p lace? (L none, when is response anticipated? 7) 11o~i much eln~u).fe r and lund i nj has ERDA agreed or planned to provide l:or "f /( and F'? 77? 8) What object. `i lea_eaca in the POP hts ERDA agreed to fUpl)Ort? Answers: 1) December 19, 1974 (to NSF) 2) Develop the technology for practical, cost competitive wind generator systems that can be used for supplying significant amounts of energy to help meet the Nation's energy needs. The milestones were: a) 100KW (MOD-0) machine in operation at Plum Brook Station in early F? 1976. b) Improved 100KW (~10D-0) machine in operation at some suitable site (optional) last quarter of F? 1976. c) First of several contractor designed 100KW sized (MOD-i) machines in operation in first quarter F? 1978. d) First contractor-designed megawatt~sized machine (MOD~l) in operation first quarter F? 1978. e) Advanced (MOD-2) machines in operation mid-F? 1979 3) NASA Manppwer ReciuirelnentS F? 1976 & 1976T - 25 manyears F'? 1977 - 21 manyears Reimbursable funds were not requested. for NASA manpower at time POP was submitted. ERDA is reimbursing all NASA man- power costs starting in FY 1976. PAGENO="0117" 115 2 4) Original Present Goal FY 1976 $6 SM $8M F? 1977 $5 4M $M 5) PDP1 was sent to NSI I zoject was transferred to ERDA when est~iblished SubsLqucnt IDP modifications and updates sent to Division of Solar Energy Research, ERDA. 6) PDP was approved by N'F on January 22, 1975 (subsequently transferred to LRDA) 7) Neg~tiations for F? 1976 manpower and funding support are in j~ocess It is antt~ipated that ERDA will provide support as follows: .**. Approximate Approximate _Manyears Funding~. $11 1? 1976 & F? 1)76 1 27 8 IV 1977 (Estxmatcd) 24 8 8) ER~A has approvcd objcLtives and milestones as presented in PDP~ and subsequ~nt th.tn~l F? 1976 Annual Operating Plans (AOP) PAGENO="0118" 116 Question No. l.d. NASA has submitted or plans to submit several Program Development Plans to ERDA including: Solar Heating and Cooling Advanced Research and Technology. For this Program Development Plan provide the following information: 1) When was the PDP submitted to ERDA? 2) What objectives and milestones wore established in the P1W? 3) How much manpower was requested for FY 76 and FY 77? Were reimbureabth R&PM funds requested for this manpower? 4) flow much R~1) fundin(J was requested for F? 76 and FY 77? 5) To what sector ot ERDA was the POP submitted? 6) What, if any, has been the response from ERDA? When did the response take place? If none, when is response anticipated? 7) 11ev much sanlewe:: an.t lunding has ERDA agreed or planned to provide br F? 7e and F? 77? 8) What objcti.va ant :.i.lontoncs in the POP has ERDA agreed to support? Answers: 1) The PD? was submitted to ERDA in March 1975, then revised and resubmitted to ERDA? The answers to questions 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8 are not available until negotiations with ERDA have been completed. 5) It was submitted to the Assistant Administrator for Solar Energy, Geothermal, and Advanced Energy Systems. 6) There has been no formal response from ERDA, but since H December 1975, there have been active discussions with ERDA. concerning the role of the Lewis Research Center in this program. We anticipate a formal NASA~-ERDA agreement in this area by March 1976. PAGENO="0119" 117 Question ~1o. i.e. NASA his submitted or plans to submit several irogram D&~ve1.opiiient Plans to ERDA including; Solar Heating ani Cooling Commercial Building Demonstration Program Management For this Program Development Plan provide the following information: 1) When was the PDP submitted to ERDA? 2) What objectives and milestones were established in the PDI~? 3) 110w much manpower was requested for FY 76 and FY 77? Were reimbursable R&PM funds requested for this manpower? 4) How much R&D funding was requested for FY 76 and PY 77? 5) To what st~ctor of CIDA was the POP submitted? 6) What, if any, has boon the response from ERDA? When.did the respQn:;e take place? If none, when is response artt~cipated'? 7) How much manpowor and funding has ERDA agreed or piannea to puovida lw: IV 76 and FY 77? 8) What objeli.ve wi lilc~itones in the POP has ERDA agreed to :;uppurL2 Answers: 1) This program was not preceded by a PDP but was initiated oA the basis of an FY 1976 Operating Plan submitted by NASA to ERDA on December ii, 1975. A formal Program Plan will be sub~ mitted to ERDA in February 1976. 2) The FY 1976 Operating Plan has as its objective the support of ERDA's Commercial Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program. Initially, NASA will evaluate proposals received by ERDA, assist in negotiation of contracts to be signed by ERDA, then manage the resulting program. The Operating Plan milestones are to have the Program Plan approved by February 12, have the initial proposals evaluated by February, and to complete negotiations with contractors selected by ERDA in May 1976. 3) Sixteen equivalent manyears of effort were requested in FY 1976 and 55 in IV 1977. All of the funds for this manpower were to be reimbursable. 4) Since ERDA is funding the contracts under this program, NASA only requested funds to reimburse manpower and other direct program Support at MSFC. $600K was requested for FY 1976 and $3.2M in F? 1977. PAGENO="0120" 118 2 5) Th~ FY 1976 Opratlncj Plan was submitted to the Division of Sour lnerq~, under the Assistant Administrator for Solar, (~..oth rmal md Advdri~cd F~nergy Systems 6) An Interagency Agreement was signed by NASA and ERDA on ~Decemh~r i~ 1~7~ int~-i~ting the program It included the Operating P1 ~n I or I V 1)11 and made the requested FY 1976 funds ~vai1abh to NA5A 7) ERDA has piovidcd rt~irnbursable funding authority of $600K and agx~ed to i 16 nranyca~ equivalent level of effort in FY 19Th IRDA has tcnt~itively agreed with our $3 2M request for FY 1977 at an equivalcnt manyear level of effort of 55, contingent upon furth.r dcfinition of the program plans and receipt of their planned budget 8) ERDA has acjrced to support all the ob]ectives and mile~ Stones in the FY 1976 Op'.rating Plan, contingent on further definition in the I rogram Plan to be ready in February and on recciving thcit planncd budget PAGENO="0121" 119 Question No. l.f. NASA has submitted or plans to submit several Program Development Plans to ERDA including: Solar Thcrmal Electric For this Program Development Plan provide the following information: 1) When was the POP submitted to ERDA? 2) What objectives and milestones were established in the POP? 3) How much manpower was requested for FY 76 and FY 77? Were reimbur~;ab1.u R&PM funds requested for this manpower? 4) How much R&D fundinq was requested for FY 76 and FY 77? 5) To what sector of ERDA was the PDP submitted? 6) What, if any, has been the response from 1~RDA? When did the response take place? If none, when is response ant.Lcipated? 7) How m'tch manpower and funding has ERDA agreed or planned~'~ to provicic br lY 7' and L'Y 77? 8) Wh~i L objt:cI. LV~ ted fl LieS tones in the PD? has ERDA agreed to WppotL? Answers: 1) Preliminary POP submittal to ERDA was on December 18, 1975 (combined JPL and LeRC effort). 2) Objectives were to verify by test the component, subaysts*, and system technology for advanced distributed collector solar thermal electric powel plants based on existing space~derived technology. 3) faflXears ~eRC ____ F? 1976 and F? 1976T 6.4 10.0 16.4 F? 1977 12.0 5.0 17.0 Reimbursable funds were requested for ~PL and LeRC manpower in F? 1977. NASA offered to nrovide LeRC manpower in F? 1976 and F? 1976T. 4) Dollars j~n~.Thousands FY 1976 532 FY 1976T 176 FY 1977 1,570 PAGENO="0122" 120 2 5) Preliminary PDP was submitted to Sola.r Thermal Electric Branch, ERDA. 6) Response anticipated by March 1976, per telecon with Chief, Solar Thermal Electrjc Branch, ERDA. The answers to questions 7 and 8 are to be determined at a later date. PAGENO="0123" 121 Question No. 2. NASA has submitted or plans to submit several Program Development Plans to ERDA including: Surface Propulsion For this Program Development Plan provide the following information: 1) When was the PDP submitted to ERDA? 2) What objectives and milestones were established in the PDP? 3) Row much ru~inpo~er W~iS requested for Fl 76 and Fl 77? Were I reir1bur~l)io It~PM tunds requested for this manpower? 4) How much It~1) tUfl(lifl(J wan requested for Fl 76 and Fl 77? 5) To what scetor of tRDA was the PDP submitted? 6) Wh~tt~ if wy, h~; b0h the response from ERDA? When did the respon~e take plaee? It none, when is response an I.. i ~ Ipt t:td? 7) How ~ ii i wcr md Iundi n:j has k~1~DA agreed or planned to pCC)Vid' er: I:Y /6 dOd lY 77? U) Wh~t: obje:;. Lv~ mt ni I r';l:ouer; in the l'DI' has ERDA agreed to .;uppot'L? Answers: A) Advanc~d Automotive Gas Turbines 1. Submitted November 21, 1975. The answers to questions 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8 are not available until negotiations with EF(DA have been completed. 5. As~istant Administrator for Conservation 6. No formal response. Discussions with representatives of the Transportation Division indicate basic agreement with the PDP and a desire for extensive NASA participation in this program. However, funding limitations in Fl. 1976 and tentative funding limitations for Fl 1977 allow for only a very limited start. B) Power Train and Vehicie Systems 1. and 5. No formal, submission to date. Preliminary meetinqe to develop an understanding of ERDA's desired approach were held with ERI)A Transportation Division representatives in October and November. The answers to questions 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8 are not available until negotiations wiUi EItDA have been completed. 6. Funding limitations have required ERDA to revise their plans. CurrentLy there are no plans for NASA activity in this area in FY 1976-1977. PAGENO="0124" 122 2 C) Advanced Surface Propulsion Research and Technology 1. No formal submission. The answers to questions 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8 are not available until negotiations with ERDA have been completed. 5. and 6. Several drafts of this plan have been reviewed with representatives of the ERDA Transportation Divisio~. On January 28, 1976, basic agreement was reached concetn' ing the content of the plan. Transportation Division personnel have expressed an interest in NASA partic?ipatLOfl.. in this area. Uowever, 1976 and 1977 funds are not available. D) Hydrogen Injection Vehicle Verification 1. Submitted November 18, 1975. The answers to questions 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8 are not available until negotiations with ERDA have been completed. 5. Director, Transportation Energy Conservation Division. 6. No formal response. Distussions with representatives of the Transportation Division indicate an interest in pursuing this activity. However, adequate 1976 and 1977. funds do not seem to be available. E) Electric Vehicle 1. Submitted August 29, 1975. The answers to questions 2, 3, 4, 7, end 8 are not available until negotiations with ERDA have beefl completed. 5. Deputy Assistant Administrator for Cdnservation. 6. No formal response. DiscussiOfli with representatives the ERDA Transportation Division have led to an agreeas4 regarding areas of NASA participation in the progran. best, only limited funding is ~nticipated. PAGENO="0125" 123 QUESTION NO. 3: "The decision to request no direct energy related funding by NASA appears to be an arbitrary decision by the 0MB." a) W re there any discussions concerning this issue between the NASA and the ERDA prior to the 0MB decision? b) If ow much direct energy related funding did the NASA submit to the 0MB? ANSWER 3 a No b. The request was for $8.,5 million; $3.5 million for Tcchnology Identification and Verification and $5 0 million for Satellite Power Systems PAGENO="0126" QUESTION4 NASA has statLd that NASA energy related funds were used to develop understanding of the user problem, to narrow the solution options to those with highest payoff potential, and to prepare program plans for support by the "user" agency." a) Since the decision by the NASA to request no direct. energy related funds for FYl9l7, have there been discuss:LonS with Ek~DA to bupport the above activities? b) What is the status of these discussions? How much manpower and funding if any, has ERD~ agreed to provide to NASA in FY1977 for these activities? c) How can NASA effectively plan these activities without firm commitments from ERDA? ANSWER: a) Inititi discussions with ERDA have been conductd during the past few weeks. b) Due to the short time since the decision, no decision has been reached concerning whether funding can be madL availabic by LRDA ERDA has stated, as was indicated in thL NASA testimony that the decision was made too latc to be included in their budget so there are no funds currently identified. c) Tentative planning for FY1977 can, of course, be performed using a rational estimate of the support which might be obtained. However, some form of commitment or indication of R&D funding must be obtained within the next few months if this planning is to be effective. 124 PAGENO="0127" 125 QUESTION NO. 3: "NASA has completed the Program Definition effort required by the Geothermal Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1974: 1) Is the NASA aggressively pursuing this program? b) What does NASA consider to be its role Lfl the development of Geothermal Energy? ANSWER: a) NASA is Participating as a nember of the Geothermal Advisory Council which has been formed by ERDA. b) NASA believes its role should be technical and generally constrained to support of the ERDA program in those areas where previou NASA experience is most appropriate. This includes, for example, materials, energy conversion systems, and structures. 70-079 0 - 76 - 9 PAGENO="0128" 126 QUESTION NO. 6. In briefings at NASA centers and by some aerospace companies, the Committee has received positive indications for the potential ot geothermal energy. What milestones and objectives did NASA include in its program definition effort? ANSWER In response to the above question, it was decided that the Staff would review the testimony given before the Subcommittee on Energy Research, Development and Demonstration on January 20, 1976. PAGENO="0129" 127 QUESTION NO. 7: As recently as November, NASA was asked what the Committee could do to make a strong ERDA/NASA partnership. NASA stated that the continuing support for a small, independent NASA R&D budget, including manpower, is believed critically important. a) What has changed since November to decrease the need for a small, independent NASA R&D budget? ANSWER: In our view, nothing has changed since November which decreases the need for a flexible, small R&D budget so that NASA can properly perform the technology identificatio,~ and verification function. PAGENO="0130" 128 QUESTION NO 8 In a rcview of Future Space Programs the Subcommittee concluded that Hazardous Waste Disposal in Space was potentially an important future space activity Is the NASA continuing to study the feasibility of space disposal techniques? Is NASA attemtping to understand the various implications of such an alternative?" ANSWER: Yes. A previous study, performed under the leader-j sI~ip of the Lewis Research Center and at the request of the AEC, oncluded that space disposal of hazardous wastes is technically and economically feasible At the present time, NASA is analyzing system requirements and the risks and benefits of three different mission destinations: earth orbit (retrievable storage), solar system escape (permanent disposal), and solar orbit. Included in this analysis is the identification of the elements of the system which have the major risks. These ejements will be studied in more detail to improve the accuracy of overall risk profile estimates. What other agencies arc involved in these studies" NASA is working with the Energy Research and Development Administration and contacts are established with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Emviron~ mental Protection Agency. "Who is playing the lead role?" The study described above is being conducted by NASA Information is bcing exchanged with ERDA and the other Agencies. PAGENO="0131" 129 Question No. 9 Is the NASA aqqressively pursuing the definition and development of the dato base needed for evaluation of satellite power systems? Answer Current efforts ire directed to investigation of technical feasibdity, economic viability, competing system comparability and t:ochnology advancement requirements. The work has been primarily contractual with a relatively low level of funding support. (i.e. $l~2 million per year) PAGENO="0132" 130 QUESILON NO 10 lhc NASA appears to continually agree with i so-called "conventional wisdom that satellite power stations will not b fL isible until the turn of the century. What is a more optimistic time f nine to have a satellite power system demonstration? What is the anticipated cost of such a demonstration system? Whcn ould a satellite power system be operational? ANSWER: The 1995 timeframe estimated by Dr. Lenoir in his testimony before the Senate Subcommittee is very optimistic bi d on curient and anticipated budget support for tlu progrtm 1)moristration system costs and projected operationil d~t ~ for a satcllite power system will remain extremely speculative until the required system definition and technoloqy advancement determination have been completed. PAGENO="0133" 131 QUESTION NO. 11: What are the concepts which are being studied for satellite power systems? ANSWER: o Solar Power Cor~version Systems Photo~o,1tajc (SSPS) Brayton Thermjon ic o Nuclear Power Conversion Systems Brayton Thermion ic o Reflecting Systems Power Relay Satellite (PRS) Large Orbiting Mirror PAGENO="0134" 132 QUESTION NO. 12: NASA has recently completed a Hydrogen I n rqy Systems Technology Study What has been the ERDA reaction to this report? Did ERDA participate in the review group for this study? ANSWER: A briefiny of. the NEST Study effort was presented to ERDA on January 15, 1976. There has been no formal reaction. HowcvLr informal discussions have indicated an interest in dovlopinj future activities involving NASA after the HESI' Study md LRDA's in~-house planning activities are completed. Four individual' from ERDA were members of the Review Group and partic~pated in the two formal reviews of the NEST Study report. PAGENO="0135" 133 QtJtS'lION NO. 13: "NASA states in the budget submission that a rinthursable agreement has been negotiated with ;RDA for NASA support of the Geothermal Energy Program. Please provide a summary of the details including NASA lead center, reimbursable manpower and R&D funding, objectives, and milestones." ANSWER; The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is conducting the work on a helical rotary screw expander power system utilizing geothermal brine. Approximately 5 manyears of reimbursable effort are included for Fl 1976 and the transition period. Approximately $700,000 dollars is estimated for this same period. The primary objective of this work is to evaluate the potential for utilizing geothermal brine for electric power production through the use of a commercial size helical rotary screw expander power system. Milestones included in this period include procure~ ment of the power system, which is scheduled to be delivered to JPL by the supplier in early calendar 1977, selection of the test site ~s scheduled for the fall of Cl 1976 and functional testing is expected to be complete in early spring, 1977. PAGENO="0136" 134 QUESTiON NO. 14: Since NASA is requesting no direct energy r~ lstd funds are there firm commitm~ntS from IRDA for reimbursable funds to support the energy systems technology ~tivities including the satellite power system study team? At what level (manpower R&D funds) does ERDA intend to support the satellite power system activi ties~ ANSWER As stated in the testimony negotiations with ERDA for Fl 1977 funds in the area of technology identification and satcllite power systLms are under discussion Conse- quently there are no firm commitments from ERDA at this time PAGENO="0137" 135 QUESTION NO. 1 We understand from the recent review of basic research in CAST, that although the quality is excellent, there is some concern about the balance across sub-programs in CAST. Would you elaborate on this and also provide us with the Summary Report of the OAST Research Council? ANSWER: The OAST Research Council observed that, of the 20 subprograms in the CAST R&T base, 7 subprograms contain 6596 of the work reported measured in terms of papers presented during the reviews of basic research, The Council thought that this possible imbalance was important to note, There are reasons for a concentra- tion of basic research in a few subprograms because of differing emphases and maturities of technology and the inherent structure of the CAST program, For example, the subprogram Fluid and Flight Dynamics' involves a large amount of basic research by design, whereas the subprogram "High Speed Vehicle Aerodynamics" emphasizes technology demonstrations and applied research, Also, the subprogram "Propulsion Components' is a mature technology with little opportunity for basic research while a great deal of research is conducted in the subprogram dealing with the environmental impact of propulsion systems, Enclosed is a copy of the Summary Report of the CAST Research Council. PAGENO="0138" 136 OAST BASIC RESEARCH SUMMARY REPORT Prepared by the OAST RESEARCH COUNCIL December 11, 1975 Nahonal Aeronautics and Space Administration WASHINGTON, 0. C. PAGENO="0139" 137 TABLE OF COETENTS INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW 2 HIGHLIGHTS Fluid and Flight Dynamics 4 Materials 5 Structures 8 High Speed Vehicle Aerodynamics and Flight Dynamics 9 Propulsion Components 11 Stability and Controls 12 Propulsion Environmental Impact Minimization 13 Chemical Propulsion 15 High Power Lasers and Energetics 16 Applied Mathematics and Computer Sciences 18 CONCLUDING REMARKS 19 APPENDIX A - Membership of the OAST Research Council 20 PAGENO="0140" INTRODUCTION The CAST Research Council was established in 1970 by NASA Management Instruction 1152, 43 as an integral element of NASAtS overall management and organization structure to ensure that a strong, viable, coordinated, well balanced and responsive basic research program is fostered and nurtured in OAST. Council member- ship is given in Appendix A of this report. One of the responsibiLities of the Council is to conduct annual reviews of all basic research activities in OAST This 1 eport summarizes the results of these reviews which were conducted in September and October, The reviews consisted of one or two day meetings at each Center during which presentations were made to the Council by the Center staff. In addition, each Center prepared a publication of abstracts under the title of Basic Research Review for the OAST Research Council. Selection of material to be included in the Center publications was left `to `the discretion of Center management. Copies of these publications have been distributed throughout the Agency and the research community. Because much of the basic research conducted in CAST is diffusely integrated into the various programs conducted under broader Research and Technology Operating Plans (RTOPs), the Council did not attempt to develop details on funding and manpower levels for basic research. Rather, Council efforts were directed at assessing the overall quality and balance of the work reported. The Council also examined: the extent of coordination that did or did not appear to exist relative to multi-Center programs; the extent of duplication of effort, if any, and, qualitatively, the degree o.f support for basic research by Center management. Presented in the sections which follow are an Overview, Highlight discussions of some of the major areas of basic research that were reported, and Concluding R~marks 138 1 PAGENO="0141" 139 2 OVERVIEW In general, the Council was well pleased with the Center reviews. CAST's basic research activities appear to have gained in strength over the recent past. This observation was based, in part, on the wide diversity of the subject matter presented and on the enthusiasm displayed by the researchers in presenting their results. The overall quality of the work reported was excellent. There are some very broad areas of research in which more than one Center participates, but there appears to be very little, if any, duplication of effort. Multicenter programs, such as the Wake Vortex Program, are well coordinated. Many of the discipline oriented programs appear to be making good use of university talent through research grants, And, while it is true that funding constraints have tended to drive university supported work in the direction of program coupled activities, the new CAST Fund for Independent Research is providing an opportunity to fund some of the more innovative, loosely coupled ideas that emanate from the university community. The Council did have some concern with regard to the balance of the basic research among the various CAST programs. This was revealed by an overall summarization and grouping of the papers presented in the Center review books by CAST subprogram. Over 300 abstracts are contained in the Basic Research documents prepared by the Centers (including the Tet Propulsion Laboratory). Based on the subprogram identification, these papers may be grouped as follows: No. of Papers Aeronautics R&T Base 169 Space & Nuclear R&T Base 118 Other 30 317 The papers in the above grouping labeled Other were, in the main, associated with the Systems and Experimental Programs work, illus- trating to the Council that the need for basic research frequently can and does arise in the applied area, PAGENO="0142" 140 3 A further examination of the Aeronautics and Space & Nuclear R&T Base data shows the following: Thus, 30~ of the work reported appeared in the subprograms, FluLd & Flight Mechanics and Materials. A further extension of this analysis reveals that about 65% of the work reported appeared in 7 OAST sub- programs As there presently are more than 20 subprograms in CAST in the R&T base alone, the Council thought this possible imbalance, at. least with regard to the reported work, important to note. In the Highlights section that follows are presented brief summaries on the work reported in the major subprogram areas, Council recommenda- tions are em~ hasized in this section by underlining Before turning to the next section, two procedural changes which the Council incorporated this year in conducting the reviews are noted Both changes were designed to enhance the communications among the researchers at the Centers and among the OAST Headquarters staff.. This year the Center review books were printed and distributed to the Council members approximately one month in advance of the review Council members, in turn, distributed the books to the st iff at their Centers and solicited comments on the work reported. The Council transmitted the comments so received to the researchers at the Center meetings and, where appropriate, encouraged the initiation of a dialogue between Centers, Also, a teleconference set-up was arranged with OAST Headquarters during the Center reviews enabling the OAST staff to participate in the reviews A total of 45 attendees from Headquarters took advantage of this arrangement which worked well, Subprogram No. 505-06 506-16 505-16 Title Fluid & Flight Mechanics Materials (S&N) Materials (A) No. of ______ Papers 50 32 14 Total 96 PAGENO="0143" 141 4 UIGHLIGHTS Fluid and Flight Dynamics (50 papers) The basic research efforts presented to the CAST Research Counc and supported by the Fluid and Flight Mechanics subprogram include a large number of analytical and experimental activities The majority of these activities are carried out at Ames and Langley, with a limited number of efforts at the Flight Research Center and JPL In broad terms, these activities include the development of new, improved and more rapid methods for predicting complex flow processes, the attempt to better understand and reduce undesirable aerodynamic phenomena, such as noise and wake vortices, the synthesis of new and more reliable methods for the design and analysis of airfoils and configurations, the development of advanced experimental methods and aerodynamic facilities, and the pursuit of a limited number of basic research efforts related to flight mechanics Approximately one half of the presentations to the Council in the Fluid and Flight Mechanics subprogram relate to predicting complex flow processes In the area of transonic flows, basic research efforts include such topics as: effect of lift on the area rule, numerical solu- tions to flow over bodies in wind tunnels, an analytical method for high angles of attack, a computer code for three-dimensional transonic wing design, flow compu ations over wing-body configurations, implicit m~thods for unsteady transonic small disturbance equations, experi- mental results of transonic flow over thick airfoils, and the develop- ment of turbulence measurements in transonic flew Basic research dealing with various aspects of turbulence include turbulence modeling including an effort to incorporate sub-grid scale models, several experimental studies to evaluate turbulence models, turbulent shear flows, compressible turbulent separated flow, and numerical and experimental turbulent free mixing, Additional activities include: S employment of vortex lattice methodology, jet-flow interactions, three- dimensional numerical simulations using vortex filaments for wake vortices, and several efforts to develop more efficient use of advanced computers in computational fluid mechanics The development of advanced experimental methods and aerodynamic facilities includes: a continuing development of the laser velocimeter as a research tool and efforts to apply it to specific test conditions, the development of concepts and tests related to a quiet wind tunnel 70-079 0 - 76 - 10 PAGENO="0144" 142 5 for boundary-layer transition measurements, an attethpt to define the minimum wind tunnel Reynlds number required for fiJi-scale flight characteristics, studies of the condensation limits in cryogenic tunnels, and work related to using test gases heavier than air to increase test Reynolds numbers Based on the Basic Research Reviews at the NASA Centers over the last five years, there appears to be a high degree of desirable continuity in much of the basic research supported by the Fluid and Flight Mechanics subprogram This continuity is, of course, required for the long-term more fundamental research The basic research carried out under this subprogram has broad application to a number of important aeronautical systems Potential applications of this research have been well defined Gi eater emphasis should be given to research on new and innovatwe instrumentation techniques for aeronautical research applications New and significant advances in experimental research are usually strongly dependent on advances in measurement and instrumentation capability. Furthermore, these advances in instrumentation are most often achieved through a long-term dedicated effort It is therefore suggnsted that perhaps separ~t~ and sigmfic~nt support be given to long-term innovative research for instrumentation techniques for aeronautical applications - As a second recommendation the work dealing with the develop ment of turbulence models and the experimental testing of the proposed models should continue to receive strong support Research dealing with a more basic understanding of the coherent structure of turbulenc along with detailed measurements should also receive strong support in order to better guide the construction of turbulence models for more general applications. Materials Research ~p~ce and Nu (32 papers) The need for new and improved materials for future space missions requires that NASA maintain a viable program in materials research Not only must a proper level of funding and manpower for inhouse research be allocated but the program should be broad enough in scope to address a variety of problems. These include the develop- ment of materials which are more efficient, lighter, stronger, less corrosive, and radiation hardened, to mention a few PAGENO="0145" 143 6 In support of an increased emphasis on atmospheric research, the Council found significant contributions from the Centers. Chemi- luminescence is being studied as a means of detecting atmospheric pollution. The stability of chemical species of NO3 and Cl are being investigated in relation to pollution and ozone depletion. The size distribution of man made space debris is being studied to determine hazards to spacecraft confined to long residence times in geocentric orbits, Theoretical studies of the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter show how the weight of spacecraft can be minimized by a reduction in radiation shielding weight Advanced techniques of physics and chemistry are being employed to solve the problems of hot corrosion Related problems of producing stronger composite materials are being attacked, The lubrication of titanium surfaces by ion bombardment was a noteworthy achievement The Council was pleased to note the combination of solid state research and materials engineering to solve some practical problems, Bias- tomers for binding propellants are continuing to be investigated in order to better predict the performance under load, An Interdiscip- linary Laboratory (IDL) study at three universities provides comple- mentary expertise in metals, composites and ceramics Programs designed to produce more efficient solar cells for future missions are being conducted at two Centers The goal of obtaining a 2O9~ efficiency in GaAs solar cells is a worthwhile objective. University sponsored research in this area is proceeding at a productive level The widespread use of state-of the-art surface analysis tech- niques at a number of Centers attests to the importance of surface properties, especially for small electronic components, In order to provide reliable, radiation hardened electronic parts for future deep space probes, an effort has been undertaken to provide the technological base for producing the desired end items Because electronics will be a key ingredient of spacecraft of the 1980's, the Council is of the opinion that electronics related materials research should be increased The development of new materials, such as high temperature superconductors and Josephsen Tunction Infrared Detectors involves a unique theoretical and experimental effort The results are promising in the search to obtain room temperature superconductors PAGENO="0146" 7 Such materials should result in lighter space vehicles, because of a reduction in power and cryogenic equipment. Here again is shown an excellent combination of inhouse research and unh~erthity participation through grants The overall space and nuclear materials programs at the research centers is conducted in a timely and efficient manner There is an awareness at each Center of the pertinent work conducted outside NASA as well as at other NASA Centers. No evidence was found of duplication of effort of specific research but rather a healthy intera( tion among Centers The Centers are making effective use of the NASA grant program with univei sities for both theoretical and experimental support Continued support of this basic research is required to develop the full potential for earth and space exploita~q~. Aeronautick~(ld papers) The basic research on aeronautical materials, conducted at ARC, LaRC and LeRC, includes work in metals (including alloys), polym rs, adhesives, and composites The emphasis in each area is to obtain an understanding of the underlying physical or chemical phenomena which are responsible for fracture and embrittlement of metals, thermal degradation, and fire resistance of polymers, and such characteristics as void formation and low permeability of adhesives Hydrogen embrittlement studies have established that the rate controlling process is due to a precursor state of molecular hydrogen. An analysis of the coating process for protectively coating alloys has yielded some prediction techniques for surface composition determin- ation The chemical nature of cracks in superalloys has been deter- mined Polymer research in aircraft safety is aimed at developing an understanding of the production of non-toxic and fire resistant intenor aircraft coatings, and window materials The chemical structure of cured polymers is studied in order to develop materials whose fire resistance does not thermally degrade Laboratory evaluations are conducted to screen dry chemical fire extinguishers Adhesives for binding polymers are also being studied to under- stand the prediction of polymerization reactions, the chemistry of low 144 PAGENO="0147" 145 8 permeability, and void formations. Chemical reactions are being investigated to crosslink polymer adhesives for high temperature use. Reduction in permeability reduces the aging properties of adhesives which are exposed to a corrosive environment, Molecular structures are investigated to determine the effects on permeability, Fundamental understanding of void fqrmations is being pursued in order to develop high temperature resins Based on their high strength, the utilization of composites in aerospace structures is accelerating. Research in this area addresses such topics as toughening of brittle composites and identifying fatigue mechanisms. Whereas progress has been made in understandin~g composite behavior, the Council recommends an increased emphasis in this area in view of the potential advantages for weight and fuel savi~gn. Structures (8 papers) The Council was pleased with the work reported in this area It appears that there is strong support for basic and applied research in this important area, an emphasis which has been strongly recom- mended by the Council in the past. There is a continuing need for the structural exploitation of new materials, such as composites, and high temperature metals that require operation at temperature extremes and in outer space. In order to accomplish these goals, continued work will be required in structural analysis and automated methods for structural designs, This work must take into account the effects of environmental loading, such as structural response to the temper- atures and loads of flight, The aeroelastic effects and unsteady aero- dynamics must be considered in order to yield design methods that can take advantage of advances in active control systems for the control of loads and structural response Although the work reported was of excellent quality the Council believes that the effort is insufficient to meet the challenges and the needs for aeronautics and space programs that can be expected to develop in the1980's, PAGENO="0148" 146 9 High Speed Vehicle Aerodynamics and Flight I~ynamics (18 papers) The high speed vehicle aerodynamics basic research program seeks to improve the efficiency of aircraft for high subsonic and hypersonic speed flight The effort at Ames Research Center is applied to the oblique winged aircraft, whereas the major effort of the program at Langley is concerned with hypersonic speed flight and with a broad range of technology problems that underlay the definition of the overall vehicle configuration, the details of the propulsion system and its integration into the overall configuration, and the structural design in the presence of aerodynamic heating Studies of the influence of varying an essentially elliptical plan- form on the transonic drag rise performance of an oblique wing indicated no significant improvement as the straight chord of the wing was moved successively from the quarter chord to the half and the three-quarter chord position The variation of the rolling moment with lift is much more sensitive to position of the straight chord of the wing than the drag characteristics~ Langley has been studying the effects of varying twist and camber of wings with supercritical airfoil section to reduce the drag over the range of the angle of attack A wing of fixed geometry has been produced which at M=O 6 achieves the design goal but is less effective at M=O 9 A second wing of variable geometry achieved by four moveable surfaces at the leading and at the trailing edge indicated similar trends for induced drag reduction Wind tunnel tests in the Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel have produced significant results that indicate that compliant walls can reduce the friction drag as much as 61 percent Effort is being concentrated on finding appropriate materials and combinations of them to place surface natural frequencies near the fundamental turbulent burst frequency, which condition is believed to be the critical state for drag reduction, and on increasing the understanding of the flow mechanism responsible for the drag reduction Studies of drag reduction by slot injection into the boundary layer are also underway to try to utilize the potential of a 50 percent reduction in skin friction Efforts are being made to optimize slot geometry and to reduce mixing of the turbulent s'ot flow and the turbulent stream boundary layer PAGENO="0149" 147 10 Theoretical and experimental studies are being made of the face pressures and drag on for~yard facing steps in a supersonic boundary layer The theoretical wo k indicates that when appropriate empirical corrections are applied there is satisfactory prediction of the drag and of the pressure distribution for a wide range of the ratio of step height to boundary layer thickness An experimental study of the interaction of shocks and supersonic boundary layers at M = 6 and for a range of Reynolds number, based on length, has been made in the Langlej Mach 6 High Reynolds Number Facility from RN = 5 x 106 to 440 x lOU The data indicate a simple power law correlation between the ratios of the pressure and the heating rate in the flow with shock interaction to their respective values in the undisturbed flow At Langley a broadly based program is being executed to provide the basis for the design of hypersonic cruise aircraft A computer program is under development to calculate the steady supersonic inviscid flows about realistic configurations, The program includes the capability of incorporating forebody inlet interaction, inlet spillage, nacelle external drag and airframe-external cowl-nozzle interactions The program will be sufficiently general to apply to any hypersonic cruise vehicle, but is now being focused on the design of the X-24C which would be capable of scramjet engine research and advanced structural development Computer programs have been developed to analyze the transient heating of aerodynamic surface and leading edges with active cooling. Additional analytical capability to compute inviscid supersonic inlet flows of two-dimensional and axisymmetric ducts are now available as well as the capability to calculate. the three-dimensional hydrogen/ air equilibrium flow in a nozzle from combustor exit to the exit plane of the nozzle, Experimental techniques are being explored to obtain the capability of simulating scramjet exhaust fields in order to obtain creditable data on complete hypersonic vehicles and to design and optimize afterbody surfaces which act as high expansion ratio nozzles Appropriate binary mixtures of Freon and Argon have been found which adequately simulate hydrogen/air combustion products Analyses are available to select the proper mixtures of simulant gases when the geometrical and nozzle exit Mach number selections are satisfied Additional analytical tools are available to aid in nozzle design and to extend test results to cover the entire range of exit Mach numbers PAGENO="0150" 148 11 The technique of obtaining heat-transfer data from phase-change coating data has been extended beyond the simple one-dimensional analyses to more complex configurations These include those parts of wind tunnel models for which lateral conduction is present and which have finite thickness with heating from both sides The Langley program in hypersonics is the only active program now underway in the country It is focused on a potential research vehicle and is addressing itself not only to the basic technical. problems that contribute to effective design, but also to those experimental tools required to explore and validate the theoretical understanding of the aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural problems of this flight speed It should be supported Propulsion Components (14 papers) The basic research on propulsion components that was reported to the Council included work on inlets, fuel atomization, diffusers and boat tail drag Also reported were investigations on film cooling, lubricatior and various measurement techniques A statistical analysis technique for precjicting maximum instan- taneous inlet distortion was described which shows excellent promise of being a useful quasi-analytical tool which will provide substantial reduction in instrumentation requirementu in inlet test programs Steady state data from a 4 probe rake was utilized in this technique to predict within 109b the maximum distortional levels obtained with a 40 probe rake. Two analytic papers dealt with efforts to advance computational fluid dynamics techniques for supersonic inlets at angles of attack Good progress is being made in incorporating viscous-inviscid inter- actions and angle of attack effects A well conceived experimental and analytical effort was reported on subsonic diffuser design The work is aimed at finding short diffuser designs that will exhibit total pressure recovery as good as conventional longer diffusers which, in turn, will provide a substantial diffuser weight savings A removable, variable geometry centerbody is PAGENO="0151" 149 12 employed in the experimental apparatus 1~xperiments thus fa~ snow that a 50 percent reduction ir diffuser length aid riot cau~e ~ iy sigmficant reduction in diffuser performance Unburned fuel droplets and vapor in engine exhaust gases contribute to wested energy and atmospheric pollution Work was reported on a new laser light scattering instrnment to determine mean drop size which is yielding excellent results Also, a new air-atomizing fuel nozzie has been tested which appears to reduce combustion mefficiency by a factor of two ovei~ conventional nozzles in component tests. Several papers on various aspects of the problem of boattail drag were presented which, when examined in total~ appeared rather in co'ic]usive These papers included the exam nation of the effects of bou~'dary layer characteristics, the effects of Reynolds number and so forth Wind tunnel results do not appear to agree with flight tests results and, although this is a very difficult problem, sensitive in ~nany ways to the aircraft configuration influences as well, no strong progres~ was evident Progress in this area m~y be enhanQed~yg closer coordination of effort among the CAST Centers involved and CAST Headquarters Outstanding among the papers on various measurement systems was the high speed infrared pyrometry system for measuring turbine blade temperatures during engine operation The instrument employs a fiber optic nonintrusive probe with 80 fibers aligned and focused on the blade in a radial direction Each fiber has an image diameter of 0. 0~ cm at the blade. Output is computerized and displayed at a terminal for nearly real time study or recording. In summary, the propulsion components research is addressing a wide variety of fundamental problems through both analytical and experimental techniques. Substantial progress was evident in most of the areas reported, Stability and Controls (10 papers) Recent advances in digital computers I-~ave led to better under- standing of flight mechanics and control systems fpr aerospace vehicles. This has allowed designers to incorporate and study the interactions PAGENO="0152" 150 13 between aerodynamics, atmospheric disturbances~ rigid body dynamics, vehicle elasticity, pilot dynamics, automated dystems, and digital flight control systems, Though the research programs in control throughout NASA are limited, the activities deal with various elements on theory of digital flight controls, flight management research, space vehicle control concepts, control designs for flexible aircraft and landing and terminal area guidance and navigation systems. In general, the research programs throughout the NASA Centers appear to be well coordinated and balanced with the proper blend of theoretical development and flight testing. Although much of the work covers a broad field of control, there are several research projects underway that are worthy of special mention; one deals with developing flight control and guidance systems that are aimed at improving flight efficienc~i th~ough the use of advanced guidance and air traffic control. This work is needed to help reduce congestions and delays in terminal areas as well as efficient control to desired flight paths anywhere in the flight trajectory. Another area of study is the application of modern control theory to the propulsion system. Work in this area is very important for aircraft where propulsion system interactions are pronounced such as for power lift, supersonic cruise vehicles, and aircraft with vectored thrust. Work on advanced control laws and redundancy management is judged to be a logical and systematic approach to important problem areas for application to advanced vehicles including the Shuttle Orbiter. Work on low sample rate digital control systems to relieve computer time requirements should prove to be very valuable and appears to be well coordinated with theoretical work being conducted throughout NASA. The Council believes that progress in this category has been excellent and urges_that a strong basic re~earch program including continued complementary research in universities be maintained in this important area. It is important that actual experience gained in the NASA programs, which identifies praciical problems, feeds back into the university programs to strengthen th~s important work. Propulsion Environmental Impact Minimization (28 papers) Both the CAST Research Council and the RTAC Panel on Research have offered strong encouragement in the past for a NASA program on PAGENO="0153" 151 14 noise rE~search Among the CAST research programs it is apparent that a strong effort is emerging in this field ad evidenced by the designation of a Lead Center and by the presentations thade to the Council The subprogram includes (1) sources of noise-especially engine noise-and the basic mcchanisms involved in its production, (2) the reduction or elimination of the noise, and (3) combustor pollutants A strong and diversified University program in this field was apparent In addition, a fair sampling of the results from these grants and contracts were presented by a number of the investigators and this mode of research has been most fruitful Although the major research emphasis is on understanding propulsion noise and its reduction, important ancillary studies are also being pursued, such as, the study of acoustic propagation in the non-homogenous medium of the atmosphere and the effect of meteoro- logical conditions on aircraft noise measurements One problem area that does not seem to be receiving adegnate attention is that of ground distortion effects on static tests of fans and the Council has suggested that concepts for alleviating this problem be studied These concepts might include modified test techniques or development of new facilities Flight testing of new acoustic components early in their development should be an important part of the overall noise research The environmental impact of combustor pollutants is being addressed on several fron~g~, A unique j~ortion of this program is the Global Air Sampling System (GASP) Although subject to some serious c onstraints, e g sampling altitudes, a data base is being developed which can be used to determine changes in the amounts of atmospheric pollutants including those from combustors, The Council believes that this program will be invaluable in helping to resolve the present controversy concerning atmospheric pollutants The relation of such measurements to the study of combustor pollutant production needs no comment Reduction of combustor pollutant production by using lean mixtures is being investigated, for example, by adding hydrogen to the system In view of the national problem in this area the Council recommends continued strong support of the program, especially in view of the combustor expertise available at Lewis PAGENO="0154" 152 lb Chemical Propulsion (13 papers) Chemical propulsion remains tI~ main method of propulsion for earth to orbit and deep space operations of the future. It is therefore fitting that there exist within CAST a strong program dealing with chemical propulsion research problems. Most of the information reported was in one of the following three categories: combustion processes and phenomena in what can be termed as conventional rocket motors, unconventional chemical propulsion systems, and the environmental impact of space shuttle booster rockets. The mapping of the spatial distribution of combustion products in an N2H4/N204 engine as function of fuel-oxidizer ratio was described. The insights being gained in this work should increase our ability to produce complete and stable reactions at high temperatures and to contain these reactions in materials at temperatures thousands of degrees lower than those of the reaction. The work should impact future designs of liquid propellant rocket chambers, internal combustion chambers, turbojet engines and commercial power plants. Work specifically related to the understanding of combustion instability was also presented. The main thrust of that effort is aimed at developing the ability to measure the coupling between the combustion process and acoustic oscillations. Lack of this ability is, at this time, felt to be the key obstacle to solution of the instability problem. A knowledge of the fluid dynamics of liquid jets in zero gravity is required for a variety of problems associated with fluid flow within propellant tanks in space. Theoretical and experimental work aimed at understanding of the zero g liquid jet impact process occurring when liquid impinges upon baffles or tank walls is a good start towards solutions of those problems. Problems related to solid propellant combustion are also being investigated. Excellent work on low frequency instabilities, salt quench for stop-restart, and igniter development was reported. A concept which may enable operations in planetary atmospheres is the one of detonation propulsion. At high background pressures the specific impulse is much higher than that obtainable by chemical means. A factor of at least five has been experimentally measured at pressures in th? order of 100 bar, The good progress being made in the experi-~ mental and theoretical study of detonation propulsion could lead to viable alternative propulsion systems. PAGENO="0155" 153 16 The concept of a metastable H-H2 rocket is being pursued through a fundamental investigation of atomic H in an H2 matrix near 0. lK, Solid rocket motor boosters for the space shuttle are expected to generate exhaust clouds containing aluniina particles and HC1 gas Good work is in progress evaluating the environmental impact of those chemicals The question as to whether the ahunina particles would serve as.a catalyst for significant destruction of ozone has been answered The effect of alumina on ozone decomposition can be neglected. However, alumina seems to have a high catalysis for hydroxyl destruction. The absorption of the HC1 on the alumina particles is under study as is the mechanisms of transfer of the HC1 to the ground by rainfall. Work that is associated with space safety research includes studies of how fire spreads and how it can be extinguished in a zero g environment Results should be invaluable for the shuttle The same is true for studies of material ignition in oxygen and oxygen rich atmospheres which will establish ignition thresholds and safety margins High Power Lasers and Energetics (29 papers) The fundamental research supported by CAST in this subprogram falls into four broad categories: plasma research, magnetics and cryophysics, high energy lasers and remote sensing. Plasma research includes investigations of both the basic physics of plasma generation and the relative technical and economic feasibility of alternate generating systems Better understanding of X-ray emission and electron dynamics in the plasma focus phenomenon are important not only to energy generation by thermonuclear fusion but also to astro- physical studies of solar flares The problems of achieving fusion conditions in plasmas are being addressed by studies in four areas hypocycloidal pinch, a superconducting magnetic mirror, improved electrode design, and modified Penning ion discharge Design and construction techniques for reliable long-life generator components in both nuclear and fossil-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) applications are also being investigated. Finally, the potential.of H2-02 combustion driven MHD generators is being evaluated for applications in relatively small, mobile power sources where high specific energy content is desirable The Research Council is very favorably impressed with the qual~ofthe~plasma research pro~rarn and the im~ortant results being PAGENO="0156" 154 17 obtained The excellent experimental diagnostic tools being developed and employed are particularly noted. The Council does recommends however, that more attention be given to the understanding of sourcqp and effects of plasma impurities. The plasma research effort appears to be highly relevant not only to NASA's specific needs but also to the broader national program in MED power generation; thus continued support of these efforts is encouraged. Magnetics, cryophysics, and superconductivity research both support the work in plasmas and lasers and provide better understanding of the fundamentalC of these phenomena. Theoretical and experimental investigations are underway of the temperature - entropy pt~operties of rare-earth based ferromagnetic and paramagnetic materials for use in magnetic refrigerators, and the development under grant of new, high-temperature superconductors is being supported for use in high field magnets. In addition, the heat-transfer properties of liquid neon have been studied with applications to the design of cryogenic cooling of high field magnets. The Research Council found these research efforts to be innovative, well-planned and worthwhile, contributingj~hl~ ~p4yto NASA's programs but as well to the technical bases in their respective fields, High-energy laser research includes work in both the development and optimization of existing laser systems, and studies of the feasibility of advanced laser concepts. The primary thrust of the effort in copper chloride metal vapor and gas dynamic lasers is the definition of cooling modes, geometry and operating conditions which will promote long-lived and reliable operation with increased peak power. Because of the long- range applications of these devices to power transmission, the Research Council feels that these studies should be pursued vigorously. Research into the basic aspects of the chemical and physical interactions involved in lasing phenomena serves to broaden thq boly qf knowledge in the areas of electron scattering and molecular interactions and may provide the foundation for new laser concepts. At the same time, the results support current laser development work, The Council finds these efforts to be particularly interesting in view of the development of powerful analytical tools, such as the chemiionizatiOfl mass spectrometer, which they have fostered, The Council recommends that the electrgp scattering measurements at .IPL be extended to lower energies ("c lOe V) ~gp~ovide additional support to current work in laser and plasma physics and isotope separa~4gn. PAGENO="0157" 18 Also included in high energy laser research, f~r the purpose of this review, are studies of techniques to cohvei~t laser enercy into useful forms Fundamental knowledge of the photochemistry of water is being pursued with the aim of definirg efficient catalytic ~ystems to produce hydrogen by photolysis for energy conversion and storage Experiments are also being performed to study the surface chemistry of gallium-arsenide type MOS semiconductors, with em~ha5is on treatment processes which show promise of sigmficantly increasing the conversion efficiencies of these devices for laser and solar radia- tion The Council feels that this work has high potential in an area needing much work and was impressed by the use of advanced surface gng~ysis technioue~ Remote sensing is another area of research in which lasers are finding wide application, The high-resolution and tunability of a diode laser have been used to obtain the first high resolution spectra in portions of the 11 2 micron band of nitric acid Data obtained using this novel technique will permit the evaluation of tunable diode laser measurements of stratospheric nitric acid, To provide information required for the design of diode laser systems, techniques are being developed to efficiently determine the laser beam spatial characteristics The Council finds these research efforts to be of higI-~ quality and ma~o~ p~otentia~ impact in this technical field Applied Mathematics and Computer Sciences (7 papers) The basic research effort in this area is intended to provide a better understanding of the mathematical aspects of aerospace research and to improve the ability to model physical phenomena To accomplish these tasks requires transformation of problems into forms that are amenable to computer solutions and the development of algorithms for more accurate and efficient computer solutions, Much of the effort leading to more reliable and effective use of computer systems requires the development of special purpose languages and more effective programming and data management techniques The work reviewed by the Research Council in this category has broad application to the general field of aerospace technology. Much of the work pertains to computational fluid mechanics, Many interesting flow problems today are computationally impractical because of limitations of numerical analysis techniques, physical modeling, and computer hardware and 155 PAGENO="0158" 156 19 software~ The work reported in this category appears to be a well balanced attack to overcome these limitations~ This work is cleariy needed and the Council sees considerable progress being made althog~g~~ much additional work remains to be hation and dis semination of results are particularly encouraged in this area~ CONCLUDING REMARJ~ The Research Council found that, in general, basic research being conducted in CAST is of high quality, well coordinated, well integrated, utilizing university researchers and contractors and strongly supported by Center managemenL An analysis of the work reported, when grouped by CAST subprogram, revealed that over 65% of the work was contained in only 7 of more than 20 subprograms in the CAST R&T base~ In the Highlights section, work reported in 10 subprogram areas was summarized~ Sixteen Council recommendations were given~ These recommendations were denoted by underlining~ For additional detail on the full spectrum of CAST basic research, the reader is referred to the Basic Research Review documents that were prepared by each Research Center~ PAGENO="0159" 157 20 APPENDIX A Membership of the CAST Research Council Chairman: Mr~ Francis C~ Schwenk, Director, Research Division, CAST Members: Dr. Iohn E~ Duberg, Associate Director, Langley Research Center Mr~ Edward A~ Richley, Acting Chief Scientist, Lewis Research Center Dr~ Leonard P~ Zill, Senior Research Scientist, Ames Research Center Dr~ Eldon IL, Kordes, Director, Vehicle Dynamics end Control Division, Flight Research Center Executive Secretary: Dr, Lynwood Randolph, Staff. Member, Research Division, CAST Alternates: Dr. Wayne D, Erickson, Senior Scientist, Langley Research Center Dr, Harry D, Crr, Technical Assistant to Senior Scientist, Langley Research Center Ad hoc: Dr. George W. Lewicki, Manager for Research, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 70-079 0 - 76 - 11 PAGENO="0160" 158 Ql.JE~SPiON NO. 2 las there been any recent review of the status and level of basic research in the Office of Space Flight and the Office of Applications similar to the review conducted in OAST by the OAST Research Council? What fraction of OSF's basic research is being conducted in OAST? MISWE 1~: NASA's basic research efforts are primarily concentrated in the Office of Space Science (055) and OAST. The OSS basic research is concerned with those activities relating to the physical and life sciences and is carried out under the Physics and Astronomy, Lunar and Planetary, and Life Sciences Programs. OAST's basic research is concerned primarily with technology, that is, the discipline areas of materials, structures, propulsion, aerodynamics, etc. The Life Sciences Program of OSS, in particular, supports OSF activities (manned space flight). OAST's basic research supports all NASA program activities including OSF programs. PAGENO="0161" 159 QUESTION NO. 3: "Although there is an increase of 11% in your request for space technology, there is very little increase in R&T base funding. Is this erosion in "real" R&T base budget expected to continue or will it be corrected in the near future?" ANSWER: The R&T Base funding for FY 1977 is 2% above the FY 1976 funding. This increase is not enough to maintain the purchasing power of FY 1976 and it does concern us in that the Research and Technology Base efforts are the primary sources df our future space programs. It is hoped that funding can be increased next year to combat the inflationary impact of the past several years on the Space R&T Base. PAGENO="0162" 160 .htES'liI,)N No. 4: ~HLdoJ: Space Energy Systems Research and `Iechiiolt;gy; is the NASA/USAF ~rogram directed at under- :L~rii.uu~ the generaL p:robiem ~f spacecraft charging? Thu budget increase of $520,000 for high-voltage studies ic ouch a significant number compared to the entire SPHINX program cost that it raises questions about the need for a space experiment. Are there any plans to do a SPHINX-type experiment in space in the near future on the part of NASA or the Air Force? ANSWER: There is a joint NASA/USAF program directed at understanding the general problem of spacecraft charging. The budget increase was for the initiation of the NASA portion of this effort in FT 1976. With regard to the SPHINX A flight which was lost on the Titan/Centaur proof flight on February 11,1974, its objective was not aimed at understanding the general problem of spacecraft charging. Specifically, its objective was aimed at obtaining engineering data for use in the design of high voltage (100 volts to 16,000 volts) power systems and com- ponents (i.e., solar arrays) operating in the space environment. Initiation of development of a space experiment in this area was deferred, because of fiscal constraints, for reconsideration during the FT 1978 budget process. This type of experiment would provide a bench mark for correlation with ground tank results and opportunities will be continually souqht to conduct such a* flight experiment. PAGENO="0163" 161 QUESTION NO. 5 Can you give us a list of some technical mile- stones achieved in the thermionics programs in FY `76 and milestones set for FY `77? ANSWER: Yes. In FY 1976, the research on thermionic diodes has shown that a 2O9~ efficiency in conversion of heat to power can be achieved in a properly-designed converter, In addition, experiments have shown that materials known as inetal-hexaborides are excellent candidates for use as both the emitters and collectors in thermionic converters. For FY 1977, we plan tests of planar thermionic diodes using lanthanum- hexaboride, and we want to test a cylindric thermionic converter coupled i~ith heat pipes to demonstrate a 2O9~ overall efficiency in a practical configuration. Furthermore, the research portion of the program will seek means to increase efficiency to 25%. PAGENO="0164" 162 QUESTION NO 6 Is the SUMMA facility going to be directed at only providing data for fusion applications in space rather than any fusion reactor engineering data or diagnostic technique results for terrestrial fusion power? ANSWER The SUMNA device is used by OAST-funded research to explore the potential use of fusion energy in space Any other use of SUMMA relative to terrestrial fusion power would be supported by ERDA We are not aware of any plans for this use of SUMMA by ERDA at this time, however, it should be noted that SUMMA is limited to non~fusing plasmas due to its design and location PAGENO="0165" 163 QUESTION NO, 7 What new laser concepts is OAST exploring besides the fission fragment laser approach? ANSWER: OAST is investigating a number of new laser concepts (besides the fission fragment laser) which would apply to potential NASA uses in laser radars atmospheric probing laser ranging power transmission materials investigations basic research. The types of lasers being investigated include: tunable diode lasers high-pressure carbon-dioxide lasers metal-vapor lasers magneto-plasma-dynamic lasers high-pressure helium lasers PAGENO="0166" 164 8 Question Under G C&IS Technology, in what manner are the rapid new developments in micro-computer technology (e g Intel Inc ) being incorporated in your R&T Base planning for FY 77' 8 Answer We believe micro-computers (now primarily aimed at the industrial and automotive market) offer major cost saving potential for any space application requiring distributed processors or limited programming capacity Accordingly, we are now evaluating microprocessors (such as the Intel 8080) in future space systems (solid-state star tracker, unified data system) being developed by our technology programs In FY 77 these applications will be expanded to data processing and control functions However considerable work needs to be done to assure that these devices meet space environmental criteria (i e radiation hardening) we are addressing this through a joint NASA/DOD program to space-qualify promising commercially-developed microprocessors (including Intel 8080 Motorola M6800 Rockwell PPS8 Texas Instruments 8080 National Semiconductor Pace, Signetics 2650 etc PAGENO="0167" 165 QUESTION No. 9: Is ERDA providing reimbursement for mini- Brayton work in OAST? ANSWER: There is no reimbursement to NASA from E~DA for mini- Brayton work. A technology program on the Brayton type power conversion system for use with either isotope, reactor, or solar collector heat sources has been a continuing long range effort in NASA aimed at providing the technology for advanced power systems for NASA's potential future needs. As the AEC was in the past, ERDA is responsible for develop- ment of the nuclear heat source for such systems. In the joint NASA/ERDA isotope mini-Brayton program, which is covered by an interagency agreement, NASA is responsible for the development, testing and delivery of the Brayton system components to ERDA while ERDA is responsible for conducting a ground-based demonstration of the complete system using a simulated (i.e., electrically heated) heat source as a substitute for the isotope. Each agency is responsible for providing funds for its area of responsibility. PAGENO="0168" 166 QUESTION No. 10: Are any studies of fundamental chemical reactions (e.g., ion-molecule) being done at JPL to support the planetary atmospheric work under Entry Research and Technology? ANSWER: OAST's Entry Research and Technology program is supporting JPL scientists in their studies of the thermo- dynamics, physics, and chemistry of shock heated gases that correspond to the compositions of the atmospheres of the outer planets. This work is being supplemented by the Ames Research Center with theoretical calculations. Langley Research Center is also studying planetary gas reactions in the presence of ablative species. PAGENO="0169" .167 QUESTION NO. ~1a What have been the major accomplishments of the Low Cost Systems Office thus far? Please provide savings obtained in space systems as a direct result of Low, Cost Systems work. ANSWER A major accomplishment has been the progress mac~o in the standard equipment program. As of December 1, 1075, fiftc~n flight hardware standard components have been establishec~ for multi-mission .spacecraft use. These range from a simple pyro- technic initiator to a very complex transponder. Another accomplishment has been an evaluation with total ~ancy porti- cipation to define a multi-mission spacecraft bus for large Earth orbital missions. The Solar Maximum Mission Progra~i proposed in the FY 1977 Budget submission is the first user of the spacecraft bus, and large Earth orbital mission prooro, approved in future years will use this same multi-mission bus. The savings obtained in space systems to date has prirt~arily resulted from th~ Standard Tape Recorder. Approximately five million dollars savings has been obtained through the procurer~ of this standard component. PAGENO="0170" 168 QUESTION NO. liB: Has there been any transfer of low cost technology developed in low cost satellite programs like SPHINX to future advanced space systems? ANSWER: NASA has consistently emphasized the application of technology developed for its programs to follow-on activities in an effort to keep development costs at a minimum. However, NASA has only recently systematized this approach through the operations of the Low Cost Systems Office. The LCSO is charged with the task of standardizing components, subsystems, and possibly, entire spacecraft, to maximize the return on investment in the development of technology. This standardization program reserthles prior practices in that existing technology is reviewed for applicability to a variety of programs (with some modification involved at times), but, more significantly, the program also involves planning for standardization of technology in advance of actual development. The SPHINX flight program was one element of a long range program aimed at developing the technology for high power, high voltage systems. As indicated in the answer to question 4, SPHINX, which was lost on the Titan/Centaur proof flight, was to have provided space data for correlation with ground test results to resolve existing uncertainties in these data. A space flight is still required as well as additional effort on the ground before this technology can be applied to future space systems. PAGENO="0171" 1977 NASA AUTHORIZATION THURSDAY, JANUARY 29, 1976 U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SUBCOMMITTEE ON SPACE SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS, Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 9:30 a.m., in room 2208 of the Rayburn Building, Honorable Don Fuqua (chairman) presiding. Mr. FUQUA. The subcommittee will be in order. This morning we are continuing our second series of hearings on the fiscal year 1977 NASA. authorization. This morning we turn our attention to a very exciting program known as Spacelab, which is scheduled to be flown in various con- figurations on the Space Shuttle vehicle. The Spacelab is being developed by the European Space Agency, and we are very pleased to welcome for the first time before the sub- committee the distinguished Director of the European Space Agency, Mr. Roy Gibson, the Director, who has brought a wealth of experi- ence to that agency, having served in several key executive positions. Upon completion of Mr. Gibson's testimony, we will hear from Mr. Charles Mathews, of the NASA Office for Applications, a person very familiar to this subcommittee. Mr. Gibson, we are happy to welcome you here this morning, and you may proceed. [Prepared statement of Mr. Gibson appears in Volume 1, Part 3:] STATEMENT OP ROY GIBSON, DIRECTOR GENERAL, EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY Mr. GIBSON. Mr. Chairman, it is a privilege for me to appear before this committee to present the status of the European Spacelab program. We greatly appreciate the interest that this committee takes in this cooperative ESA/NASA program, which has a particu- larly important place in the program of the European Space Agency. This report I am about to give covers the year 1975. Before coming specifically to the Spacelab program, I should like to recall that for European space activities in general a most notable event occurred during 1975; the creation in May of that year of the European Space Agency, ESA, formed out of the two former space organizations-ESRO and ELDO. May I have the first viewgraph, please [viewgraph 1]. (169) PAGENO="0172" 170 ESA SPACELAB ORCANISATION 1 ~N~40, `~;\ ,~O ,/ j SPACELAB I N. ;i\ ~ "7 1PROGRAMME BOARD CQVNCIL I L~1I~I1~ _____ tNDUS~jT1 I C rIcE [ADMINISTRATIVE I Poucv I PROGRAMME AND FINANCE P t~ COMMITTEE I [ COMMITTEE COMMITTEE L.._.IJ~L_.._.J - - ISPC) IAFCI -~ * ERA bodios deciding in Spacel,b related matters Council Ooerall decisions and major decisions affecting also other programmes Sp.icrlih Prnqr~mm, Boerd: Programme aod budget decieions( Smeden cot represented) Science Programme Committee: Eaperiment planning in science Industrial Policy Committee contract decisions. Administrative and Finance Committee Juridical and principle fin.n~ial questions VIEWGEAPH 1 By the end of 1975 11 European countries had signed the Conven- tion, the 10 ESRO member states plus Ireland; and Norway, Austria, and Canada had been granted observer status with the Agency. I should briefly like to note that the new Convention endowed the Agency with significant, new functions, which were not those of the previous organizations, primarily designed to enable a coordLinated European space program to be developed making the maximum use of the resources of the Agency itself and of its member states. The viewgraph simply shows the Council of the organization, and the program boards by which the individual programs are controlled. ESA ORGANISATION DIRECTOR GENERAL II GIRSON PURLiCIIELGTiONS TECHNICAL INSPE~TO1 _______ ~ -i- .1 ___ I I 1~REcToR 1 GIRECTRO 1 [~ 1 1~TRECTOR 1 DIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR PLANNING SCIENTiFIc f ARIANE i ~ JCOMMUNICATIONI AOMIf4I$TRATION ESTEC ESOC PROGRAMMES PROGRAMMES PROGRAMME PROGRAMMES GEAR REETH J.D(RGHUIS [~R.FOR~~j _~A.I.EREAOj EATRENPEL(EGUR~ It RRY~J L~ OELOFFRE LUKSCH VIEwGBAPH 2 PAGENO="0173" 171 The Agency was given a new internal structure {viewgraph 2], of which one of the most important characteristics has been the intro- duction of three program directorates to manage our different kinds of development projects. One of these is the Spacelab program directorate of which the Director is Bernard Deloffre of France. He has also been made respon- sible for the program implementation during the production phase of the Spacelab program and for the coordination and integration of European Spacelab experiments. There sir, you see the three pro- gram directors at the end of the viewgraph for the communications satellite program, and next the Spacelab program, and a little bit further along, the Director for Scientific and Meteorological Programmes. I will not here repeat the basic Spacelab objectives and requirements, nor describe in full the selected design concept for you are certainly aware of these. If I may, I should prefer to use the time to point out the major events and decisions achieved during 1975 and to indicate those which we expect to achieve in the coming months. The program has advanced and matured substantially during 1975. Among the main milestones achieved was the signing of the main development contract which had been awarded the previous year, as you may recall, to the German aerospace firm VFW-Fokker/ERNO. VFW-Fokker/ERNO had established a very competent industrial consortium to handle this important task. You see there the Agency giving the main contract to ERNO, and under ERNO, the various cocontractors and subcontractors charged with various parts of the Spacelab. And I am glad to say that the negotiation of the individual contracts between the prime contractor and his cocontractors is now virtually completed. This, together with the completion of the subsystem requirements review conducted in 1975, signifies that we have well and truly left the definition and documentation phase of the develop- ment and have entered the detail design and hardware development phase. As to the status of the Spacelab development itself, I can report major progress in the management of the all-important interface with the Shuttle. That particular interface was of great concern to us as a source of uncertainty in our control of the Spscelab design. Very recently NASA, ESA, and their respective main contractors on both sides have signed an interface control document which places this interface under joint control. We are very satisfied with this achieve- ment. Agreements between NASA and ESA were also reached in the definition of ground support equipment and the command and data management system. By the end of 1975 the ESA contractor had produced most of the documentation necessary for the hardware manufacturing. The full scale soft Spacelab mockup was completed on schedule for the sub- ~ystem requirements review and the Spacelab integration building at Bremen was practically finished. This means that on the European Spacelab side, the working platform will very soon be completed [viewgraph 3]. PAGENO="0174" 172 SPACELAB INDUSTRiAL TEAM ORGAN!SATION IIIOPEAN SPACE AGEUc~1I (ESA/ESTEC) ~ CUSTOMER ~~FOKKER IERNO~~[J Ch~h~b~y 11 PRIME $~I~/~k~p CONTRACTOR _ ~ Li~i - S~~) ~ !C~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 2 o o ~ * 9 .*PE,~SIP4GOELNTIQN/ASQITIQN. COlE ~lSE VIEWORAPH 3 I have left the viewgraph on in order to refer to the complicated management system we need to have involving companies in Germany, France, United Kingdom, and several other European countries, and this represents a challenge to the agency and the prime contractor. Insuring the effective operation of a complicated management system involving companies in Germany, Italy, France, United Kingdom, and several other European countries, clearly represents a challenge both to the prime contractor and to the Agency. I am happy to say that good progress hkis been made in giving the whole cOml)leX industrial project team the motivation and the incentive to make Spacelab a real success apart from the mere procedural fulfillment of contractual obligations. The manpower buildup in industry is pro- ceeding very close to estimation and has practically reached its maximum, and the industrial companies concerned are very dedicated to the program. If one just runs his eyes along the horizontal boxes, it would not be possible to point to one that really did not rate Space- lab as a most important program for them personally. Mr. FUQUA. How many people do you have working on the program? Mr. GIBsoN. About 1,500. As a consequence of the finalization of the design definition and the establishment of the Shuttle/Spacelab interface, several design changes have been injected, all of which either improved the service to users or were of cost advantage. By way of example, a CII computer, built by a French manufacturer, of higher performance than the baseline pro- posal was selected. The concept of the remote control of subsystems was introduced so as to make better use of valuable crew time. Further, PAGENO="0175" 173 it was arranged that the orbiter will also provide the oxygen needed for the Spacelab environmental control. These and other agreed changes are all in line with the basic philosophy of Spacelab, that is, to achieve a low cost-development and operational-space research facility available to as wide a range of experimenters as possible. The changes in requirements, in particular those imposed by the Shuttle development, by Spacelab operational requirements, and by the users, produced a change traffic which became so overwhelming that schedule slippages occurred in some of the subsystems. We were, of course, concerned by this and we initiated an overall schedule re- view. This review has now been completed and it is certain that the first Spacelab flight will occur when the Shuttle becomes operational in the third quarter of 1980. The master working schedule agreed be- tween ESA and NASA during the past year remains unchanged. Forthcoming milestones in this master working schedule are the preliminary design review in 1976, an intermediate design review in 1977, the critical design and qualification review in 1978, and the ac~ ceptance reviews and deliveries of the engineering model and the flight unit in 1978 and 1979 respectively. In addition to the flight hardware, two sets of ground support equipment and of spares are on the list of deliverable items. We also plan to deliver to NASA an instrument pointing system, IPS, in time for the second Spacelab flight in late 1980 for which the intended configuration is pallet-only, and suited especially to astronomy experi- inents. There has, I am afraid, been some delay on our side in the tech- nical definition of the IPS, but we expect an early agreement with NASA on the IPS development and we have made the necessary financial provisions. Coming now to the financial situation I can report that the program is in a sound condition. Austria foiiiially joiiied the participating countries during 1975, and will provide 0.8 percent of the total Space- lab program cost. The viewgraph shows the participating member states, and the contributions they make. You can see it is a sort of hodgepodge, but it is all good money. rfhe overafl financial envelope had been updated to 396 MAU-approximately 515 M U.S. dollars- in mid-I 975 prices to account for escalation according to the estab- lished rules of ESA. This updating not only takes into account the cost-of-living increase in the various countries but also the variations of the exchange rates between the national currencies.on the one hand, and the accounting unit, which represents the official ESA monetary unit, on the other. This accounting unit is redefined for each calendar year. Our system of levying contributions from participating States is extemely complicated, particularly for those who are not obliged-on a daily basis-to deal with a dozen different and independent cur- rencies and the same number of rates of inflation, and it is deceptively easy to translate the increase from the original program cost of 308 MAU as a straight cost overrun. rfhis is not so: the program is required to remain within the newly calculated ceiling of 396 MAU and all our planning for modifications and reserves indicate that this can be expected. Current spending for the industrial work is at a rate of approximately 5 to 6 MAU-6.5 to 8 M U.S. dollars-per month. 70-079 0 - 76 - 12 PAGENO="0176" 174 I should like to add that a special and successful effort has been made to reduce our own ESA internal-and support-costs in order to increase our program reserves, which are within our ceiling. The program cost ceiling agreed by the participating countries does not include funds for the development or integration of Spacelab experiments. These will be procured and funded `separately from interested governments. The first round of discussions with our mem- ber states on this score has been encouraging, and the executive of the Agency will be coming forward with proposals shortly for the first experimental Spacelab payload, which, you will remember is foreseen as a joint NASA/ESA flight. Major progress was made in 1975 con- cerning this first flight. The experimental objectives and the con- straints imposed by the verification testing were formulated, and the NASA/ESA management structure was decided. In Europe the development and integration of the European experi- ments will come under the direction of the Director of Spacelab-M. Deloifre, and a special ESA management group for this purpose is being set up. Its location has not yet been decided, but it may well be situated alongside the German aerospace research and testing facilities near Cologne, and indeed we have put it there temporarily, while awaiting approval-expected for *the end of February-from our council. On the basis of the currently available data and user interest, ESA has established a 1980-85 mission model for Spacelab utilization, showing European participation in several flights through 1983 and full European payloads for five flights during the years 1983-85. The major European interests for Spacelab utilization presently lie in the disciplines of space processing, Earth observation, and astronomy. One further remark regarding the utilization of Spacelab. ESA's role will be as the mission planner for European payloads-whether the experiments originate from universities, or institutes, or industry, or national agencies. In this way ESA will become the focus for harmoniz- ing European ideas and proposals, while at the same time drawing on the reservoir of resources available throughout Europe for its func- tional support. In all these plans, ESA fully recognizes the role of the experimenter himself as being vital, and considerable responsibilities will be assigned to him for all phases of the mission-from experiment conception, through instrument development and payload mnibegra- tion, even to the equipment operation and data handling durmg the Spacelab flight and to postflight operations. PAGENO="0177" 17~5 With the planning for the operational phase, the terms for follow-on production and procurement of additional Spacelab units have to be more precisely defined. Here ESA will be acting as procurement agent for NASA vis-a-vis European industry. At NASA's request, we are preparing detailed cost estimates for three procurement cases. The contractors have set up cost calculation procedures and have submitted to ESA a cost proposal which is currently under evaluation and further negotiation. ESA's role in these procurements and the charging policy for ESA's involvement are to be discussed with NASA. We are convinced that in the course of the next years the Spacelab concept will evolve and grow and we plan to initiate appropriate planning in terms of extension of mission duration, autonomy from Shuttle and improved services to the user. In summary, I believe that the progress made with the Spacelab program is satisfactory and I am confident in our ability to bring the program to a successful conclusion. Perhaps I might show a few pictures of actual hardware in order to emphasize that we have now left the paper stage. rrhis is the mockup of the Spacelab, and could we pass to the next viewgraph, please (viewgraphs 4, 5, and 6 follow). VIEWORAPH 4 PAGENO="0178" 176 VI1~WGRAPH ~5 VIEWORAPH 6 PAGENO="0179" 177 Thank you. I confess that we have been very preoccupied by difficulty of freezing the Spacelab design and of achieving a more satisfactory interface control-but the closing weeks of 1975 brought very satis- factory results in these areas. Permit me, as I near the end of the presentation, to recall that during the intergovernmental negotiations which lead to Europe's under- taking the Spacelab program, my member states stressed the impor- tance of considering this joint venture not only as an end in itself but as a prelude to further joint space programs. Indeed the development of the first Spacelab is increasingly regarded as the first slice of the joint program to be followed and overlapped by the Mtilization of the Spacelab/Space Shuttle system, the follow-on production and .extension of the Spacelab capabilities. In this connection we follow with interest NASA's studies on potential space station concepts. We are extremely interested in being associated at an early stage with NASA considera- tions concerning further developments directly derived from the present Spacelab design. In conclusion, I very much want to emphasize the excellent spirit of cooperation we enjoy with NASA. It has helped us to resolve many problems and I am confident that this fine spirit will also be the key to the many more problems that we will have to resolve in the future. If such problems did not exist, the program would not be so exciting and potentially valuable. Let me assure you of our total commitment to this program; in Europe we are aware of our responsibilities and I have no reason to believe that we will not be able to acquit them to our mutual satisfaction. Thank you for your attention. Mr. FUQUA. Thank you very much, Mr. Gibson. I want to introduce for the record Doug Lord, who is setting up the NASA phase of Spacelab. We are happy to have you with us, Mr. Lord. Mr. LORD. Thank you. Mr. FUQUA. Mr. Gibson, you are, under the agreement of the European Space Agency with NASA, furnishing the first Spacelab at no cost to the United States, and it is, probably one of the most important aspects since the founding of NASA, and I am sure that multispacelabs will be used in future years. Can you give us an estimate as to the cost, and best schedules for the building of an additional spacelab? Mr. GIBSON. No, sir; we are obliged under the agreement that was signed at the Intergovernment level, and confirmed by NASA agreements to obtain for the United States an additional Spacelab at the same price that we wo~ild have to pay, or Spacelabs if we ordered them, so we are really at grips with the contractor at the moment, regarding timing, regarding costing, and it would be a little premature at this time to give figures. We are literally in the middle of negotiations. What I can say is that in the spirit of the agreement* that we have with the United States, we are trying to get as good a price as possible. We have absolutely no interest in seeing the price inflated, and we are putting just as much, perhaps even more effort, in getting a satisfactory offer from the firm, than as if we were doing so for ourselves. PAGENO="0180" 178 We very much appreciate that the price of the second arid sub- sequent Spacelabs, particularly in the early days, are really the key to utilization of Spacelabs. Mr. FUQUA. To what extent does the schedules of a building of a second Spacelab effect the cost and schedules of the first Spacelab? Mr. GIBsoN. It won't effect either the cost or the schedules, sir. I think this is one of the main reasons why we insisted very strongly that the agency be involved in the procurement of the second and third, since if the control is not in the same hands, it would be easy or tempting for a contractor to play off his two customers, and perhaps at the end of the day, neither would be really fully satisfied, but we go from the starting point of our major commitment which is in respect to the time commitment of the first Spacelab. We will hustle the second one along as quickly as we can, compatible with those undertakings. Mr. FUQUA. I gather from your statement, that both the schedule and costs are running as projected. Mr. GIBsoN. Yes, sir; we had worried frankly about the timing. We have been grappling with what looked like possible time slip- pages, but I am happy in the last few days to be able to say that we can handle it. We are all right. Mr. FUQUA. Mr. Hall, do you have any questions?. Mr. HALL. Other then to thank Mr. Gibson for his fine statement, and bid him welcome, I have no questions. Mr. FUQUA. Are you doing any work to identify the use of the shut- tle, and particularly Spacelab and space processing, and Earth observation and astronomy? You mentioned that in your testimony in going into the 1980's. Mr. GIBSON. Yes, these are the three areas in which in Europe we are most interested. Mr. FUQUA. I was particularly interested in space processing. Mr. GIBSON. Space processing seems to be at the moment at two levels of interest. One is the level of interest of university groups, who are looking at metallic research, and similar things, and the other level, which is not really showing itself yet, is the industrial interests. They are not unrelated, of course, but there are beginning to be signs that space processing is a success, and if the price of space proc- essing can be brought down, there would be more than just the simple experimental interest of the universities. Mr. FUQUA. Have you been able to organize, the integration function? You mentioned that in your statement. Mr. GIBSON. Yes, indeed, we have a group which is starting work as of now in Germany, and we are getting functional support from the German space agency, and from our own agency. We think it is sensible to put it in Germany, because a tremendous amount of work has been done in Germany, and we have the assurance of the German Government that the work which has been done in this field, will be directly made available to the agency, and through the ag~ency to the other member states, which makes it a very attractive offer. Mr. FUQUA. After the first experimental Spacelab, are you and NASA having any negotiations about future payloads and how they may vary? PAGENO="0181" 179 Mr. GIBSON. Yes, we have already started to talk to NASA flrst,~. about the general use, and access to shuttle, and composition of pay- loads, and there are specific discussions going on as to the second of these payloads. Mr. FUQUA. Well, we do thank you very much. I hope sometime later this year, that some of the members of the subcommittee may be able to visit in Europe, and have a chance to see some of the metal that you are bending; hopefully that can come about. Mr. GIBsoN. It would be a great pleasure for us. Mr. FUQUA. Thank you. We appreciate your being here. Mr. GIBSON. Thank you very much. Mr. FUQUA. Our next witness is Mr. Charles W. Mathews, Associate Administrator for Applications for NASA. We are glad to have you, and you are certainly one of the more~ valuable parts of the space application program. Do you want to introduce for the record those accompanying you or maybe speaking for the record. [Prepared statement and biographical sketch of Mr. Mathews appears in Volume I, Part 3.] 3TATEMENT OF CHARLES W. MATHEWS, NASA ASSOCIATE ADMIN- ISTRATOR FOR APPLICATIONS, ACCOMPANIED BY LEONARD JAFFE, NASA DEPUTY ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRATOR FOR APPLI- CATIONS; DR. DUDLEY G. McCONNELL, ASSISTANT ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRATOR FOR APPLICATIONS; SAMUEL H. HUBBARD, DEPUTY DIRECTOR, COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM; RUSSELL L. SCHWEICKART, DIRECTOR, USER AFFAIRS; MAR-TIN P. SEDLAZEK, DIRECTOR, RESOURCES MANAGEMENT; I. DUKE ~3TANFORD, BUDGET OFFICER, RESOURCES MANAGEMENT; WILLIAM E. STONEY, DIRECTOR, EARTH OBSERVATIONS PRO- GRAMS; DR. MORRIS TEPPER, DEPUTY DIRECTOR, EARTH OBSER- VATIONS PROGRAMS, AND DIRECTOR OF METEOROLOGY; PITT G. THOME, DEPUTY DIRECTOR, EARTH OBSERVATIONS PROGRANS; FRANCIS L. WILLIAMS, DIRECTOR, SPECIAL PROGRAMS; AND J~EROME D. ROSENBERG, DIRECTOR, TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS PROGRAM Mr. MATHEWS. Yes, Mr. Chairman, I have with me at the table Mr. Jaffe, my Deputy Associate Administrator for Applications; and Mr. Martin F. Sedlazek, Director of Resources Management. The other officials of the Office of Applications are seated behind me, and they will answer specific questions as needed. Mr. Chairman, I would like to submit my prepared statement for the record, but depart from that statement, and talk rather informally about the program while covering the same general area. Mr. FUQUA. We will make it a part of the record. Mr. MATHEWS. Thank you. I will be showing some illustrations of things that we are doing, and some of the new initiatives that we have. As you are aware, the applications program has operated, and continues to proceed at a very modest budget level. PAGENO="0182" 180 APPLICATIONS FUNDING BY PROGRAM IN MILLIONS OF DOLLARS FIGURE 1 FY 1917 The first chart, if I could have it, (figure 1) shows the funding level. There is a relatively small increase from $178.2 to $198.2 million in the level between fiscal year 1976 and fiscal year 1977. Mr. FUQtA. Where is the significant increase? Mr. MATHEWS. I will try to cover that, Mr. Chairman. Actually, that increase is a little better than compensating for inflation, but not much better. If you look at the last 3 years, you will find out that the program essentially has been a level program in constant year dollars. However, the increase was not enough to cover adjustments made in the program, so there also have been both increases and decreases in the program content. I will attempt to outline those for you now. We are aggressively pursuing the earth resources detection and monitoring discipline. As you well know, it has tremendously valuable possibilities, and in some cases actual benefits have been achieved with regard to the use of remote sensing in providing information for resources and energy management, and the determination of resources, such as extractive minerals. The increase that you see is largely related to two factors, one is involved with our applications transfer and demonstration program. This is a very deliberate attempt to involve the people that actually will use the existing capabilities in a very responsible way. Mr. FUQUA. Where is that on the pie? Mr. MATHEWS. It is in the earth resources detection and monitoring, and the amount in fiscal year 1977 is $67.3 million, as compared to $59.7 million in fiscal year 1976. Now, the user involvement is very important, because NASA will not be the ultimate user of this capability. It will be many other people. The capability is so multi-disciplined, and involves so many FY1916 TOTAL 198.2 TOTAL 118.2 NASA HO EP76-19560) 1-21-76 PAGENO="0183" 181 agencies, and other organizational elements, that a program has to be developed to transfer this capability and train the people to under- stand the technology and be able to utilize it. That is what is involved in the applications transfer and demon- stration program. The second factor is a new initiative, the thematic mapper. The thematic mapper is a considerable jump in improvement over the existing LANDSAT instrument, the multispectral scanner, I will explain some of the advantages of the TM in a moment. If you move down to the applications explorer missions, that also shows an increase. These are small payloads launched on the Scout, which is the smallest launch vehicle in the NASA stable. We have had two of these applications explorer missions approved in the past. These two programs are just getting under way. A contract has been let to the Boeing Co. for the procurement of the spacecraft bus. Now, we are proposing to initiate a third applications explorer mission this year, which is call a Magsat, a satellite for precisely mapping the magnetic field of the world. This is not only important to other Government agencies like the USGS, in terms of some of their required functions, but it can also be important for minerals and petroleum exploration. I will go into that in a little bit. If you move down to the materials processing in space, Mr. Chairman, you did ask about that during Mr. Gibson's testimony, you see an increase there. This is involved again with two aspects, one is the initiation of a program that can conduct brief tests in a weightless environment in the interim period between now and the shuttle time period. The brief duration tests are conducted on what is known as a sounding rocket, which is a rocket that goes straight up, and then falls back down. You can get about 5 to 10 minutes of weightless flight that way, and it has proved to be fairly effective. The other aspect is a definition activity associated with Shuttle payload systems. The Shuttle will be the facility that has the long- term capability, needed to conduct a space processing program. There are some other programs that have increased. However, there is really no new start significance to the increases in that they are related to previously approved initiatives that are very important programs, one of which, for example, is SEASAT. This is a program involved with ocean forecasting, that was approved 2 years ago. Another is the NIMBUS G, which is a satellite designed to monitor the atmosphere from the standpoint of the minor constituents, or contaminants in the atmosphere, particularly the stratosphere, and that program was approved some 3 years ago. Those programs are at their peak funding requirements. rphat produces the particular increase in the funding, you see and is not related to any new initiatives in that area. Now, in addition to those increases, you will see that our communi- cations effort sta.ys at the same level, as it was last year, and the same is true with the related discipline, information management. Then there are two areas where the activities have actually decreased in scope and dollar value. The weather and climate decrease is primarily related to the fact that the NIMBUS 5 and 6 satellites have completed their develop- ment. So in general, the decrease does not really relate to a change in other elements of the weather and climate program. PAGENO="0184" 182 Mr. FUQUA. It does not mean a deemphasis, does it? Mr. MATHEWS. It does not mean a deemphasis in one sense, because the satellites are producing the data as intended and the big dollars are in getting the satellites up in the first place. We have deemphasized the weather programs slightly in one respect, in that the global atmosphere research program shows a small reduction from its previous level, from about $7 million, down to about $6 million, and we have been able to- Mr. FUQUA. You understand enough about the weather so we can cut back on it. Mr. MATHEWS.FrOm my point of view, I do not feel we understand very much about the weather. I think most people would feel this way. There is considerable more work to be done, Mr. Chairman. Mr. FTJQUA. Why are we in effect changing the priority, even though you have the satellites up ther e working, we are not coming along with a new generation of spacecraft, of trying to explore phenomena, we do not understand. Mr. MATHEWS. Mr. Chairman, in a constrained program, priorities must be highlighted. We are trying to rearrange the program in such a way that the aspects involving the more mature elements, like weather forecasting, are not necessarily put in low-priority categories, but areas like Earth resources, that are new, and have high potential, haven't a higher priority. We would like to have a high priority on all of these things, because I think they are all important. Mr. WYDLER. The information you get from ERTS satellites, is that all distributed free of charge to everybody? Mr. MATHEWS. All of the imagery produced by the LANDSAT activity are placed into the public domain; and are immediately made available to each and every citizen of the world at the cost of reproduction of the image. We shortly are going to initiate activities to get some additional compensation to amortize the investment in this capability, Mr. Wydler. We are giving consideration to that in terms of the foreign ground stations and in terms of the charge made at the dissemination centers. The major dissemination center is at Sioux Falls, S. Dak., which is run by the Department of the Interior. There are two others, one in Suitland, Md., run by the Department of Commerce, and another one in Salt Lake City, run by the Department of Agriculture. Mr. WYDLER. When television shows us all of the satellite photos, they pay nothing for those, is that right? * Mr. MATHEWS. Actually, the weather satellite photos that you see were obtained from satellites that were developed by NASA, but purchased and operated by NOAA of the Department of Commerce. My understanding is that these photos are provided as a federally funded service. Mr. WYDLER. Well, I see it is not in your department, but it in- trigues me. In other words, they get these pictures down to earth, they rep:roduce them, how do they distribute them from that point, where they are on Earth, and they have a picture, to all of the news stations, who pays foi~ that? PAGENO="0185" 183 Mr. MATHEWS. They are generally distributed to NOAA weather centers that are scattered throughout the entire country, and my general understanding is that they are then made available to news services on a pickup basis at those centers. Mr. WYDLER. They come and get it. Mr. MATHEWS. That is my understanding. Mr. FUQUA. I do not want to prolong this. Did you ask for more money in this area, and it was cut by 0MB? Mr. MATHEWS. Yes; we did. Mr. FUQUA. How much additional did you ask for than the $67.3? Mr. MATHEWS. We asked for about $2 million more in the Earth resources area. Mr. FUQUA. You asked for an increase over what you got last year? Mr. MATHEWS. That is correct. Overall, the fiscal year 1977 ap- plication request is $10.5 million below our submission to 0MB. Mr. FUQUA. Was that decision made at 0MB or at NASA? Mr. MATHEWS. That decision was a negotiated decision, Mr. Chair- man, over the period of several months. Of course, one of the factors here was the general budgetary reductions that the President an- nounced, I believe in the September or October time period, and then, of course, all of the agencies and the various subelements of those agencies went through a reduction exercise. The reduction I spoke of occurred in that process. Mr. FUQUA. Go ahead, please. Mr. MATHEWS. That number of $10 million I quoted was the total number for the Office of Applications, and not for the weather and climate area. The other area we had to reduce was the Earth dynamics monitor- ing and forecasting discipline. Now, this is a more long-term-objective program, looking at the dynamics of the solid Earth; movement of the big crustal plates, and the movements along faults like the San Andreas Fault, with the idea to understand earthquake mechanisms and do something about predicting them, but there are many other desirable features of this particular program. However, we have had to cut it back again on the basis of priority. It is a program that is now aimed largely at evaluating and validating the measuring systems. These systems can measure, across a continent with a precision of centimeters. These are very accurate measurements. Our emphasis is now aimed at validating those measurement systems, but not really emphasizing the application oi those measurements. So certain programs have been reduced, like the program we had on the San Andreas Fault. We have delayed other, programs that study the motions of these faults. Those are two areas that have been somewhat compromised in terms of carrying on and expanding some of the other activities. I would now like to go into some of the new initiatives that we have, and let me talk first about the applications transfer and demonstration activities. These tend to be fairly large-scale projects, but they do vary in size, and they have as a criteria the responsible involvement of the organization who is going to use that capability. PAGENO="0186" 184 This responsible involvement has to be in the form of manpower, money, or a combination of the two, or other ways of demonstrating an intention to take over the technology of the project il successful. I will show some cases where this is actually being accomplished in several projects. The first one I want to illustrate is the biggest one, and perhaps the most interesting. It has got all of the elements previously discussed associated with it. It is a project called LACIE- large area crop inventory experiment. Mr. FUQUA. Before you get to that, I see the Director of User Affairs back there. I do not even see it on this chart. It is so small, he cannot get on there. Mr. MATHEWS. A portion of the money associated with the appli- cations of transfer and demonstration program, goes into Rusty Schweickart's activity, but I would not want you to have the im- pression, Mr. Chairman, that we in NASA really have a strong capa- bility to perform the breadth of the transfer activity that Rusty is involved in. Mr. FTJQUA. How much money is going into user activities? Mr. MATHEWS. Rusty, do you want to try to answer that question? Mr. SCHWEICKART. Many of the activities we do, Mr. Cha:irman, are actually implemented by the direct management within the other divisions of the Office of Applications, and, therefore, show up within their budgets. An example of that is the Applications Systems Verification Tests. The actual money assigned to my office per se, is relatively small. The total Office of Applications expenditure over which I have some awareness, and influence, is in the vicinity of, 14.8 million, in fiscal year 1977. Mr. FtTQtTA. But it comes from some or all of it? Mr. SCHWEICKART. That is correct. Obviously, the largest portion is in the Earth's resources area, since that is where we see the greatest immediate potential in terms of user activity. Mr. MATHEWS. The money that Rusty has more or less direct control over in terms of economic studies, market analysis, and some other programs I will go into, like the States Visits Program, is more like about $5 million. Mr. FTJQTJA. I just wanted to say I am very disappointed that you could not expand on that, because we were beginning to make real break throughs in the earthquake forecasting, in weather, and those are some areas that did have great potential, and certainly economic considerations to the people, if you can predict the weather, whether it be agriculture, construction, aircraft, whatever it might be, it would be a sound improvement for all the people. Mr. MATHEWS. Yes, I think these activities should be pursued in a stronger way. I would hope that in future years these activities would not be pursued as slowly as they have been, but would culminate in the things you are talking about, more precise and useful informa- tion to people like in the building trade and people like the farmers. Mr. F1JQUA. Thank you. Mr. MATHEWS. Continuing with these applications demonstra- tions programs like LACIE. LACIE is the Large Area Crops In- ventory Experiment, whose aim is to predict in a precise and timely fashion the wheat production of the world. PAGENO="0187" Of course, we do not start out with the world. We start out with the United States, and then move to other areas. Last year's activity was largely concerned with the Great Plains area of the United States. I would like to tell you about LACIE, (figure 2) to give you a view of how large this thing works. If we were to take very small sections of the Great Plains area, up on the top figure, you see a regular LANDSAT frame which is 100 by 100 miles, and you can see it includes the corner of Colorado, Oklahoma, and Kansas. You can also see a number of little squares, interspersed in that area, and the size of Kansas, and Colorado counties in the picture. These little squares are 5 by 6 mile sample segments, with one seg- ment enlarged as shown down here, at four different times during the year, these times are related to the growing season of winter wheat. Winter wheat is actually planted in the fall, and grows green in the fall, and then more or less goes dormant. Then it comes back in the early spring, and ripens, in this area and is harvested by the July time period. Now, what is happening here is the following: that little 5 by 6 mile sample segment is obtained from the Goddard processing system, and sent to the LACIE organization at the Johnson Space Center. A photo interpreter then attempts to take a certain number of fields something like 30 fields where this 5 by 6 mile scene might contain 300 fields, and to identify what is down there, not only the wheat, but also the things that are not wheat. FIGURE 2 PAGENO="0188" 186 Having made that identification, then he interacts with a computer, which has all the direct information and I will not go into the details of that interaction but when the interpreter has identified these fields the computer will identify all the others, and essentially classify the wheat from the nonwheat. So the interpreter only takes about a tenth of the fields that are in the scene, and then perform the same process in a few of the other segments. You can see, in the area here, we might have the photo interpreter look at this one, and this one, and the rest will be handled by the computer. We do not look at all of the wheat, but in a statistical sense, we look at the many segments, and we can make an estimate for all of the wheat in that particular area. What is involved is in- dicated on the next chart (figure 3), and you see, the photo interpreter looks at about 10 percent of the fields, that he is going to have the computer train on. Then only 20 percent of the sample segments will be needed to train in on the computer. Then only ~ percent of the CLASSIFICATION AND MENSURATION CONCEPT COMPUTER ESTIMATES TOTAL LACIE WHEAT-GROWING AREA 6,000,000 SQ MI AREA IN WHEAT (ACREAGE) * (WITHIN 8 COUNTRIES) 15,000,000 SQ KM FROM SAMPLING MODEL 2-1/2% OF THE AREA WILL BE COMPUTER EXTENDS CLASSIFICA- IDENTIFIED AS SAMPLE SEG 150 000 SQ MI lION TO ALL OTHER SEGMENTS. C c c c MENTS FOR LANDSAT DATA ~ c C c ACQUISITION (ABOUT 5,000 385,000 SQ KM DATA PROCESSING ANALYST c c c SEGMENTS, EACH 5x6 N MI) ASSURES REASONABLE RESULTS. C C~ ~ Q C C COMPUTER CLASSIFIES EACH C 20% OF THE SAMPLE SEGMENTS PIXEL OF TRAINING SEGMENT WILL BE IDENTIFIED AS 30,000 SQ MI AS WHEAT OR ANOTHER CATE- TRAINING SEGMENTS (ABOUT 77,000 SQ KM GORY. DATA PROCESSING 1,000 SEGMENTS) ANALYST ASSURES GOOD DATA QUALITY. ABOUT 10% OF THE FIELDS IN COMPUTER IS TRAINED ON EACH TRAINING SEGMENT WILL 3,000 SQ MI DATA FROM BE IDENTIFIED AS WHEAT OR 7,700 SQ KM 10000 ANOTHER CATEGORY (30 OF OF TOTAL LACIE AREA. APPROXIMATELY 300 FIELDS). FIGtnZE 3 area will actually be classified, and then extended by a sampling technique to the world. So that in dealing with a 6 mile square area of agriculture worldwide, we only have the photo interpreter dealing with about 3,000 square miles and the computer with the rest. That is the way you handle a very tremendous data gathering, by making this capability man-computer so large. That basically is the technique that is used by LACIE. As you know, LACIE is a cooperative project with the Department of Agriculture, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis- tration. They are heavily involved with their own personnel, and are putting considerable amounts of money into the activity. The activity PAGENO="0189" 1S7 last year was encouraging. We did not quite make our goals but we came very close and we know where the problem areas are. We generally understand the problem, so we are prepared to go into the second phase of, what you know, it is a three year program. This year the Department of Agriculture will be defining an opera- tional type system that they might ultimately will use. Mr. FUQtTA. Are they going to fund it? Mr. MATHEWS. Yes, they will be funding their efforts. Mr. FUQUA. LACIE II? Mr. MATHEWS. What this will amount to now, is a definition of what the system will be. Their decision to implement the system will come at a later time and will be based on next year's and the followingyear's experience. LACIE is a big project, but there are projects of other types, Mr. Chairman, that are smaller, and aimed at other types of organi- zations, and I would like next to show you a State-oriented type of project. This involves a natural resources inventory. Actually, we have activities of this type going on with two States in a fairly major way. One is Mississippi, where the customers are, the State agencies, involved with resources inventory and then the second type of activity is really in Louisiana and is run under the sponsorship of the Corps of Engineers. It is more environmentally oriented looking at what is happening to the wetland area from an environmental standpoint I will only deal now with the Mississippi case, where we are. working with State agencies, in classifying the land in Mississippi in various ways as shown in figure 4. FIGURE 4 PAGENO="0190" 188 This is a typical example of a rural land use classification, involving crops, water, forests, and so forth. This is done by a machine process, whereby the data are put into a computer, more or less directly, and come out with this kind of information. Then, the information is studied by people in the State who are interested in analyzing overall State crop production of various types: cotton, rice, soybeans, and so forth; by people who are interested in rural development and urban development, and the relation of the two, to make sure that urban growth is not overtaking good agriculture land; by other people who are interested in managing the forests resources of the State, and by other people that worry about the wildlife habitats that are available in the State of Mississippi. Each of these users one has a special computer program to classify these things they are interested in, the way they are interested in it. Then they use the information in conjunction with other data sources in the resource management process. Now, where do we stand on this right now? We have come along well in this demonstration, and the State of Mississippi is now in the process of programing their own computers with this capability so that they can take over the function. The next area I want to mention, is where another Federal agency (EPA) is entirely funding an activity, involving monitoring of Western surface mining activity. * As you know, the Western States are quite worried about the fact that with the valuable resources they have out there, people are going to ruin the environment in their extraction activities. The Environ- mental Protection Agency approached us, with the desire to use remote sensing for keeping track of what is going on out there. Figure 5 is an early example. FIGURE 5 PAGENO="0191" 1S9 The next slide, please. By overlying an area, we can classify the various things that are happening. This is the Belle Ayr mining area in Wyoming, which is a very mineral rich area. This is coal, which is pretty important these days from an energy standpoint, and which is mined generally by strip mining. You can see we have identified cultivated vegetation, natural vegetation, the ares where the Earth is bare from stripping operations, and where the coal seam is. It also identified a spoil pile and areas where the mining company has piled the top soil. This can be replaced to recover the land after the operation is done. So we not only can monitor what is going on in terms of the mining activity, we can monitor the recovery operation, and see the area being revegetated. We cansee if the whole operation has been accomplished properly. The information is essentially ob- tained from a computer process and does not have a whole lot of human involvement in the classification process. The human only has to know and analyze the thematic signatures on the image to determine whether the operation is occurring properly. As I mentioned, this project is being funded in its entirety by the Environmental Protection Agency. Now, another area which is of considerable interest, involves water. The next chart (figure 6) shows some activity that we are doing in this area. This is watershed in the Wind River Basin area, specifi- cally the Dinwoody Creek, which becomes a torrent at certain times of the year. Down below is the reservoir, which people have to manage to hold the water when they want it, and to prevent flooding. FIGURE 6 70-079 0 - 76 - 13 PAGENO="0192" 1~o Now, the outline there is the outline of that watershed. By actually measuring and areal extent of the snow cover, in those mountains, which has been done for 3 years in a row, the total seasonal flow of water can be estimated. For the 3~year comparison of snow cover in the May time period, we estimate 68.8 million cubic meters, 81.2 million cubic meters, and 98.8 million cubic meters, respectively. It corelates with the other measurements, and using other techniques, we can determine what the maximum daily water flow is. This year, the eastern slopes of the Rockies have a heavy snow cover, and the Corps of Engineers are worried about flooding conditions down the Mississippi during' the spring and summer, and we are very concerned about that. We have another project that measures the ice in the Great Lakes, and this data is communicated directly to the ships. We have about 20 ships with receiving equipment. They use it to determine where to go to avoid thick ice situations, and to keep, their transportation lanes open as late in the season as possible. This project has proved very effective during the past 2 years. This year should be a good test, because it has been a relatively cold winter m the east. This year, NASA is only in a consultant capacity. The Coast Guard has taken over the operation, almost in its entirety, and will pursue it from here on out. So these are some examples of our ongoing demonstration programs. Mr. Chairman, I might mention also, we are considering many new demonstration programs of this type that may involve for example, work on water management, and work in strip mining monitoring and reclamation in the eastern United States. In addition, I do want to illustrate a Census Bureau project. The Census Bureau wanted to come and talk to the full committee about it, but there just was not time to schedule it. However, let me give you a feel of what it is. Figure 7 shows an area that might be familiar to anybody that has been up around the Capital Center in the Washington, D.C. suburbs. PAGENO="0193" 191 The area is Largo, Md., located in Prince Georges County, where, there has been a tremendous urban build up. Still, the area has cropland, and pasture, and forested areas. The main residential areas around Largo have just expanded tremendously in the 2-year period, between 1971 and 1973. Now, the Census Bureau takes a census only once every 10 years. This information is used in taxation and many other things affecting an area like this, such as Federal programs, which depend on current population patterns. So the Bureau is interested in finding some easier way of updating their information. Figure 8 gives an illustration of what might be done. Areas like Prince Georges are generally divided into a series of census tracts. These are very odd shaped things, because they happen to be parcels of land. They might have been a farm for instance, wheat just happens to now retain the old farm boundaries as a census tract, even though it is now an urban area. FIGuRE 7 PAGENO="0194" 192 COMPARISON OF 1913 LANDSAT AND CONVENTIONAL URBANIZED AREA BOUNDARY ~ LANDSAT AND CENSUS BUREAU AGREED UPON URBAN AREA AREA OF DISAGREEMENT REQUIRING FURTHER RESEARCH 163 LANDSAT-DERIVED POPULATION DENSITY, PEOPLE PER SQUARE MILE CENSUS BUREAU-DEFINED URBAN AREA BOUNDARY CENSUS TRACT BOUNDARY -- - - BLOCK PARCEL BOUNDARY These boundaries might be delineated by streets, or water, but it is a very varied set of areas that you deal with. As these tracts shift from rural areas into urban areas, obviously things are happening to the population in them, and the Census Bureau has a hard time keeping track of what is going on in them. It is a very expensive proposition to send people out there. If you take those land use classifications, and just overlay them across these urban area tracts, then you can say part of that tract is classified rural, part is single family dwelling, part is industrial. In each case, they make an estimate based on experience. For instance, if it is an area of single family dwellings, they assign about 1,000 people per square mile, and thus can estimate the population. Now, in the solid color area, the Landsat data checks out reasonably well. In the cross hatch area there is a discrepancy. The Census Bureau will send people in on the ground to see what the problem is, and up- date their information. They plan to use this capability in a pilot project in the Austm, Tex., region. This project is a typical example of the new things we are getting into. I would now like to turn from the user area to the area of new devel- opments. I mentioned we are planning to develop a new instrument that would improve our capability over the existing Landsat system. The Landsat capability is not, just like everything else, the last word. We need to take important new steps. The next important new step is the Thematic Mapper which is a multispectral scanner with certain very important improved perform- ance features. Fiaui~ 8 NASA HO E6761617 (1) (5.,. 1)11-14-76 PAGENO="0195" 1.3 Typically, the Thematic Mapper will be able to make images with a resolution, two or three times greater than is available with the Lansat Multispectral Scanner. The smallest thing that can be seen with the Multispectral Scanner is about an acre, and the smallest thing that the Thematic Mapper will be able to see is about a fifth of an acre. To classify what is down there, you have to have a number of these little units of resolution aggregated together. So basically the thematic mapper probably can determine what is down there, if it is corn, or wheat, if the field area is about 5 acres whereas the multispectral scan- ner can do so only if it is about a 25-acre field. Figure 9 shows the importance of that difference because of the distribution of field sizes in the world. In terms of percentages of fields involved, the MSS can only discriminate about half of the field sites. WORLDWIDE ESTIMATED FIELD SIZE DISTRIBUTION Now, in a way, that sounds bad; however in another way it is not so bad. It can do a pretty good job an anything that is grown in large fields like wheat. But if you want to go to rice, you cannot do too much because rice paddies are small. However, the thematic mapper will see about 80 percent of the world's fields, and it works out that it can process most of the fields that produce food involved in world trade. This is a primary reason why we want the thematic mapper. We also need to be able to classify more precisely, and indeed that can be done by providing more color bands. The LANDSAT MSS system senses in four color bands. The the- matic mapper, senses in six color bands. 100 80 MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER (SEES 50%) ~4) ~ 60 "a `U CD `U C., "a a- 20 THEMATIC MAPPER 0 2,500 25 FIELD SIZE IN ACRES FzGu~ 9 NASA NO ER76-2027 (1) PAGENO="0196" 194 REFLECTANCE FROM VEGETATION I I I I I I ` .~ -~-~-- I I i t___~_ 1 1.5 2 WAVELENGTH IN MICROMETERS NASA HO 511761575 (1) 122375 Fiau~ 10 I do not want to get into detail here, but the color bands are repre- sented by the bars in figure 10. Some of these, you cannot see with the human eye, but we will call them colors anyway. What we are measur- ing is the intensity of the reflection off a surface. If it is wheat or an- other crop, the intensity of the reflection in these color bands varies as you can see by the various curves. The idea is to select bands that would most appropriately determine that variation, and differentiate it from some other crop, like soybeans or corn. Now, the wavelength is about eight-tenths of a micrometer is very important to sensing vegetation. The LANDSAT does have the eight-tenths of a micrometer, as well as the 3 bands below it, but it does not have that one out at 1% micro- meters which is sensitive to the water content in leaves and thus helps determine whether a crop is stressed or whether it is growing p]roperly. In addition to that band, the thematic mapper will have a heat sensor, which is in a band way off the scale of figure 10. Looking at the left of figure 10, the first band goes lower on the spectrum than LANDSAT does. The feature of that is that it can penetrate water better, which has obvious advantages. Now, of course, these instruments are measuring the brightness level: how much reflectance. The thematic mapper will have a more accurate way of measuring the brightness, about four times as accurate. The preliminary designs for this instrument have been completed by three different companies, and this spring we will be issuing a request for a proposal to develop this instrument. I I I I 70 60 50 LU C.) ~4o 10 0 TYPICAL REFLECTANCE CURVES FOR * WHEAT SOYBEANS CORN - - - I I. 0.5 I PAGENO="0197" 195 Obviously, this instrument will be very good in detecting smaller agriculture fields; for improving our urban land use activities which involves looking at smaller elements. It will be very good for precisely mapping flooding, and many other additional uses in addition to the capabilities of LANDSAT. Now, let me cover one other instrument. This will be a shuttle- based instrument. If you remember, Mr. Chairman, back in the fall I mentioned we had made measurements of hydrogen chloride, which is a real worry in the stratosphere, These worries are largely associated with possible ozone depletion through freon release. But in addition to freon, anything that involves the chlorine in the stratosphere can af- fect ozone. Chlorine tends to absorb the ozone in a catalytic fashion, and the ozone is our shield against the harmful ultraviolet radiation reach- ing the surface of the earth. However, the chlorine element compounds have been very hard to measure. The first time we actually made a stratospheric hydrogen chloride measurement actually it was with a 15-2 aircraft flying an instrument called a high speed interferometer (HSI). This is a big cumbersome instrument, and is not the kind of instru- ment we necessarily would fly on a satellite, or even fly in space. We intend, however, to put this type of instrument into a practical space configuration. The instrument is to be known as the Mark II (HSI). It is still a big instrument, so it will fly on a shuttle as shown in figure 11. This instrument is capable of measuring almost any type of constituent in the atmosphere. FIGURE 11 PAGENO="0198" 196 It would not be used for normal routine monitoring, but rather, to determine what is there in the atmosphere and then determine what should be monitored routinely from a satellite. Then we can develop an instrument to go out and monitor that particular constituent. The Mark II HSI can make measurements of all of the things you heard about: Carbon monoxide, the chlorine compounds, hydrogen, and so forth, either by looking straight down, or by looking at the horizon of the Earth. It would be put into Mr. Gibson's Spacelab, and deployed out of an airlock (figure 11). Because the instrument can gather so much data, the operator on board would monitor its output to determine what data he should be relaying to the ground. In other words, not all of the data would be critical and needed. He would perform an editing and management function aboard the Spacelab in this particular case. Then when we determine what elements in the stratosphere are critical to us, we would then design a satellite with special purpose instruments to monitor that element. The satellite would provide continuous monitor- ing. So this is one of our new initiatives this year. Let me go on to Magsat. People have been measuring the magnetic field of the Earth for some time. Perhaps you will remember, when Professor Scharon talked about mineral exploration, he said the LANDSAT information was the greatest improvement since World War II when people first thought of monitoring the magnetic field from aircraft. But there are some advantages to monitoring the magnetic field from space. In the first place, our friends over in the U.S. Geological Survey have a requirement to provide magnetic field data for wor]Ldwide maps every 10 years, and to have maps for navigational purposes updated every 5 years. Those maps have not been as precise as the USGS would like, but from a navigational standpoint, and perhaps from another viewpoint the magnetic field measurements from space might be even more important. This is a worldwide magnetic field map which shows how the local field differs from the main field. The color codes indicate the magnitude of these differences. In general the local field is relatively uniform, but in certain spots you can see that the magnetic properties of the Earth change very sharply, and in many cases, this is in remote areas, and in the oceans. Now I want to talk about some local fields we see in central Africa. Let us turn to figure 12. PAGENO="0199" 197 was re, nobo addition it c ~ravity ano:" P9 we found that there was look at it in the overall the l-~ ous explana bed to mi~ FIGuRE 13 PAGENO="0200" 198 Other people think it is more related to the fact that there are tec- tonic plates that intersect right at that point. It is a very interesting feature that has now excited much interest among many people, and they are going out to see what is there. Mr. DowNING. Is the gravity stronger than in other places? Mr. MATHEWS. This is a gravitational depression. The gravity field is weaker at that particular point,, and the. magnetic field is weaker at that particular point. However there are other cases where there are things that are just the opposite. We have had inquiries from many of the mining and petroleum exploration companies, and other people having an interest in getting good accurate maps from the Magsat satellite. About 1,50)0 have expressed an interest. When I say we, I mean the U.S. Geological Service, and not NASA. FIGuRE 14 Now, to get precise maps, it takes a certain amount of doing. The next chart shows the satellite (figure 14). You can see iibs main feature is a big boom. The instruments are `mounted way out at the end of that boom. They consist of very precise magnetometers, one that will measure the strength of the magnetic field, and the other will measure the direction of the magnetic field. We have to get them away from the satellite, because the magnetometers are so sensitive that electrical current in the satellite will affect their readings, hence the big boom. However, we have to worry about where the boom is looking, because it is flexible. So there has to be a very good optical system to PAGENO="0201" 199 determine very precisely the attitude of the sensors, relative to the space craft. This is the way Magsat will make very precise measure- ments on a global scale of the Earth's magnetic field. Mr. Chairman, these three developments, the Thematic Mapper, the High Speed Inferometer, and the Magnetic Field Satellite, are the ones we are proposing to initiate in fiscal year 1977. Mr. FUQUA. Why do you have it in a slightly elliptical orbit? Does that affect your measuring? Mr. MATHEWS. Yes. We are interested in getting the satellite, looking as low as possible. This requires an elliptical orbit. The 6 months lifetime is what you need to have repetitive informa~. tion, because external disturbances like solar flares, affect the magnetic field, and you do not want to be confused by the solar flares. Mr. FUQUA. Within a 6-month time period, do you get a cross scan of the entire Earth? Mr. MATHEWS. Yes; several times, so you can eliminate these external effects. I might mention the Earth's magnetic field is continually changing. Over a 10-year time period, I think it changes 7 percent, which is very significant in terms of exploration or navigation. Mr. DOWNING. Does this affect compass bearings? Mr. MATHEWS. Yes, it does. The maps that the USGS is required to put out, and to update every 5 years is recognition of the fact it affects the direction the compass is pointing on ships. Let me move on to materials processing. I know the committee is interested in this. We are trying to interest the highly industrialized organizations in materials processing. We think this is something on which private industry really should take a lot of interest. They are used to doing research of materials and it has a big payoff in new materials in such things as plastics, high temperature alloys, and things like that. We know that research has a big leverage, and we think industry ought to move to space materials processing in a big way. Now, in a way, before they can, they will have to wait for the Shuttle, but we can stimulate their interest right now. Of course, we have had some opportunities, like Skylab and ASTP ahead to do some work within the area, and I would first like to cover one of the ASTP results. This is an experiment using the process of electrophoresis to separate biological materials found in the body. The interest in doing this is the ability to separate materials that have particularly special useful properties, for example, a substance called urokinase. This is an enzyme that actually can dissolve blood clots. It has been obtained in Earth-based processes, but it is very expensive because it is so hard to get any large quantities from the processes. Urokinase is obtained from living kidney cells, but only from a certain class of kidney cells, and the question was, could the electro- phoresis process, which is an electrical separation process, separate out the kidney cells that dominantly produce urokinase. Abbott Laboratories flew an experiment to answer this question and the answer from ASTP, is yes it could do that. I think Abbott Labs and everyone was extremely encouraged by the result. PAGENO="0202" 200 Now, there is also bad news along with the good news, and that is that although these separated kidney cells were returned alive, the process of handling them did not leave them too lively, and as a result, we were not able to sustain a culture of them once we got them back on the ground. We are confident, however, that this problem can be solved. The important thing is we were able to separate out the cells. Now, we want to keep on going with these kinds of things, and the only way we know to do it, while we wait for the shuttle is through the sounding rockets that I mentioned, the little rockets that go straight up, and come back down. They have about 5 to 10 minutes of weightlessness, and then put out a parachute and land the payload. We do this out at the White Sands Proving Grounds in New Mexico. We have already flown one flight, which was a highly success- ful one. The payload actually is small, but can accommodate a large number of experiments. That payload shown in figure 15 is about 18 inches in diameter, and about 8 feet long. It happens to be investigating alloys and similar materials, various types of processes in which there is a big gravity effect that is detrimental to the process. As you can see there were about nine different experiments carried out. FIGuRE 15 PAGENO="0203" 201 This flight was flown in mid-December. We do not yet have the quantitative results, except to say all of the experiments worked functionally. We are in the process of analyzing them. We intend to fly about three or four of these flights a year, maybe a little more, depending on the interest. We will try to involve nonaerospace industry more in this activity as we proceed. OK. Now, to take up one other subject. Mr. FUQIJA. You have one there about the behavior of metal.' I assume that is something that affects the stress. Mr. MATHEWS. Yes, people are interested in foaming metals. Metals are so heavy, you cannot foam them on Earth very well. The bubbles flow to the top, but you can foam a metal up in space, and greatly change its mechanical properties. We are well aware of the value of plastic foams. Metal foams would be just as valuable if you could make them. If you get away from grav- ity, you can make metal foams. This experiment was a kind of basic study, and another one did involve foams. I want to talk a little bit about communications, if I might, Mr. Chairman. I will start out by saying we launched the Communications Tech- nology Satellite (CTS) just a couple of weeks ago. It is a little bit different looking communications satellite, but one which I think you have seen before. Most of the satellites you have seen did not have those big wings (figure 16) that seem to completely dominate this satellite. PAGENO="0204" FIGuRE 16 Those wings are actually solar cell arrays which on communii ations satellites are usually found on the body of the satellite. The reason CTS has to have such big wings is that it transmits such a tremendous amount of power relative to its size that it takes a lot of power to run it. This is a cooperative program between Canada and the United States, in which the high-powered transmitter was developed by the United States, and the satellite by the Canadians. Now, as a result of that, and the fact we launched it, we get half the time on the satellite, but I think it is also significant that the Cana- dians have the most powerful communications satellite in the world nght now 202 PAGENO="0205" 203 That will not last too long, because the Japanese are procuring a more powerful satellite, and the Germans are also planning to procure a still more powerful satellite. These satellites will be able to communicate in both directions simultaneously. They are called broadcast satellites. The bottom line on figure 17 represents the more conventional satel- lite system. The top line indicates broadcast satellites. EARTH STATION ANTENNA DIAMETER FOR VARIOUS COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITES 10~ GERMAN BROADCAST SATELLITE JAPANS BROADCAST SATELLITE (BS) ~ 80 CANADIAN COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE (CTS) TV BROADCAST AT 12GHz ~50. INTELSAT V WEST SPOT BEAM ~ . *NASAATS-6 .INTELSAT IV SPOT BEAM ~-$~ANADA'S ANIK 30 . ~`~RENCH/GERMAN SYMPHONIE TYPICAL CONVENTIONAL INTELSAT III COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITES (1 * I I - 10 20 30 40 50 80 MINIMUM EARTH STATION RECEIVER ANTENNA (DI& IN FEET) NASAHQEC7~1IS5(1) FIGURE 17 Now, you see the ATS-6 on the bottom line. The chart shows it could transmit to small community type receiving antennae, as com- pared to say a big 30 foot dish or something like that. These are getting then to antenna smaller than 10 feet and that is about when people call it a broadcast satellite. The ATS-6 achieves that by having a great big antenna up in orbit. The CTS achieved that by having a very powerful transmitter, and future systems will achieve more power by a combination of those two features. These satellites will broadcast in a different frequency range from conventional communications satellites. The Canadians are the first ones to use new 12-GHZ frequency band. If you go to the top of the curve (fig. 17) you will notice there is a Japanese broadcast satellite, which can use a ground antenna that i~ just a few feet in diameter, the kind of thing you can set on the top of your TV set, or put on the roof of your house. They indeed intend to broadcast to their homes, directly from their satellite into home receivers. This Japanese satellite has another interesting feature, a shaped beam that just covers their islands. When you lay down this very PAGENO="0206" 204 powerful signal, you want to keep it contained so that it won't spill out into adjacent countries, and that is a new technology. U.S. industry is building that satellite for the Japanese, but again, the Japanese are the ones that are going to use it, use this technology. The Japanese are building the small ground terminals. The high production potential involves the small ground terminals, and not with the satellites. There would just be one satellite up there, but there may be millions of ground stations that will use this capability. The Germans are planning even to go to smaller receiving antennas. Now, let me talk a little bit about where this leads us. The tendency is to go to very high power, big antenna systems in space, because the receivers can then be produced for a few hundred dollars, and you can provide broadcast to anybody in the world that can afford a receiver costing a few hundred dollars. This is the direction everybody is going, and that is the drive of our NASA technology program, except we are not putting it together in satellites, at the present time. Now, in addition, I should point out that there will come a day pretty soon when the satellites will have much higher power, and size for their antennas. This will probably be in the Space Shuttle time period, because the antenna will probably have to be assembled in space. This will enable us to have two-way mobile communications. You are aware of the fact that the taxi people, and the police, and everyone else are using mobile communications. It will be very nice in the future to have the ground-based equipment small enough so that people can carry portable units with which they can call back and forth, through the satellite. Indeed, it would be very possible to have extremely small equipment in your pocket, or even ultimately, as a wrist communication system. If you wanted to use your tele- phone when you are walking down the street, you could call arid talk to the appropriate people. That is in the not too far distant future, and there can be a tre- mendous market for that ultimately. Mr. FIJQUA. We are catching up with Dick Tracy. Mr. MATHEWS. Yes, he had that idea. That is the direction the technology is going, and it is an important thing for the United States to keep up with that technology. We have a position of leadership at the moment, and we should try to keep that position. In closing, I just want to mention one other thing, Mr. Chairman, that is, that we are making every attempt to increase our interactions with the people that have use for these capabilities. We are lookiing for a much earlier involvement of what we call user groups in planning our programs, establishing requirements, and so forth. As a result, we are developing a set of user working groups, in which we will attempt to bring together people in the areas of agriculture, water resources, land inventories, the area of mining and petroleum technology. We will have them involved in our operations early and more or less continuously, as groups we can call on, and say here are some new developments coming on the scene; can you help us establish the associated requirements for practical use. In addition, we are going to the States, and talking about the programs they have, and talking to them about their problems, and how this capability we have relates to the problems they have. Actually PAGENO="0207" 205 we are trying to develop the situation where the States that have already employed the technology in a practical way can work with other States that have not yet employed this type of technology, to show them about how they could do this. We are also very interested in getting industry more involved in the user activities, bccause they have services to provide, as well as equipment. In addition, we have found that many of the users, do not feel that our documentation is adequate. They are very interested in a given program, but there is no way to get handbooks on how to use the technology. So we have started developing handbooks. For instance, in strip mining areas, we have already developed a handbook for users, to explain the potential uses of LANDSAT in carrying out that type activity. We are also concerned with training, and although we have done limited training ourselves, we are working primarily with the people in the Department of the Interior, in their Earth resources observa~ tions systems program, to implement training. We are also attempting to provide direct user assistance in many cases. This can be to industry, or it can be State government, or it could be Federal agency. Figure 18 shows an operation going on at the Goddard Space Flight Center just outside of Washington, D.C. Here the Census Bureau people have come in and they are working directly with the Goddard equipment in a facility called Intra-Lab as part of working out the problems I have already described to you in updating census infor- mation. This facility is open to many other people as well. FIGuRE 18 70-079 0 - 76 - 14 PAGENO="0208" 206 The St. Regis Paper Company came in and said they wanted to use this in terms of their forests, so we are working with them. We are also working with the Federal Power Commission, which has to worry about routing of power transmission lines. The State agency user activity is largely centered down in Mis- sissippi, where a similar facility at NSTL is used to suppo:rt the States. Mr. FUQTJA. Are you doing any work with the U.S. Forest Service? Mr. MATHEWS. Yes, we are, and that is being done at the Johnson Space Center. Mr. FUQUA. One of the problems they have is trying to get accurate acreage, of how much wood reserve we have, and I mentioned the fact that they ought to talk to you people, that I thought you could help them, but nobody there that day appeared to have any knowl- edge about it. Mr. MATHEWS. Most of these agencies are relatively big, but some of the people know about these techniques. In fact, there is a Forest Service man in residence down at JSC working that exact problem. But there is a definite problem of really getting the word out as broadly as it should be. It takes manpower and dollars to do that, and that is what Rusty Schweickart referred to. Mr. FUQUA. You are talking about wheat, the age of timber, whether it be for pulp or for sawdust, and the condition of it, diseased or otherwise, and it is all very important to the national reserves. Mr. MATHEWS. That is right, and, of course, there are new legal requirements for better timber inventories right now, as a result of recent legislation. I hope, Mr. Chairman, I have been able to convince you that we are trying very hard not only to create capable space technology that has practical use, but that we are also trying to get this technology out and into use. There is much work to be done, but we are working very hardl at it. Thank you very much. Mr. FUQUA. Thank you, Chuck. We were at Marshall Spaceffight Center a year or so ago, and they were explaining to us the project that might affect the Spacelab, or in satellites, relating to clouds and fog and smog, and experiments on some type of lab. 4s that project still going forward? Mr. MATHEWS. That is an activity we have underway, which has, I think, great importance, because it is related severe weather phe- nomena, such as thunderstorms, hail, and so forth. This activity is to try and understand what is happening inside the clouds, why do some clouds produce severe atmospheric activity and other clouds do not. Why out of a thousand thunderstorms, only one produces a tornado? Nobody really understands that very well. One of the reasons is that it has been very difficult to observe the very basic phenomena that is associated with the development of cloud droplets, from a microscopic phase, into a size of a drop that turns into a hailstone or raindrop. Mr. FUQUA. Do you use your sounding rockets? Mr. M~tTU~W~, It is not sufficient for that type of observation because of the short time of weightless flight. PAGENO="0209" 207 Mr FUQUA You will need something like Spacelab Mr MATHEWS We will need Spacelab We have been working on this particular project We would like to work on it faster, but at the present time, we have had a very good definition program going on. We also have a very good involvement of the scientific community that deals with that type of activity They are very active in the program. We would like to push it along so it is available for an early flight on the Shuttle Mr FUQUA That would be very important You mentioned about LACIE, and you passed over it real fast, but I gather probably some of your goals will not be met this year. Will that have any effect on any of our other programs? Mr. MATHEWS. No; let me go into that in a little bit more detail. As one would expect in a program of that type, we have encoun- tered both success and problems One of our early concerns was whether we could handle the large mass of data After some early difficulties, indeed, we got that all under control, and it is no longer a problem We also had some problems in terms of activities associated with the wmter wheat States, like Kansas, Nebraska, Texas and so forth Those problems are understood and solved, and the solutions pretty well demonstrated There is one winter wheat State that does have some anomalies that we have to solve, but we did meet our goal We have aggregated the States to a Great Plains estimate In the spring wheat States, which involves States like North Dakota and Montana, we have still some problems It appears that our sample distribution was not quite right It does not appear to be a technical problem from the standpoint of misclassification or something like that However it is important that we solve that problem now because in the next phase we are moving up to Canada, which is essentially spring wheat, and of course climatically very similar to some of the major wheat growing areas of the world like the Soviet Union So we need to solve those problems, and we are confident we can Mr. FUQUA. You mentioned the climatic effort, and we were at one place last spring where they were showing some work that they were doing with aircraft in identifying some parasitic vines, growing in the artichoke fields, which is very detrimental Mr MATHEWS A melon Mr FTJQUA Yes, and they were able to distinguish even though both were green, between the good and the bad Now, is that what the thematic mapper does? Mr MATHEWS No, that is something we will continue to do with airplanes In developing a system that had a global capability, you have to be fairly careful that you do not gather more data than you handle. The space system will go only to a certam point, and then it becomes a question of practicality As time goes on, the resolution is improving, but you eventually reach the point where you are generating tre- mendous amounts of data, that are impractical to handling in a timely fashion With the thematic mapper we are prepared to gp in a system that has 10 times the data gathering capability of LAND PAGENO="0210" 208 SAT when you want to look at more precise things over small areas, you need an airplane The satellite is only part of a total system involvmg airplanes, and people making measurements on the ground There are therefore relatively few things in which the satellite makes the measurements completely mdependent of everything else Mr FUQUA What are you domg with other Government ag ncies, and how much effort? You mentioned the Geological Survey, the Census Bureau, what other agencies, the Agriculture Department, what other agencies are you working with? Mr MATHEWS We can have Rusty answer that Mr SCHWEICKART Mr Chairman, as a matter of fact, it is interest- ing that I just asked some of my people to come up with a tentative listing of that this morning as I left I could give you some idea of the number of agencies We are working at the present time with just about three quarters of the agencies m the Federal Government Certainly, I could mention the major ones, the Department of Interior, and many of the agencies withm the Department of Interior, such as the Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife We are also working with many agencies in Commerce, and in particular those like NOAA and also those of the Bureau of Census, and we of ourse are workmg with the Corps of Engineers on a great variety of projects With EPA, we have the western strip mining monitoring gomg on, as well as looking at other monitoring activities within EPA I would say those are a few of the major agencies that we are working with Then there are many other agency mvolvements at a much lower level We are presently looking at our ability to assist agencies such as HEW and HUD, and some of the responsibilities they have in community development, urban planning, that kLnd of thing In addition to that, there are many of the State agencies They are just too many to really get into depth here, but we can supply you with a listing Mr FUQIJA I am really glad to see you are working with the State agencies and the regional commissions That is excellent Mr MATHEWS We can give you a good update, and there is some very interestmg work gomg on m the Pacific Northwest region, which covers a great number of State agencies Mr FUQUA Thank you, Rusty Mr Downing? Mr DowNING Thank you very much, Mr Chairman Mr Mathews, that is an excellent presentation I always thought your section was the most important section in NASA Mr MATHEWS So do I, Mr Chairman Mr DOWNING I think you are underfunded, and a part of that might be of your own doing What are you askmg for this year, about $200 million? Mr MATHEWS Yes, that is correct Mr. DOWNING. And you do not get much above that. Mr MATHEWS No, we have never gotten above that In the history of the program, we have never gotten above $200 million. We are at $198 2, million and so we are commg close Mr DOWNING If you had more, could you use it? Mr MATHEWS Yes, sir PAGENO="0211" 209 Mr. FUQUA. Ask him where. Mr. DOWNING. That is a good question. Where? Mr. MATHEWS. I think one of the biggest needs there is in this area is user interaction. NASA in general is dealing with flight hardware and it tends to be the higher dollar value activities. But it turns out that there is a fairly massive effort required to take new, relatively sophisticated technology, and get people familiar enough with it that they can evaluate and adopt, it. Those kinds of problems occur in the advent of the computer, which is in wide use now. But there was a time when people did not understand it very well. Developing up~derstanding is a major effort, and it is a manpower consuming effort. Of course, we can do a lot from within the agency, but we need help. We need to have organizations, in terms of industry, nonprofit organizations, and so forth, in preparing materials and documents, conducting surveys, and so forth. In terms of technical capability, we see this very clearly. We could make tremendous progress where we are not. I think in terms of severe storm observations, we are prepared to move out more aggressively on that. In terms of the Pollution Monitoring Program, we are prepared to move out more aggressively on that. Hopefully, in the general area of Earth Resources, we will be moving out. Mr. DOWNING. As a comparative layman, I am interested in how you select your programs. For instance, if you had a decision to make between a program which would eventually lead to a cure of cancer, (to use an extreme) or the exploration of the magnetic field of the earth, I would tend to go toward the cancer program. Who selects your programs? Mr. MATHEWS. Well, Mr. Downing, we, of course, select the pro- grams. They are related to our evaluation of the nature of the problem, and our expertise in contributing to the solution, and also to the in- stitutional arrangements, which are practical to this pursuit. For instance, if there is a space capability that can be applied, to a cancer problem (and there has been) then most certainly we would work in that area, but it is not really practical from an institutional standpoint for us to work in an area, that is' not really a space related area. There are other institutions of the Government that are chartered to do that. Without making suitable arrangements, and really having them support us by means of funding, and so forth, we can't get into those things. Mr. DOWNING. Who selects the programs? Mr. MATHEWS. The programs, Mr. Chairman, Mr. Downing, are actually selected by a number of processes. Sometimes it is grass roots, that is, the field centers of our agency come up with various ideas that are related to the work they have been doing, or perhaps even new ideas. Those are brought into an activity that involves a synthesis of the idea from first indications of applications, into the applications pro- gram. Does it fit? Doea it not fit? Should it be done by somebody else PAGENO="0212" 210 in NASA, or should it be done NASA at all? Then of course these programs are ultimately reviewed up through the management cycle in NASA, and on to the executive branch of the Government. Mr. DOWNING. Who says, I will take this program, this one, we will take this one, and discard that one, somebody has to make that decision, who does that? Mr. MATHEWS. This is really done by the program organization in the particular discipline area with the support of many outside groups and inside groups. Mr. FtrQUA. Do you have a peer review? Mr. MATHEWS. That is correct. We have a Space Applications Board, which is entirely independent of NASA, that pretty well reviews everything we are doing. They are looking right now at the communications area, to determine whether we are doing enough. Mr. DOWNING. Does the Space Applications Board make the decision as to the program? Mr. MATHEWS. They advise and recommend to us. If this is a program in communications, for example, it would come under the jurisdiction of my office, Mr. Downing; then my divisions would make proposals to me, and we would interact back and forth to determine whether we would bring activity forward. Sometimes, of course, we are told from the top that we are to do something but most of the time, it comes from the grassroots, people coming up from the centers, or suggestions coming in from the outside, and then the synthesis is basically done within my office. Mr. DOWNING. I do not know that I quite understand that. Do you make the decision? Mr. MATHEWS. I make the initial decision. Now, things that get dropped from the program after that, of course, are decisions on the part of other people in general, and sometimes things are added, but most of the time my divisions go forward with a program to me, and then I synthesize that program with their help to go forward to our management, where it is synthezised in the total NASA program. Mr. DOWNING. You do not consult with the American housewife in your decision? Mr. MATHEWS. Yes; we consult with the user organizations, and if the American housewife is involved, we should and would consult with her. * I mentioned these user working groups, which are a mechanism to bring in the outside requirements of people. We did this very effec- tively in the SEASAT pr~gram. We brought in the American Institute of Merchant Shipping. We brought in the other Federal agencies. We brought in the various Oceanographic agencies, and right from the beginning of the program. We do certain things. We asked, do you think you could use it, and then how well would these things have to perform, if you could use them, tell us how you could use them, and then iterate back and forth sometimes pretty painfully, because of the dollars, and compromise does enter into coming up with such things as the SEASAT program. That activity is stifi in force and going on. Mr. DOWNING. Incidentally, you did not mention SEASAT m your prepared testimony. Is that coming along all right. PAGENO="0213" 211 Mr. MATHEWS. Yes; it is coming along very well. We recently let the contract for the spacecraft bus, and all of the instruments will be under contract soon. The support from the other Federal agencies is coming along very well, such as with NOAA, and the Department of Defense, and we are about to enter into agreement with the Fleet Numerical Weather Service, for their support with the data processing activities related to ocean forecasting. So it is coming along very well. Mr. DOWNING. When will that program be launched? Mr. MATHEWS. It will be launched about the middle of 1978. Mr. DOWNING. I notice in your testimony, you mentioned the possi- bility of programs emphasizing search and rescue at sea, and, of course, this brings to mind last summer, one of your colleagues was lost at sea, between Bermuda and New York for a period of 14 days, and I received many requests of whether NASA has the capability of scan- ning that area of the Atlantic Ocean, and the answer came back no. Do you think we will ever get to the point where that will be a possibility? Mr. MATHEWS,. Mr. Downing, we have the technical capability to do it. We do not have the operational responsibility, and there is no system in place, but the technical capability in fact does exist and has been demonstrated. Mr. Hubbard, you might talk about the recent experience in this area. Mr. HUBBARD. The common emergency beacon device that I am sure you have heard about, called emergency locator transmitter beacon, that some aircraft and offshore boats carry, usually put out a relatively low powered signal that can be intercepted by aircraft and other listening stations. We ran an experiment very recently with one of these beacons. We admittedly elevated the power to half a watt, located the position of this beacon with the satellite, and a ground computing technique to within about 11 kilometers. What this means to us is that a satellite technique of that type could indeed be useful with these beacons. The unfortunate situation in the event you referred to, the beacon was lost overboard. As a consequence, there was no indication that they could have been detected remotedly to indicate that the boat was in trouble. Mr. DOWNING. I understand there was a cloud cover during the entire period. Mr. HUBBARD. Yes. There was a series of events that worked against us in that incident and resulted in a tragedy. Mr. DOWNING. Thank you very much. I must confess, I still do not believe I understand how you select the programs, but perhaps we can get together and you can tell me. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Mr. FUQUA. We want to thank you. We will have some questions to submit to you for the record, to tie up some of the lose ends that we may have. That will conclude the meeting this morning. We will reconvene on Tuesday, February 3, at 10 a.m., in room 2318, with John Yardley, the Office of Space Flight. The committee stands adjourned. [Whereupon, the committee was adjourned at 12 noon.] [Additional questions and answers for the record. Also see Volume I, Part 3 for additionial questions and answers:] PAGENO="0214" 212 QUESTION 1~ In figure 4$l, which contains percentage break- downs of FY 1976 vs. the new FY 1977 figures, I notice a drop in the Weather and Climate Observation and Forecasting area of 6.4% for FY 1977 and a drop in the Earth Dynamics Monitoring and Forecasting of 42.5% for FY 1977. Does this mean a deemphasis? What plans, if any, were changed? ANSWER: Wit~~p~ct to Weather and Climate Observa tion and Forecasting: The change of funding support to the Weather and Climate Program from $42.7M for FY 1976 to $36.3M for FT 1977 is primarily due to the following: - A funding decrease in the Nimbus 5 & 6 satellite program because of the launch of Nimbus 6 on June 12, 1975. FY 1977 effort does not include any work on a new Nimbus satellite specifically for the Weather & Climate Program. - A funding decrease in the Global Atmo- spheric Research Program (GARP) where we have reduced our funding support by $1.OM through the elimination of a second summer Data Systems Test (DST) period. The first summer DST has produced the data required to characterize adequately that season of the year. - The funding decrease in the Severe Storm Research Program which has impacted only the future satellite systems area through the reduction in funding of studies of Stormsat and slowed the rate( of develop- ment of its primary instrument, the Advanced Atmospheric Sounding and Imaging Radiometer (AASIR). With re~~t to Earth Dynamics Monitoring and, Foreca~ The reduction of 42.5% does represent a de- emphasis of the Earth Dynamics Monitoring and Forecasting Program, and the primary reason for this is the need to constrain the FY 1977 budget. This program is one of the newest PAGENO="0215" 2 ones in Applications, thus it was possible to slow the pace ofits buildup. With some of the other programs like Ocean Dynamics which includes the development of a major flight system, Seasat-A, such a reduction would not be possible In the Earth Dynamics area we have delayed our field measurement program for the San Andreas Fault Experiment (SAFE) which uses the satellite laser ranging technique. The initiation of certain developments for very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and the measurement program for VLBI using the fixed stations and one portable will be reduced considerably. We were planning additional studies in order to define a gravity field mapping satellite, Gravsat This mission would be a companion to Magsat and would also be of value in resource assessment studies. The plan to do this study at this time has been changed. 213 PAGENO="0216" 214 QUESTION 2 On page 3 of your testimony on Natural Resources Information area Do you anticipate any support funding from anyone to implement activities~ ANSWER It is our policy to enter into an ASVT with one or more user organizations on a cooperative basis. This requires both NASA and the user to commit resources to the project in terms of manpower equipment and/or new expenditures NASA therefore does not receive any support funding for an ASVT but shares in the total cost The referenced projects were initiated in FY 1976 and will continue through FY 1977 PAGENO="0217" 215 Question No. 3: On page 3 at the bottom on New ASVT's: Are you actively seeking support funding for these efforts? Answer: Yes NASA is actively seeking support funding (not as reim- bursement to NASA, but in the form of cooperating agency funding) *for these new ASVT's, and we believe it will be obtained in virtually all cases. In fact, one of the criteria we apply for the acceptance of a new ASVT is whether or not there is sufficient user agency interest to co-fund the project with NASA. PAGENO="0218" 216 QUESTION 4: Regarding the general area of Applications Systems Verification Tests (ASVT): What other ASVT s could you undertake if addi- tional funding was available? A significant ASVT budget increase would provide better means to more closely meet the users' needs and to cover a broader field of users and applications. Possible additional ASVT subject areas include forest inventory and management, coastal zone management, geodetic control, pest damage detection and eradication disaster warning disaster damage assessment, future power demand pre- diction and rangeland management. A few examples of the work that could be accomplished in potential new ASVT's but which are not encompassed in the FY 1977 budget include the following: - Interferometric Earth Surveying for Civil Application NASA, in conjunction with the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) has evaluated the application of NASA developed Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) for precise location of geodetic control points This ASVT would be directed toward combining the VLSI approach with standard surveying techniques to develop a substantially improved datum at lower costs, and transferring the equipment and technology to NGS for operational use. - I~plementation of a Data Collection and Satellite Relay System for Agricultural Pest Management The Data Collection Platforms (DCP's) would be used during the growing season in a cooperative experiment with the U S Geological Survey and Michigan State University in agricultural pest control using real time telemetry of pertinent meteorological and soil + parameters via Landsat. The objective ANSWER: PAGENO="0219" 217 2 would also be to determine optimum time to deploy pesticides. - Forest Resources Information System This ASVT would be performed in concert with the St. Regis Paper Company and Purdue University, and would apply machine processed Landsat data as a significant component of a forest resource information system. The end objective of this project would be to develop new techniques of utilizing remotely sensed data as a tool in quan- tifying timber resources which could be implemented into operational use by companies such as St. Regis. PAGENO="0220" 218 QUESTI ON 5: In the New Development Efforts area on the Thematic Mapper: What is the difference between this and the thermal channel being developed for Landsat-C? Is this new Thematic Mapper really Landsat-"D"? What is the projected cost of this instrument? ANSWER: Studies have shown that an instrument with improved capabilities will significantly increase possible application of remotely sensed Multi-Spectral Scanner data. The increased resolution as well as improvement of the other instrument parameters will improve our analytical ability in crop production forecasting, forestry inventory, land use monitoring, wet land surveys, and geological interpretation. The improve- ments needed to increase the information content of Multi-Spectral Scanner data are as follows: - The resolution of the Thematic Mapper will be 30 meters instead of the present 80 meters available in the Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS). Six or seven optimized spectral bands will be available in the Thematic Mapper instead of five bands on the Landsat-C MSS, and the precision of the measurement of the radiation intensity in the Thematic Mapper will be a factor of four better than in the MSS. The thermal channel on the Thematic Mapper will have 3 times the resolution of the same channel on the MSS. The Thematic Mapper will be the next generation earth resources remotesensing instrument. It is planned that it will eventually replace the Landsat Multi- Spectral Scanner (MSS) and be the basic earth resources instrument of the 1980's. The Thematic Mapper, as requested in the FY 1977 NASA budget, is proposed as an off-line development with no flight commitment. However, NASA is presently engaged in planning for use of the Thematic Mapper in the 1980's. The planning estimate for the Thematic Mapper instrument is in the range of $40 to $50 million. PAGENO="0221" 219 QUESTION 6: Regarding the Mark II Interferometer on page 5 of your prepared testimony: A. Could you fly this earlier than Space].ab? B. How will this data be significant since it will only be used during a Spacelab mission? C. What is the cost? D. Did you consider any other instru- ments before picking this one? ANSWER: We intend to conduct balloon experiments this fall and aircraft tests next spring in order to verify the performance of the Mark II instru- ment and to determine which atmospheric con- stituents are important to the stratospheric ozone cycle, and can be detected and monitored globally when the instrument is flown on Space- lab. In addition, the Spacelab mission provides the first opportunity for this sensitive, defini- tive instrumentation to be located above most of the atmosphere so that we may evaluate its ultimate pollution detection capability. The HS1* is designed as a forerunner for a more specialized global monitoring instrument and its high spectral resolution and broadband coverage, which allow simultaneous detection of many atmospheric constituents, will be used to determine which trace constituents are present, in what concentrations, and whether or not the constituents are distributed around the globe at low to middle latitudes. Thus, the Spacelab High-Speed Interferometer mission will provide information and should not be viewed as if it were a monitoring experiment with limited geographic ooverage. We expect that the cost of developing and fabricating the Mark II HSI will be in the range Gf $3 to $4M. Current work on the 1151 Mark II centers around the pre-shuttle flight tests, balloon and aircraft tests, and data analysis. The Mark II Interferometer was selected for development as a Spacelab constituent survey experiment because of its unique capabilities to provide detection of the most tenuous atmo- spheric constituent (1 part in 10 trillion) over the spectral region from 1.3 to 12 microns where the most important stratospheric trace constituents are detectable. This instrument (*High.speed Interferometer) PAGENO="0222" 220 2 concept has already been proven through flight of the Mark I, an earlier laboratory version, aboard aircraft as part of the DOT Climatic Impact Assessment Program and the NASA Upper Atmospheric Research Program, which result- ed in the detection of hydrogen cloride (HCL) in the stratosphere. This instrument is the logical successor to several generations of spectrometers and interferometers such as the IRIS (flown on NIMBUS 3) and the Mark I HSI and is the best instrument available in this time frame which will provide for the early detection of unknown stratospheric constituents. It will provide us with the measurement ranges over which future global monitoring devices must work in order to provide accurate long term measurements. PAGENO="0223" 221 QUESTION NO. 7: On the question of Materials Processing you cover on page 6 of your testimony: Is there any activity going on for a cooperative International venture? Do you intend to set up a separate office to coordinate the some 60 different types of experiments you say are being proposed for early shuttle missions? ANSWER: International cooperation in Materials Processing in space is a complicated subject because the acknowledged aim of every national program in the field is to generate pro- prietary data and competitive advantages for the sponsoring nation's industries. Thus, no nation has an interest in unlimited cooperation. On the other hand, there are a num- ber of basic science activities and space technology develop- ments that are necessary to all parties and only generally related to industrial end applications. Cooperative activities in these areas have an obvious potential for mutually beneficial cost savings, but they have to be approached with care to keep them within the bounds of genuine national interest. We are currently carrying on two cooperative rocket experiments with the German government in the SPAR project because such experiments are expected to provide basic preliminary data that are relatively far removed from practical applications. In addition, we have been considering how to resolve the issues involved in possible patent rights arising from future experiments, and the forthcoming solicitation for new SPAR experiment proposals includes a request for foreign proposals and a statement of the policy NASA has developed to handle the proprietary issues they may raise. Possibilities for international Materials Processing ventures on the STS missions have been discussed informally during the past year, but so far no foreign agency has definitely identified an area of mutual interest in which it wishes to cooperate with the NASA Materials Processing program. NASA has also decided for technical and programmatic reasons not to fly Materials Processing experiments on the first Spacelab mission, and so there are no joint activities related to STS missions in the field at present. However, we are not opposed to such activities in principle, and we expect that some will be developed after appropriate limits have been defined for them. -?OtY~7~ 0 - 76 - 15 PAGENO="0224" As regards experiment coordination for the early Shuttle missions NASA will of course set up appropriate management arrangements at Headquarters and the involved field centers for the experiment program as it finally develops At this point however actual flight experiment proposals have not yet been solicited for the Shuttle m.~ssions because the program is still in the final stages of defining the capabil- ities that can be offered The 60 types of experiments mentioned in our testimony on January 29 1976 are concepts that are being analyzed to define requirements that should be met by the Shuttle pay- loads we are planning and this effort is being managed by the Program Development Directorate at MSFC 222 PAGENO="0225" 223 QUESTION NO. 8: You mention on page 6 the results of the electrophoresis experiments: it appears that the German experiment turned out to be somewhat better, is that so? Are you exchanging data? What is the next step? ANSWER: NASA and the German Ministry of Research and Technology have been keeping each other informed of progress in the analysis of the two ASTP electrophoresis experiments, and the results of both will be published when complete. Both experiments experienced engineering difficulties in flight and did not produce all of the data expected of them. In both cases, however, the difficulties were things that have straightforward solutions, and each experiment would undoubtedly work with no anomalies if it were flown again. The German experiment experienced only one anomaly, but that one occurred in the data acquisition system and compromised all of the results. On the other hand the NASA experiment encountered several difficulties but actually succeeded in returning one sample of living cells that was shown to have been separated with reasonably high resolution. Both groups obtained enough data to verify the potential of the techniques they tested on the ASTP mission and learned how to make them work as intended on the next trial. Thus, there seems to be no valid basis for saying that either performance was better than the other. The static electrophoresis technique used in our ASTP experiment requires relatively long running times and may not be possible to repeat before the first available Shuttle flight opportunity. In the interim, however, we intend to proceed with development and testing of continuous flow methods using rocket flights. The German government has announced plans to fly the continuous flow apparatus it developed for ASTP again on the first Space- lab mission. It may also undertake some technology development tests on the series of German rocket flights that is to begin in 1977. PAGENO="0226" 224 QUESTION NO. 9 Re Magsat: Is there any potential for some money from the USGS to support the Program? What is the cost of this program' ANSWER The USGS support to the Magsat Program will be in the form of reduction to a usable form of NASA processed data as well as production of an updated model of the earth's magnetic field. The data reduced by USGS will be made available to NASA and will also be made available to the National Space Science Data Center for further study by other organizations and investigators The planning estimate for the Magsat mission, excluding the Scout launch vehicle and the NASA tracking and data processing support is in the range of $l7-$25 million PAGENO="0227" 225 QUESTION 10: On page 9 of your prepared testimony regarding Communications Research, you mention the NASA activity in research in high-power transmit- ters, sensitive receivers, and other essential system components, such as antennas, etc. Is this a ~eparture from NASA's position of get- ting out of the Communications business and leaving this to the commercial market? What is the amount of funds for this area versus FY 1976? Is industry pursuing similar areas? Are you competing? ANSWER: When the decision to phase-down space communi- cations activity was made, it was predicated on the assumption that U.S. industry, stimulat- ed by the demands of the growing communications satellite market, would be able to independently develop the technology and components required to keep this nation in a commanding economic position. At that time, we were not able to predict the economic turn-down that signifi- cantly reduced the funds available to U.S. industry to privately finance such research. We are watching developments sponsored by U.S. industry and these appear to be still exploit- ing technology introduced on ATS-3 although with many refinements and improvements. Ex- ploitation of high-powered broadcast technology introduced by ATS-6 and CTS, while involving U.S. industry, is sponsored by foreign govern- ments, Canada, Germany, and Japan. The NASA efforts in this area are being provided through the Advanced Communications Research program. This relatively small program only attempts to provide enough technology to assess the practicality of the new techniques and the use of new frequencies only in areas where there is no current information otherwise available. Where there is a direct potential use ~or this technology, the work is tailored as much as possible to fit the needs of the eventual user. The Advanced Communications Research program was funded at a $l.4M level in FY 1976 and is pro- posed to be funded at a $l.9M level in FY 1977. NASA is supplying less than one percent of the Communications Satellite R&D funds expended in the U.S. PAGENO="0228" 226 QUESTION 11: The Subcommittee has expressed concern that the User Affairs Activities was underfunded for the activity you mention on page 9 and 10: Do you feel you have adequate funds? If you had more money, how could you use it? ANSWER: If more money was made available the Office of User Affairs would use it in the following manner: (1) Increase the level of support personnel at Headquarters and Field Centers associated with user demonstration and technology transfer projects. At Headquarters, increased support personnel would provide the basis to conduct market analysis, prepare promotional plans and materials, evaluate cost/benefit studies and technology transfer projects, and interface directly with more user~ in the federal, state and local government, university, industry and international sectors. Increased support personnel, experienced with technology transfer and customer (user) relations, would provide the opportunity to strengthen NASA-user relationships and to work more closely with a larger variety of users than can be done at present. (2) Contract with industry to conduct cost/benefit studies in advance of user involvement as well as during joint demonstration projects; conduct objective surveys on product needs and narket posture. (3) Increase the number and size of Applications User Working Groups to include all disciplines within the Applications Programs. (4) Conduct additional seminars and meetings to acquaint users from all communities with available NASA technology/system and on-going projects; provide for follow- through activity. PAGENO="0229" 227 2 (5) Study the need for and possibly establish a pilot Regional Space Applications Training and Transfer Center. Such a Center would provide hands-on capability in a local setting, in which a potential user can become acquainted with instruments, facilities, and techniques which may be applicable to his particular operation. If proven desirable, these training centers could provide assistance to the full realm of Applications Program users, including remote sensing data interpreta- tion (in conjunction with the Department of Interior EROS Data Center), infor- mation management, data collection systems, communications, meteorology, etc. The number of such centers and their location/administration would be dependent upon further study and the results of a pilot center. (6) Prepare additional promotional and educational material to distribute to users. This material would emphasize the Applications Programs and would provide visibility for all types of user groups into available technology/ systems and possible applications. (7) Conduct a larger number of Applications Systems Verification Tests (ASVVs) in more areas than we can now support. These projects are the functional mechanism to demonstrate a particular technology/system PAGENO="0230" 228 3 applications within the framework of the user's operation and to generate sufficient technical, cost, management, and assessment infornation for the user to decide if he wants to adopt the technology/system for his operational use If the user s decision is positive a second phase the technology transfer phase, would be initiated. The success of a demonstration and technology transfer project has been shown to depend on adequate preliminary planning committed involvement of the user(s), industry participation where appropriate, management visibility and control operational (or scaled down) equipment a transfer mechanism to the remainder of the user community, and sufficient funds to guarantee the above. (8) Increased funding levels would permit the establishment of additional facilities similar to the Information Transfer Laboratory (INTRALAB) located at Goddard Space Flight Center The INTRALAB facility offers users an opportunity to work directly with NASA to evaluate the potential of remote sensing data to meet their needs. PAGENO="0231" 229 Material requested for the record on page 68, line 6 by Mr. Fugue during the hearing before the Subcommittee on Space Science and Application of the Committee on Sciences & Technology on January 29, 1976. QUESTION: In addition to that, there are many of the state agencies, and they are just too multiple to really get into depth here, but we can supply you with a listing. RESPONSE: This document presents a profile of organizations and projects with which NASA is presently involved in on-going Office of Applications Programs. The listing includes projects in all application disciplines and users from all sectors such as state, regional, and local governments. The identified organi- zations and projects are limited to present on-going activity and do not include previous and possible future projects or user interfaces which are presently not formal projects. Within the document,the projects are grouped on the basis of the following nine aggregate disciplines: (1) Agriculture (2) Land Use Survey and Mapping (3) Environmental Monitoring (4) Geology (5) Water Resources (6) Marine Resources and Ocean Surveys (7) Meteorology (8) Data Management and Communications (9) Multidisciplinary Applications Projects within a particular discipline are further subdivided by user sectors: (a) federal government, (b) state, regional and local, (c) universities, (d) foreign (including international organizations), and (e) industry. Each project is then described on the basis of the organization involved, the specific application, and a brief description of project work. Table 1 presents a summary of the 801 application projects and associated users described in this document. A user is defined as the specific organizational element or group which is directly involved with NASA in a project. Hence, a major organization such as the U.S. Geological Survey may represent a number of specific using entities. The sujsmary matrices are followed by a listing of the specific projects. MOTE: In order to provide a tim~ly response to the Committee, this compilation of activities was assembled in a very short period of time. As a result, there may be some duplicaion and overlap between the projects listed while conversely there may likely be some omissions. However, the listing is comprehensive and substantially correct. PAGENO="0232" TABLE 1. SUMMARY OF EXISTING OFFICE OF APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS Federal - 12 State, Regional - 6 and Local Universities - 22 Foregrr- 28 Industry - _2. Total 75 Federal - 24. Stats, Regional - 8 and Local ITni~ersitiss Yoreign Industry Total 57 mineral and hydrocarbon exploration; volcanology; avalanche and landslide hazards; regional tectonic models; mine safety hazards; surface composition of geological units; identification of major drainage~basins~ ~ hdrot-~nai- -~ - features; solid earth dynamics; gravity models; discrimination of rock and soil units; use of Data Collection Platforms in volcano surveillance network seisonicity; computation of gravimetric geoids; detection and mapping of faults; pinpoint drilling locations for groundwater sources basic structural studies snow cover mapping; themal pollution modeling; snowmelt/water run-off modeling; near-shore ice monitoring; flood hazard mapping; hydrologic land cover; surface water mapping; watershed surveys; river monitoring; darn and reservoir management; ground water exploration; seasonal changes in evapotranspiration and soil moisture; irrigation water supply estimation; location of free flowing artesian wells; flood damage assessment; pollutant discharge monitor; laser sensor development correlations between wind, wave and sea condition; sea current analysis; sea and lake ice monitoring; coastal water depth; water quality; ocean tides; coastal land form changes; bathymetry studies; sediment transport; river discharge; improvement of fishery productivity; sea state and salinity tides, mean sea level, storm surges; wave modeling; ocean geoid measurement; mapping submarine topo- graphy; navigational hazards mapping; plankton distribution mapping; plumes of urban wastes; surface circulation and turbidity; location and motion of pollutants NUMBER OF USERS OF PROJECT APPLICATIONS DISCIPLINE o Geology o Water Resources o Marine Resources and Ocean Surveys 12 -4 Federal State, Regional and. Local Universities Foreign Industry - 46 -6 - 36 - 29 -l Total 118 PAGENO="0233" TABLE 1. SUMMARY OF EXISTING OFFICE OF APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS DISCIPLINE NUMBER OF USERS BY SECTOR Federal - 6 State, Regional - 0 and Local Universities - Foreign - 8 Industry - Total 23 SYNOPSIS OF PROJECT APPLICATIONS meteorological input to crop forecasting models; global forecasting; atmospheric sounding system; cloud seeding; modeling of tropical wind profiles; meso scale weather pattern studies; determination of wind vectors; use of data collection platforms in experimental hydrology-meteorology monitoring networks archaeological explorations; cancer research; bio synthesis systems; development of Landsat ground receiving and processing stations; soil erosion and sedimentation; drainage basin mapping; drought predictions and flood warning; parks and recreation area planning; environmental impact statements; improvement of geodetic control; energy use assess- ments; delineation of heat loss in urbanized areas; educational materials development; data compression and display techniques; water hyacinths use as fuel source and fertilizer; national resource inventories by foreign nations; space processing; space altimetry highpower HF and VHF satellite broadcast capability; design and flight readiness reviews of commercial satellites; studies of frequency, power flux density requirements, orbital and spectrum utilization and requirements for communications satellites; frequency management and spectrum planning for national tele- communications policy; consultation in automated ground processing; detection and position of downed aircraft and ships in distress; health and bio- medical communications; transportable earth stations for communications to and from disaster areas; low cost Broadcast Satellites Ground Stations; use of communications to stimulate development in lesser developed nations; automated picture transmission from operational weather satellite; digital video college curriculum sharing experiment; emergency medical conununicatiom; state-wide communications System' o Meteorology o MUltidisciplinary Federal - 19 State, Regional - 37 and Local Universities - 19 Foreign 25 Industry - 3 Total 103 Federal - 26 .abions State, Pegiomal - 14 and Local Universities - 14 * Foreign - 126 * Industry -7 Total 187 PAGENO="0234" TABLE 1. SUM.MARY OF EXISTING OFFICE OF APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS o Land Use Survey and Mapping o~ Environmental Monitoring Federal - 16 State, Regional - 29 and Local tlniversities - 27 Foreign - 18 Industry - Total 91 Federal - 18 State, Regional - 25 and Local Universities - 30 Foreign - 8 Industry - Total 83 SYNOPSIS OF PROJECT APPLICATIONS crop inventory and yield estimates; soil moisture mapping; plant vigor and stress analysis; insect and pest infestation monitoring; soil salinity; vegetation phenology monitoring; irrigated land acreage statistics; timber volume inventory; optimization of insecticide and fertilizer appli- cations; soil acid and nematode stress; freeze warning system; delineation of mosquito egglaying habitat; detection and forecast of environmental conditions conducive to forest fire state-wide natural resources/land use information systems ;urban/rural delineations; urban geographical information system; route and site selection; inter- relationship between transportation systems and land use; regional and urban planning; monitoring of land use development patterns and land use changes; math modelina for land use prediction; thematic overlays e.g., forestland; orthographic mapping; land capability analysis; photomap produc- tion; cartographic map updates; critical area delineation and mapping; effects of land use change on water quality watershed land use analysis monitoring of stripped mined lands and reclamation~ environmental impact on stratosphere; pre- and post- construction land cover inventories; wildlife habitat mapping; pesticide run-off; lake eutrophica- tion; wildlife migration monitoring; ocean dumping monitoring; monitoring of turbidity, salinity, sedi- ment transport, modeling of water pollution to turbidity and sediment transport; detection of oil slicks; wetlands inventory and mapping; effects of pollutants on troposphere; recreation site selection; extent and outfall from channel dredging; develop- ment of filtration systems for municipal wastewater treatment system; monitoring of algal movement; fire damage assessment; thermal outflows from power plants DISCIPLINE NUMBER OF USERS * BY SECTOR o Agriculture Federal - 19 State, Regional - S and Local * tniversities - 15 Foreign - 21 Industry - 4 Total 64 PAGENO="0235" 233 DELINEATION OF SPECIFIC PROJECTS AND USING ORGANIZATIONS PAGENO="0236" Mat eriat ruquosted for the u'cord on p-tgc (8 line C by Mr I uquo ciw mg th~ h tiring bc forc toe Subcommittee on Space cci enco ind Applicmtmon of the (cTnmittee on Scicncei & rcchno]ogy on January 29 1976 QWSTION In addition to that there are many of the state agencies and they are just too multiple to really get into depth here but we can supply you with a listing hi srowcr This document presents a profile of organizations and projects with which NASA is presently involved in on-going Office of Applications Programs. The listing includes projects in all application disciplines and users from all sectors such as state, regional, and local governments. The identified organi- zations and projects are limited to present on-going activity and do not include previous and possib].e future projects or user interfaces which are presently not form ii projects Within the document the projects are grouped on the basis of the following nine aggregate disciplines: (1) Agriculture I~nd Use Survey and Mapping (3) Cnvtronmental Monitoring (4) Geology (5) Water ~esources (6) Marine Resources and Ocean Surveys (7) Meteorology (8) D~ti IPtn~goment and Communications (9) Multidisciplinary Applications Projects within a particular discipline are further subdivided by user sectors: (a) federal government, (b) state, regional and local, (c) universities, Cd) foreign (including international organizations) and (e) industry Fach project L5 then described on the basis of the organization involved, the specific application, and a brief description of project work. Table 1 presents a summary of the 801 application projects and associated users described in this document. A user is defined as the specific organizational clemcnt or group which is directly involved with NASA in a proiect flenc a major organization such as the U.S. Geological Survey may represent a number of specific using entities The summary matrices are followed by a listing of the ~pecific projoctb SOIL In ordcr to provide a timely response to the Committue this compiL'~tion of activities was assembled in a very short period of time. As a result, th&rc may he some duplication -md overlap between the project li led wimilL conversely there may likely be some omissions However the listing is comprehensive and substantially correct. 234 PAGENO="0237" TABLE 1. SUMMARY OF EXISTING OFFICE OF APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS DISCI?LI~E NUMBER OF USERS Federal State, Regional and Local Universities Foreign Industry SYNOPSIS OF PROJECT APPLICATIONS mineral and hydrocarbon exploration; volcanology avalanche and landslide hazards; regional tecton models; nine safety hazards; surface composition of geological units; identification of najor drainage basins; detection of hydrothermal features; solid earth dynamics; gravity models; discrimination of rock and soil units; use of Data Collection Platforms in volcano surveillanc~ network seisonicity; computation of graviretric geoids; detection and mapping of faults; pinpoint drilling locations for groundwater soirces basic structural studies o Water Resources o Marine Resources and Ocean Surveys Federal - 24 State1 Regional - 8 and Local Universities Foreign Industry Total -g - 12 -4 57 Federal - 46 State, Regional - 6 and Local Universities - 36 Foreign - 29 Industry - _j Total 118 snow cover mapping; themal pollution snowoelt/water run-off modeling; neer-s-~tre ice monitoring; flood hazard mapping; hydrcccic Ian: cover; surface water mapping; watershed scrveys; river monitoring; dam and reservoir nanape:ent; ground water exploration; seasonal chanpes in evapotranspiration and soil moisture; irrige:_~:~ water supply estimation; location of free flowir: artesian wells; flood damage assessment; collutar discharge monitor; laser sensor develocrent correlations between wind, wave and see tt~d:tic~. sea current analysis; sea and lake ice coastal water depth; water quality; ocean tides; coastal land form changes; bathymetr: sediment transport; river discharge; ~;rc:e~ent of fishery productivity; sea state and salinity tides, mean sea level, storm surges; ware ocean geoid measurement; mapping su~e~e topo- graphy; navigational hazards mapmir.c; distribution mapping; plumes of urban surface circulation and turbidity; lccac::c and motion of pollutants c Geology - 12 -6 - 22 - 28 -7 Total 75 PAGENO="0238" TABLE 1. SUMMARY OF EXISTING OFFICE OF APPLICATIONS PPGGPJ~~MS DISCIPLINE NUMBER OF USERS BY SECTOR o Data Management and Communications Federal - 6 State, Regional - C and Local Universities Foreign Industry -5 -8 -4 Total 23 Federal - 26 State, Regional - 14 and Local Universities - 14 Foreign - 126 Industry -_2. Total 187 SYNOPSIS OF PROJECT APPLICATIONS meteorological input to crop forecasting models; global forecasting; atmospheric sounding system; cloud seeding; modeling of tropical wind profiles meso scale weather pattern studies; determi~aticr of wind vectors; use of data collection platfornz in experimental hydrology-meteorology monitoring networks archaeological explorations; cancer research; bic synthesis systems; development of Landsat ground receiving and processing stations; SOIl erosion and sedimentation; drainage basin mapping; droug~ predictions and flood warning; parks ard recreati area planning; environmental impact statements; improvement of geodetic control; energy use asses: ments; delineation of heat loss in urbanized ares educational materials development; data conpres~ and display techniques; water hyacir.ths use as SL source and fertilizer; national resource inventor: by foreign nations; space processing; space altime highpower HF and VHF satellite broadoast carabil~ design and flight readiness reviews of corosercial satellites; studies of frequency, power flux dens requirements, orbital and spectrum utilization ar requirements for communications zatelli~ea; frequ~ management and spectrum planning for national tel communications policy; consultation in automated ground processing; detection and poaiticr. of dow:. aircraft and ships in distress; health ant bio- medical communications; transportable earth stat: for communications to and from disasoer areas; b cost eroaacast sateiiites ~rouna stat~oE5; use or communications to stimulate development in lesser developed nations; automated picture trsnsnissio- from operational weather~satellite; digital vito college curriculum sharing et eminent; anergenc medical communication; state-wide t~~nicaticn system o Meteorology o Multidisciplinary Federal State, Regional and Local Universities Foreign Industry - 19 - 37 - 19 - 25 -3 Total 103 PAGENO="0239" TABLE 1. ~U~2A?~1 OF EXISTING OFFICE OF APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS 0 DISC:?LINE o Agriculture o Land Use Survey and Mapping o Environmental Monitoring NUMBER OF USERS BY SECTOR Federal - 19 State, Regional - 5 and Local Universities - 15 Foreign - 21 Industry - 4 Total 64 Federal - 16 State, Regional - 29 and Local Universities 27 Foreign - 18 Industry - Total 91 Federal - 18 State, Regional - 25 and Local Universities - 30 Foreign - 8 Industry - ~ Total 83 SYNOPSIS OF PROJECT APPLICATIOBS crop inventory and yield estimates; soil moisture mapping; plant vigor and stress analysis; insect and pest infestation monitoring; soil salinity; vegetation phenology monitor!ng; i~rrigated land acreage statistics; timber volume inventory; optimization of insecticide and fertilizer appli- cations; soil acid and nematode stress; freeze warning system; delineation of mosauito egglaying habitat; detection and forecast of environmental conditions conducive to forest fire state-wide natural resources/land use information systems;urban/rural delineations; urban geographi information system; route and site selection; irit. relationship between transportation systems and land use; regional and urban planning; monitoring of land use develogment patterns and land use changes; math modeling for land use prediction; thematic overlays e.g., forestland; orthograp~ic mapping; land capability analysis; photomap produ. tion; cartographic map updates; critical area delineation and mapping; effects of land use chaun on water quality watershed land use analysis monitoring of stripped mined lands and rec1amatio~ environmental impact on stratosphere; pre- and po construction land cover inventories; wildlife habitat mapping; pesticide run-off; lake eutrophic tion; wildlife migration monitoring; ocean dumpin- monitoring; monitoring of turbidity, salinity, se ment transport, modeling of water pollution to turbidity and sediment tra~ancrt; detection of o~ slicks; wetlands inventory and napping; effects o pollutants on troposphere; rezreation site select extent and outfall from channel dredging; develop-~ ment of filtration systems for nunicipal wastevat treatment system; monitoring of algal movement; fire damage assessment; thernal outflows from pc plants PAGENO="0240" 238 AGRICULTURE PAGENO="0241" FEDERAL OR'LANIZATIO!~ APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTI~N ECONOMIC RESEARCH SERVICE (ERS), IRRIGATION SYSTEMS Evaluation of the use of Landsat data USDA in the delirieatio~ of irrigation systems and irrigated lands in the People's Republic of China, as iccut to ERS's foreian crop production estimates prcqrams USDA - APR15 COTTON DETECTION Develop technicues for use of remote PLANT PROTECTION AND QUARANTINE sensing to detect cotton fields and aid in cotton boll weevil eradication trial FOREST SCIENCES LABORATORY FUSIFORM RUST IN SOUTHERN PINES Apply remotely sensed data to research U.S. FOREST SERVICE on fusiform rust in southern pines, GULFPORT, MISSISSIPPI particularly to explore the relation- ship between the distribution of oak species and the intensity of rust infestations in pine USDA SOIL NAPPING Identify the techniques and procedures required to map saline soils by use of remotely sensed multiscanner and photographic data U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEST (SCREww0RM) Development of a technique, using & MEXICAN GOVERNMENT ERADICATION meteorologic satellite data and sparse ground data, to predict favorable habitats for screwworrn infestation U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WHEAT PRODUCTION ESTIMATION Development of a Landsat-based system, also using meteorologic data and historic data, to test feasibility of producing wheat production estimates at various times on a country-by- country basis. (Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment-LACIE) PAGENO="0242" FEDERAL ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION U.S. FOREST SERVICE FORESTRY APPLICATIONS PROJECT Development of techniques and procedures for using remote sensor data for assisting in conducting forest and rangeland inventories--including soils inventory, timber inventory, land use planning assistance processes and resource base surveys uSDA FOREST LAND AND RANGELAND Classify forest and land use and INVENTORY measure changes; identify microecc- systems of mountain valley area for rangeland inventory from data collected at orbital altitude USDA/SRS CROP INVENTORY Landsat data used to help with crop inventory/classification throughout the entire growing season of selected regions of Illinois, Kansas, and Texas 1JSDA/ARS (AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CROP SURVEY Crop identification, acreage estimation SERVICE) yield determination, and other functions related to crop production assessment USDL/SRS (STATISTICAL REPORTING CROP INFORMATION SERVICE Satellite Data examined for SERVICE) construction of sampling frames, selection of sample segments, and enumeration of crops with segment boundaries. Errors and costs will be compared with those of present (non-satellite data use) method USDA/FOREST SERVICE FOREST INVENTORY Landsat, high flight aircraft, and ground data used in a multistage sampling concept to locate and monitor forest resources PAGENO="0243" FEDERAL ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT (BLM) RANGELAND SUR'TFY Value of Landsat imagery to determine relative plant populatioi~, map develop- merit of plants, and predict future production based on past growth and weather conditions NATICNAL CAPITOL PARK SERVICE FORESTRY STRESS Study of most effective remote sensing techniques for early identification of stressed elm trees infected with the Dutch elm disease USDA LARGE AREA CROP INVENTORY Benefit cost analysis of a crop estima- NOAA EXPERIMENT (LAdE) tion system based on LACIE PAGENO="0244" STATE, REGIONAL AND LOCAL ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION LOUISIANA MOSQtITO CONTROL MOSQUITO CONTROL Develop and dexsnstrate resEte sensing ASSOCIATION techniques to produce marsh vegetation naps from which prime moscuito egg laying habitats will be inferred so as to focus control operations STATE OF OREGON FOREST DAMAGE ASSESSMENT Landsat data used to measure wind storm damage assessment to timber lands in Oregon TEXAS PARDS & WILDLIFE LARGE AREA VEGETATION Use of Landsat data and automatic DEPARTMENT MAPPING processing techniques to map the major vegetal assemblages of Texas for use in wildlife habitat deter- mination CALIP'ORNIA DIVISION OF FORESTRY FOREST FIRE PREDICTION Automated sampling, transmission, reception and dissemination of weather data suspectible to initiation of forest fire (wind speed and direction, temperature, etc.) using satellite Data Collection System (DCS). ALABAMA TORESTRY COMMISSION FORESTRY DISEASE DETECTION Studies of Southern pine beetle and disease damage detection and predic- tions in state and private forest lands PAGENO="0245" UNIVERSITIES ORGANIZATIONS School of Forestry and Conservation University of California Department of Agricultural Economics Michigan State University Texas A&M University University of California Remote Sensing Institute South Dakota State University APPLICATION Regional Crop Inventory Regional Crop Inventory Vegetation Phenology Monitoring Water Utilization Soil Moisture Mapping PROJECT DESCRIPTION Assess usefulness of Skylab data in agricultural resource evalua- tion and inventories Evaluate the utility of manually interpreting Skylab imagery for crop inventory on a regional scale, and test an automated pattern recognition and area computation system Regional monitoring of the vernal advancement and retrogradation of natural vegetation Satellite imagery used to provide periodic irrigated land acreage statistics on a regional basis Develop techniques and procedures, using multispectral systems, to identify from remotely sensed data the physical and thermal characteristics of plants and soil Correlation study of southern pine beetle infestations and geophysical conditions using remote sensing Develop a remote sensing system to identify, by number and location, Oitrus trees suffering from young tree decline North Georgia College University of Florida Flordia Citrus Mutual Forestry Citrus Young Tree Decline PAGENO="0246" UNIVERSITIES ORGANIZATIONS APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION Virginia Polytechnic and State Agriculture (Agro- Development of an integrated University Environmental System) sensor,data processing and crop model system which provides the agricultural industry with forecast information to optimize crop yield, insecticide and fertilizer applications for select crop species Georgia Institute of Technology (1) Agriculture Computer processing of Georgia peach tree decline data in cooperation with USDA Agricul- ture Research Service (2) Land-use Demonstrate automated land-use mapping from Landsat CCT's to Georgia Office of Planning and Budget and Georgia Dept. of Natural Resources. Use data in math model developed by Georgia Dept. of Transportation and Univ. of Georgia (3) Information Retrieval Assist Georgia State Aqencies in implementation of automated land resources information retrieval system Virginia Polytechnic Institute Agricultural Resources A~plication of remote sensing and State University to provide plant vigor and stress comparisons under winter conditions at the Blackstone, Virginia Research Station PAGENO="0247" UNIVERSITY APPLICATION (1) EARTH RESOURCES (1) FORESTRY (21 WATER QUALITY PROJECT DESCRIPTION Engineering Design Studies in earth resources information systems and energy areas Demonst-ratioi project- investigating the value of remote sensing in detection of soil acidity and rematode stress in cotton, peanuts, and tomatoes in cooneration with USDA agriculture Study of Southern Pine Beetle infes- tation and prediction and other forest 5tre~s detection using remote sensing as a tool Study of water quality baseline at site of future Bellefonte. Nuclear Plant on the Tennessee River in Alabama (31 GROUND TRUTH VNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA (IFAS) FREEZE WARNING SYSTEM NOAA-NALIONAL WEATHER SERVICE FLORIDA CITRUS MUTUAL General ground truth collection in support of remote sensing research Develop improved freeze prediction model to allow more efficient and timely decisions required for protection of agricultural croos from freeze damage Perform cluster analysis and full- frame supervised classificati~- of Landsat data in Illinois Develop means to spectrally meanure a drainage area and predict Soil Conservation Service runoff curve numbers (21 AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION AUBURN UNIVERSITY ALABAMA A&M UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AGRICULTURAL CROP ACREAGE (IN COOPERATION WITH USDA/STATISTICAL REPORTING SERVICE TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY SOIL RUNOFF PAGENO="0248" FOREIGN ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION 1N FOOD AND AGRICULTURE REGIONAL CROP INVENTORIES Study of the Sudan, North Africa; ORGANIZATION (FAO) AND INFESTATION MONITORING Columbia, South America; and the Philippine Islands with the purpose of crop inventory and insect infes- tation monitoring INSTrrUT0 NACIONAL DE TECHNOLOGIA SOIL MAPPING Identify the techniques and procedures AGROPECUARRA, ARGENTINA required to map saline soils by use of remotely sensed multiscanner and photographic data ARGENTINA AGRICULTURAL SURVEY Crop identification, quantification and census CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC GENERAL AGRICULTURE Soil mapping, vegetation mapping, forest resources mapping, forest disease monitoring KENYA RANGE SURVEY Combining Landsat-derived data with regular inflow of research ground truth data for updating ecosystems models and generating area manage- ment plans LESOTHO GENERAL AGRICULTURE & GEOLOGY Use of Landsat for inventory of land use, crop production, range manage- ment, soil conservation, and geology NIGERIA FOREST INVENTORY Examine usefulness of Landsat data for mapping location of forested areas and monitoring deforestation UNITED NATIONS (FAO) SOIL SURVEY Utility of Landsat data for preparing 1:5,000,000 soil map examined PAGENO="0249" FOREIGE ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PW)JECT DESCRIPTION !LNE PLAN ORGANIZATION NATIONAL RESOURCE INVENTORY Assess Skylab imagery usefulness in IRAN - contributing signif&cant data to agriculture, forestry and rangeland - inventory in Iran INPE * REGIONAL RESOURCE INVENTORY Obtain data to identify crops and BRAZIL crop~eas of Brazil INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE TECHNOBGIA REGIONAL RANGE INVENTORY Improve present knowledge of the AGRGPECUARRA, ARGENTINA natural and agriculture-livestock resources of the Humid Pampa INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AGRICULTURE Landsat data used as information AND DEVELOPMENT adjunct to agronomy studies of rice crops in major food source area of Eastern India uSSR ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AGRICULTURE AND VEGETATION Remote Sensing of agriculture crops and natural vegetation at analogous US and USSR test sites involving exchange of ground truth and inultispectral data from aircraft and spacecraft NEW ZEALAND TIMBER SURVEY Indigenous forest assessment to be - investigated using a six-stage sampling approach of which the initial stage is satellite imagery UPPER VOLTA GENERAL AGRICULTURE, WATER Crop production areas, soil types, & MINERAL moisture distribution, vegetation and vegetation pattern, underground water sources, update of existing geological maps PAGENO="0250" FOREIGN OROANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION ITALY CROPS & FORESTRY Crops: Rice field inventory, disease recognition Forestry: Species identification, volume inventory, disease identification AUSTRALIA RANGE SURVEY Capeweed distribution mapping AUSTRALIA AGRICULTURE LAND USE Cleared, semi-cleared, and cropland to be mapped SRI LANKA GENERAL AGRICULTURE Land use, timber survey, general cartociraphy, geologic information SWAZILAND GENERAL AGRICULTURE Soils mapping, land use, forest inventory, ground water and identif i- cation, coal resources evaluation PAGENO="0251" INDUSTPY ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION EARTH SATELLITE CORPORATION TIMBER PRODUCTION AND Design a multistage eutomatic pattern FOREST MANAGEMENT recognition system to perform forest inventories using data from Skylab aircraft and ground maps WEYE~MAEUSER LUMBER COMPANY COMMERCIA]~ PINE Development and transfer of an informa- N CAROLINA REGION FORE~T INVENTOPY tion extraction process for Landaat data to supplement the aerial surveying methods now used to undate forest stand records EARTH SATELLITE CORPORATION VEGETATIVE MAPS Develop a uniform legend and Drocedure for the napping and classification of the natural resources on a global basis PAGENO="0252" 250 LAND USE SURVEY AND MAPPING PAGENO="0253" FEDEPAL ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION M~P flEVISION Determine degree of correlation USGS between Skylab space image details and map culture details for purposes of nap revision. NOAA-NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY (NOS) MAP CONTROL Investigate the feasibility of utilizing Skylab inagery for analytic aerotri- angulation methods to provide low-order high-density control network suitable for small-scale napping applications. USGS. CAHTOGRAPHY Evaluate the cartographic accuracy and the geometric characteristics of the Skylab S192 multispectral scanner system images. USGS CARTOGRAPHY Evaluate Skylab sensor (SI9O) as a cartographic system relative to aeometricai fidelity, spatial fidelity, spatial resolution, spectral discrimination and fidelity, and resultant cartographic products and their utility. USGS PHOTOMAPPING Demonstrate the use of Skylab film images in pioduction of photomap products. Investigate methods of enhancements and use of image color to determine best parameters for the base products and production. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS URBAN CHANGE Monitoring urban change annually of GEOGRAPHIC APPLICATION BRANCH Washington, D.C. Distinguishing pre- dominantly, urban census tracts from those predominantly rural. PAGENO="0254" DEPT. OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT HARVARD UNIVERSITY/MIT JOINT CENTER FOR URBAN STUDIES HOUSTON, TEXAS WORCESTER, MASS. DAYTON, OHIO RGCHESTER, NEW YORK CHARLOTTE, NORTH CAROLINA NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT USGS THEMATIC MAPPING PRGJECT DESCRIPTION Research in mathematical modeling for prediction of land-use. Monitor change from remotely sensed data and prepare thematic maps organized by census tract. Using MILUS (Multiple Input Land Use System) to incorporate statistical data into files. FEDERAL ORGANIZATION APPLICATION OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY LAND-USE URBAN CHANGE Produce thematic graphics which can be conveniently related to the ground and to existing maps in formats that will permit analysis of thematic and or temporal changes from Skylab photographic data. PAGENO="0255" 0 FEDERAL ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION NOAA ORTHOGRAPHIC NAPPING Evaluate the utility of Landsat imagery in deterr~ination and delineation of vegetative boundaries. USGS ORTHOGRAPHIC NAPPING Evaluation of Skylab and Landsat-~2 imagery as inputs to the generation of specifications for an operational earth resources survey satellite. USGS ORTHOGRAPHIC NAPPING Develop a line of imoroved photographic diazo and lithographic materials. USDA SOIL CONSERVATION SOIL CLASSIFICATION Investigate the use of remote sensing SERVICE technology in the preparation of soil classification maps. GEOGRAPHIC APPLICATIONS URBAN CHANGE DETECTION Assess the role of Skylab's remote PROGRAM & INFORMATION SYSTEMS sensors forthe comparative study of USGS selected U.S. urban areas. Test the utility of the satellite sensors and sensor platforms to monitor gross changes in urban environments. GEOGRAPHIC APPLICATIONS REGIONAL INFORMATION Using Skylab data as an input to the PROGRAM SYSTEMS design and test of the feasibility of USGS a regional environmental information system. PAGENO="0256" STATE, LOCAL AND REGIONAL TOP OF ALABAMA REGIONAL COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS (TARCOG) HUNTSVILLE, AL CITY OF LOS ANGELES, CALIF. PLANNING DEPARTMENT COMMUNITY ANALYSIS BUREAU TENNESSEE VALLEY LAND USE AUTHORITY PROJECT DESCRIPTION (1) Develop, and establish a state-wide land use natural resource data and information system base on satellite data. (2) Study of land use effects in West Tennessee Wetlands. Develop and establish a state-wide land use and natural resources data and information retrieval system based on earth satellite data. Demonstration production of land use maps front Landsat Computer Compatible Tapes (CCT's). Use of census urban atlas file and Landsat data to generate two thematic maps on utban - land use and on resi4ential land use (quality of housing). (1) Cooperative research in land use mapping using aircraft and satellite imagery. (2) Study of land use effects in and near public owned land--in cooperation with NASA and Oak Ridge National Laboratories CORNL). rA~IZATI(,~ APPLICATION IENflESSEE STATE PLANNING OFFICE LAND USE ALABAMA DEVELOPMENT OFFICE LAND USE LAND USE LAND USE PAGENO="0257" STATE, LOCAL AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATION MISSOURI INTERAGENCY COUNCIL ON NATURAL RESOURCES INFORMATION MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI (COLUMBIA) UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT ROLLA APPLICATION LAND USE GEOLOGY, EARTH RESOURCES INFORMATION SYSTEM PROJECT DESCRIPTION User applications demonstration project to investigate res~te sensing as the primary tool to develop a state-wide natural resources information system with emphasis on (1) land resources classification, (2) mined area identification and monitoring, (3) charge detection in forest and grass areas, and (4) permanent versus seasonal wetlands identification and management. CITY OF TACOMA, WASHINGTON NEW ORLEANS REGIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION TENNESSEE-TOMBIGBEE WATERWAY DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION (COLUMBUS MISSISSIPPI) STATE OF FLORIDA GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH COMMISSION STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA BETHUNE-CQOENAN COLLEGE LAND USE, WATER TRANSPORTATION, AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT LANDSAT UNSUPERVISED SIGNATURE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Development of an urban-geographic information system, integrating user census and U-2 remote sensing files. This project will be extended to Pierce County using Landsat data. Thematic classification of areas of St. Tammany Parish from Landsat images and incorporation into files using Multiple Input Land Use System (HILUS). Use of remotely sensed data to aid in planning of a water route connecting the Tennessee river and the Gulf of Mexico via Mobile Bay. Develop an unsupervised (autcmatic) classifi- cation system for Landsat MSS scenes which can be used by users with modest computer resources and technical expertise. LAND USE LAND USE PAGENO="0258" ORGANIZATION NEW ORLEANS REGIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION TULANE UNIVERSITY LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY IN NEW ORLEANS SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY DILLARD UNIVERSITY XAVIER UNIVERSITY PROJECT DFSCPIPTION Application of satellite-deri7ed land use information to highway planning, using a state-developed math model. STATE, LOCAL AND REGIONAL GEORGIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPOFTATION APPLICATION HIGHWAY PLANNING URBAN PLANNING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS COLOR THEMATIC MAPS FOR SUBSEQUENT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IOWA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY A joint demonstration activity ~as conducted with the Regional Planning C~miiission, (RPC) representing the five parishes of the entire New Orleans metropolitan area, to determine potential applications of remote sensing to the interrelationship of transportation and various urban environn~ntal troblems. A NASA scientist was assigned to the RPC on intergovernmental loan to continue assisting them in applications of remote sensing data to urban plann- ing and development. Pk~epare maps of materials, landforns and land use encompassing an 11 county area in South Central Iowa from computer enhanced Landsat 2 digital data. PAGENO="0259" ORGANIZATION MINNESOTA STATE PLANNING AGENCY FEDERATION OF ROCKY MOUNTAIN STATES BREVARD CO. (FLA.) BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS STATE, LOCAL AND RF~IONAL APPLICATION LAND USE CLASSIFICATION LAND USE CLASSIFICATION LAND USE CLASSIFICATION PRO3ECT DESCRIPTION Investigate the potential of Landsat data as input in a statewide resource data system. Continuous land use survey of six characteristical interstate sites by a consortium of six Rocky Mountain States. Regional and Urban planning applications in the surroundings of Disney World. PAGENO="0260" ORGANIZATION APPLICATION NEBRASKA OFFICE OF PLANNING & LAND USE CLASSIFICATION RESOURCES OHIO DEPT. OF ECONOMICAL LAND USE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BREVARD COUNTY PLANNING URBAN & LOCAL PLANNING DEPT. (FLA.) PROJECT DESCRIPTION Develop uses of Landsat imagery to obtain & update resource data for land use plannina by state and local agencies. Post earthquake disaster assessment techniques. Fire assessment techniques Development of proorams for the routine use of satellites data in land use resources management and environmental activities in Ohio. Evaluate the potential of Skylab imagery for environmental auality, agricultural and forestry, and geographic applica- tions in the state of Ohio. Detect and identify significant land use development patterns and monitor land use changes for regional planning purposes from Skylab photography. Determine the utility of various spectral bands for land use analyses from Skylab's pnotograpnic data. STATE, LOCAL AND REGIONAL STATE OF CALTFORNIA STATE OF CALIFORNIA EARTH RESOURCES EARTH RESOURCES OHIO STATE DEPARTMENT NATURAL RESOURCES OF DEVELOPMENT TRI STATE TRANSPORTATION REGIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION PAGENO="0261" UNIVEPSITY ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY USER AFFAIRS APPLICATIONS Seminars directed toward ozerational EDUCATION IN LAND USE, FORESTRY application of Landsat data for U.S. NATIONAL PARKS SERVICE federal, state, local and regional agencies. NORTE CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY LAND USE ACTIVITIES Use of Skylab data in three different geomorphic and geographic areas in North Carolina in statewide regional land use planning, geoloaic mapping programs. LARS LAND USE MAPPING Use of Skylab imagery to obtain data PURDUE UNIVERSITY on the forest cover, raricelands, and alpine cover. UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE LAND USE (1) Establish liaison with state agencie~ (KNOXVILLE) concerned with agriculture, forestry, and land use to determine their data requirements and demonstrate the utility of remotely sensed data to their needs. (2) Perform an indepth and rigorous testing of Landsat data as a multiscale, multispectral, seasonal geography tool for delimiting, monitoring, and mapping wetlands in West Tennessee. LARS LAND USE MAPPING Use of Skylab data with emphasis on PURDUE UNIVERSITY crop identification, acreage mensura- tion and urban studies. UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO LAND USE Development of digital automatic data processing techniques to establish a quasi-operational land use analysis model. PAGENO="0262" UNIVERSITY ORGANIZATION APPLICATION SCHOOL OF FORESTRY AND CONSERVATION TJNIVEPSITy OF CALIFORNIA NEW YORK STATE COLLEGE OP AGRICULTtJRN CORNELL UNIVERSITY SCNOOL OF FORESTRY AND LAND USE MONITORING CONVERSATION UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PH)JECT DESCRIPTION Map selected vegetation-soil systems and land forms in the southern Califor'~ia desert Determine the amount of land use information retrievable from satellite derived data. Detection of the land use chanqes including the general morphology and spread of urban areas. Mapping of the spatial effects of pollution in the basins of southern California. Determine the applicability of enhanced Skylab multispectral photographic and scanner data for mepping ecological, geological, and oceanographic parameters of Delaware Bay. (1) Study investigations of land use spectral signatures (2) Study to~ develop a three-dimension& time dependent flow field model. Studies of effects of land use on water quality in forested and strip mined areas in eastern Kentucky and the evaluation of this capability to Kentucky state agencies. LAND USE EcOSYSTEM DEFINITION LAND INVENTORY COLLEGE OF MARINE STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE LAND USE INVENTORIES & BAY AREA LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY Cl) LAND USE (BATON ROUTE) (2) WATER QUALITY UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY LAND USE PAGENO="0263" UNIVERSITY ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION VIP MENTAL RESEARCH RECREATION SITE ANALYSIS Identify and map categories of land INSTITUTE OF MICHIGAN use, vegetation, soils, and water bodies THE ~NIVE?SITY OF MICHIGAN and natural and cultural features of special interest in recreation site analysis. TJ&IVERSITy OF TENNESSEE LAND USE Perform an indepth and rigorous testing of Landsat data as a multiscale, multi- spectral, seasonal geography tool for delimiting, monitoring, and 1'~apping wetlands in West Tennessee. Evaluate the data requirements of state agencies and demonstrate the utility of remotely sensed data to their needs. UNIVERSITY OF DENVER URBAN LAND USE Use of remote sensing to detect urban environmental quality. SCIENCE ENGINEERING COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT Relate on site radiometric ground RESEARCH GROUP spectra measurements to space C.W. POST CENTER acquired imagery. LONG ISLAND UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE LAND USE AND STANDING WATER Perform a land use and standing-water OF MICHIGAN INVENTORY inventory of portions of the Lake Tfli~ UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Ontario drainage basin, measure soil moisture content in selected areas of the basin, and map the pattern of surface currents in the western part of the Lake. PAGENO="0264" FOREIGN ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION COMISION DE ESTUDIOS LAND USE Determine land use classification DEL TERRITORIO using Skylab data. NACIONAL MEXICO SECRETARIA DE LAND USE/IRRIGATION Identify areas in Mexico where cropland RECURSOS irrigation is or should be used and HIDROULICOS, when such irrigation should be applied. MEXICO DIRECCION GENERAL LAND USE PLANNING Identify soil types and land use, AND MANAGEMENT locate areas of improper land use, erosion, etc., determine locations suitable for land or forest reclamation projects INTER-AMERICAN PHOTOMAPPING MAP REVISIONS Introduce the use of Skylab imagery to GEODETIC SURVEY the Latin American Cartographic Community CANAL ZONE by tailoring specific area experiments DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, PHOTOMAPPING Assess the imagery, accuracies and cost MINES AND RESOURCES effectiveness of photography from the CANADA Skylab S19OA and S19OB sensors, for 1:50,000, 1:100,000 and 1:250,000 scale mapping and/or revision activities HUNTING SURVEYS LTD MAP CONTROL AND Evaluate the use of Skylab multispectral ENGLAND ThEMATIC MAPPING photographic imagery of Nepal for (1) photogrammetric control. (2) the production of original and revision mappinq and (3) the interpretation of special features such as forest areas and limits of snow and ice-fields PAGENO="0265" FOREIGN ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PRDJECT DESCRIPTION MEXICO LAND USE CLASSIFICATION Evaluation of Landsat imagery for updating maps and ~e~erating non existent thematic naps. SPAIN LAND USE CLASSIFICATION Multidisciplinary studies and land use mapping in Central Spain. LAND USE CLASSIFICATION Multidisciplinary studies and mapping (NAT'L INSTITUTE OF GEOGRAPHY) of the Dorean Peninsula and its waters. BOLIVIA (GEOBOL) ORTHOGRAPHIC MAPPING National land use surveys and mineral resources development. ROMANIA LAND USE CLASSIFICATION Evaluation of Landsat data to inventory (NULTI.AGENCY) and monitor changes in the multidis- ciplinary characteristics of the Danube Delta. VENEZUELA THEMATIC MAPPING Regional Resources inventory in the (MULTI-AGENCY) unexplored hinterland. MINISTRY OF MINES AND ENERGY LAND USE ACTIVITIES Use of Skylab generated information in DNFM - PROJECT RADAM BRAZIL the overall understanding and control of national resources in the Amazon Basin by the Brazilian government. DEPARTMENT OF MINES & GEOLOGY NATURAL RESOURCES INVENTORY Delineate natural resource character- MINISTRY OF INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT istics and their temporal and spatial AND PUBLIC WORKS changes in Mali from Skylab data. REPUBLIC OF MALI SECRETARIA DE RECURSOS LAND USE Determine land use classification HIDRAULICOS using Skylab data. MEXICO PAGENO="0266" P1~)JECT DESCRIPTION National Resources Inventory National Resources Inventory Study of the landforms and soils of New Zealand. OI~3PNIZATION BOTSWANA (MULTI-AGENCY) PERU (MULTI-AGENCY) NEW ZEALAND (NULTI-AGENCY) FOREIGN APPLICATION LAND USE CLASSIFICATION LAND USE CLASSIFICATION LAND USE CLASSIFICATION PAGENO="0267" INDUSTRY ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIpTION EARI'H SATELLITE CORPORATION LAND USE MAPPING Examination of the practical issues in improving semi automatic land use mapping from Skylab data. PAGENO="0268" 266 ENVIRONMENT MONITORING PAGENO="0269" FEDERAL ORGANI ZATION United States Army Corps of Engineers Baltimore District Environmental Protection Agency Cold Regions Research Laboratory US Army Corps of Engineers Hanover, New Hampshire USA Corps of Engineers US Department of Transportation National Center for ~Atmospheric (NCAR) Research Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development APPLICATION Environmental Quality Western Energy Remote Overhead Monitoring System Environmental Monitoring Environment Stratospheric Research Stratospheric Research Air Pollution Monitoring PROJECT DESCRIPTION Monitoring and enforcing environ- mental laws and regulations in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland Demonstrate operational remote sensor techniques to rapidly monitor the extent to which an energy ex- traction site has been, or is being, rehabilitated to a state suitable for its intended or previous land useage. Experimental applications of Data Collection Platforms to monitor Alaska pipeline route. Predict changes occurring during construction and stage filling of reservoirs Evaluate the environmental impact of high flying aircraft on the stratosphere Aircraft and balloon flights to measure stratospheric gaseous and particulate species To measure environmental parameters associated with the generation of electrical energy and other pollu- tion sources PAGENO="0270" FEDERAL ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION US Army Corps of Engineers Environmental Impact Monitoring and characterizing the US Army Construction Engineer- ecology and environment before, ing Research Laboratory during and after the construction of a reservoir Bureau of Sport Fisheries & Wildlife habitat To determine quantity and quality of Wildlife inventory waterfowl production habitat in the USD.t northcentral US from Skylab Sl92 date EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) Pesticide Run-off Investigate the application of re- USDA (DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE) mote sensing techniques for deter- mining stream contributions of pollution from pesticides and nutrients Environmental Protection In-situ remote coliform Develop remote, in-situ coliforn Agency, Region II Division bacteria monitoring monitoring system incorporating of Surveillance and Analysis in the New York Bight NASA coliform sensor on data collec- tion platforms EPA, Las Vegas, Nevada Water Quality Classification of lake eutlofication (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) from remotely sensed data USD1, Fish & Wildlife Wildife habitat Use of Landsat data for prediction Service surveys of wildfowl breeding population based on availability of surface water and quality of vegetation cover in wetlands Division of Wildlife Research Wildlife Monitoring Follow movements of selected polar US Dept. of Interior bears to determine habitats Anchorage, Alaska Chincoteague National Wildlife Ecology Provide measurements of a freshwater Refuge reservoir on Assateague Island PAGENO="0271" FEDERAL ORG~NIZAT1O APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION Environmental Protection Remote Monitoring of Evaluation of remote sensing Protection Ocean Dumping techniques for monitoring ocean Agencj Region II dumping in the New York Bight PAGENO="0272" STATE ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION Maryland Geological Survey Strip mine monitoring and Determine the ability to detect, & Bureau of Mines inventory classify and monitor strip mines through computer processing of Landsat Data West Virginia Dept. Natural resource Inventory and evaluate natural re- Natural Resources inventory sources throughout the state for planning and protection of lands for recreational use Hydrological and environmental Use of in-situ data collection Louisiana Wildlife & Fish surveys platforms with satellite data relay Commission to monitor remote areas of the Atchafalaya Basin Commission Atchafalaya Basin Mississippi Air & Water Environmental monitoring Use of in-situ data collection Pollution Control Commission platforms with satellite data relay to monitor water quality in Pearl River Maryland Department of Natural Environmental Quality Synoptic studies of the extent and Resources outfall from channel dredging at Chesapeake Biological Labora- the mouth of the Patapsco River tories Chesapeake Bay Institute Alaska Dept. of Wildlife habitat Identify and map habitats critical Fish & Game surveys to well-being of cribou, moose and Dall sheep populations in northeast and east-central Alaska PAGENO="0273" STATE ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION State of Florida Department Biological Control of Develop a remote sensing system to of Natural Resources Aquatic Weeds detect and determine the biomass of noxious submergent and floating aquatic vegetation Kentucky Dept. of Surface mine mapping Use of Landsat data to map, measure Natural Resources & & inventory and inspect surface coal mining opera Environmental Protection tions in Kentucky States of Kentucky Water Quality Remote determination of soil charac- and Ohio teristics in strip mined areas Commonwealth of Virginia, Atmospheric Measurements To assist the state in their atmo- State Air Pollution Control and Modeling spheric monitoring programs Bay St. Louis, Mississippi and Use of aquatic vegetation to Develop final filtration system for Orange Grove Mississippi remove pollutants from muni- wastewater sewage lagoons using Sanitation Departments cipal sewage lagoon aquatic vegetation to remove pollu- tants. Calif. Water Resources Lake & River Pollution Use of Landsat as a monitoring and Control Board surveys surveillance system for regular assessment of the condition of waters in the state Gulf Coast Waste Disposal Municipal, community waste Development of a system for providing Authority water treatment facility water quality monitoring in "real time" as opposed to lengthy tests presently required. LAKE COUNTY (CALIF.) FLOOD CONTPCL Water quality Aerial photography to monitor algal and Water COnservation Dis- movement trict/ Clear Lake Algal Research Unit PAGENO="0274" STATE ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION State of Pennsylvania Strip mining monitoring Examination and analysis of current Department of Environ- Landsat data for enforcement of mental Resources Pennsylvania surface njn~!~g Conser- vation and Reclamation Act Orange County Sanitation Municipal Wastewater Support construction and performance Districts, Orange County, Treatment System evaluation of 1,000,000 gallons per California day municipal pilot plant using NASA- Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) State of Kentucky Environment Feasibility Analysis of the Employ- ment of satellite imagery to monitor and inspect surface mining opera- tions State of California Environment Development of a comprehensive statewide monitoring and surveil- lance system to detect incipient water quality problems before pollu- tion damage becomes critical PAGENO="0275" PROJECT DESCRIPTION Study to define points of entry for potential contaminants in Limestone Acquifers Study to establish baseline water quality and environmental condition of Tennessee River at site of Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (Alabama) Development t echniques to examine th reflection of clean and contaminated water surfaces Aircraft and satellite re~ote sen- sing data of the Hampton Roads area will be used in pollution medels Studies of use of earth satellite remote sensing data together with ground truth information for moni- toring of turbidity, salinity, sediment transport, and other pollu- tion parameters in Mobile Bay Math modeling of Mobile Bay water pollution relationship to turbidity and sediment transport. This pro- ject is in conjunction with the activity with Alabama Marine Sci- ences Consortium UNIVERSITY ORGANIZATIO~ APPLICATION University of Alabama Water Quality (Huntsville) University of Alabama Water Quality (Huntsville) DC Teachers College Water Quality Old Dominion University Environmental Quality Alabama Marine Environmental Water Quality and Environ- Sciences Consortium mental Pollution University of Alabama Water Quality (Tuscaloosa) PAGENO="0276" UNIVERSITY ORGANI ZATION Jackson State University Jackson, Mississippi APPLICATION Research in marshland ecology PROJECT DESCRIPTION To relate salinity, water depth, and other ecological parameters to marsh plant species associations that can be detected with ren~te sensors Environmental Research Institute of Michigan The University of Michigan Water Quality and Oil spills Determine the feasibility of using remote sensing from space to detect extent of oil slicks on water Virginia Institute of Marine Science Department of Biology The American University University of California Davis Cranbrook Institute of Science, Michigan Water Quality Wetland Mapping Water Quality Lake & River Pollution surveys Investigate applicability and feasi- bility of space sensing of the south- ern Chesapeake Bay environment and its changes Utilizing Skylab data t~' ~eIineate and map wetlands communities Use of aerial photography to map sediment plumes entering Lake Tahoe Demonstrate use of Landsat for opera- tional monitoring of late eutrophi- cation Univ. of Wyoming, Univ. of Colorado, Univ. of Maryland Massachusetts Institute of Tech., Harvard University, Univ. of Michigan, and George Washington University Univ. of Rhode Island, Univ. of Delaware, Univ. of Cali- fornia at Berkley, Old Do- minion Univ., and Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences Stratospheric Air Quality Water Quality Use of NASA support, satellite and aircraft measurements to improve the state of knowledge on strato- spheric composition and processes Use of NASA support, satellite and aircraft measurements to improve the state of knowledge on the effects of pollutants in water bodies PAGENO="0277" ORGANIZATION Old Dominion Univ., Cleveland State Univ., Univ. of Maryland, Columbia Univ., Univ. of California at Los Angc~1es, and National Center for Atmospheric Research UNIVERSITY APPLICATION Tropospher~~Air Quality PROJECT DESCRIPTION Use of NASA support, satellite and aircraft measurements to improve the state of knowledge on the effectE ~ of pollutants in the troposphere PAGENO="0278" Chicago Field Museum Ecology of Natural History & Mexican Natn'l. Inst. of Biotic Resources Central Lab. for Geo- Environmental Surveys photogrammetry, Germany Japan Forest Agency; Environmental Surveys Tokai Regional Fish Research Laboratory Botanical Research Institute Environmental Surveys of South Africa Mexico - Comision Nacional Multidisciplinary de; Espacio Exterior (CONEE) and various Mexican agencies Canada Centre for Inland Waters PROJECT DESCRIPTION Landsat data used to evaluate ecolo- gical effects of dam construction and flooding, and deforestration in tropical Mexico (area of Vera Cruz) Use of Landsat data for hydrologic, geologic & oceanographic interpre- tations of areas in Germany Investigation of environmental chang patterns in Japan; focus on water pollution vegetative changes air pollution Use of Landsat to observe and mea- sure extent of fires, to assist in range land management Familiarization of Mexican personnel with US Earth Resources Program; Agriculture, Forestry, Geology, Hy- drology, geography, cartography, and oceanography Exchange of US and Soviet satellite data in effort to understand such factors as temperature, moisture, and topographic changes over conti- nents, polar ice, and oceans Evaluate Skylab data for water man- agement studies FOREIGN ORGANI ZATION APPLICATION USSR - Academy of Science Earth Resources Water Quality PAGENO="0279" FOREIGN OP~ANIZATIONS APPLICATION PROJECF DESCRIPTION INSTITUTE OF INDUSTRIAL MONITORING ENVIRSNMENTAL Monitor the temperature SCIENCE CHANGE distrthution of heated water UNIVERSITY OF TOKYO caused by the outflow of cooling water from thermal power plants. PAGENO="0280" INDUSTRY ORGANIZATIONS APPLICATION PRGJECT DESCRIPTION WOLF RESEAI~N & DEVELOPMENT STRIP MINING MONITORING Detect strip mines and ascertain CORPORATION their ecological effects using remote sensing data. CAT.SPAN, INC. WATER QUALITY Develop interpretation techniques NEW YORK for satellite monitoring of lake turbidity and eutrophication. PAGENO="0281" 279 GEOLOGY PAGENO="0282" FEDERAL ORGANIZATIONS APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION U.S. Geological Survey Structural Mapping Using Landsat, mapping geological International Geology Branch structures of Saudi Arabia for mineral resources U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Geologic mapping of Landsat Mapping & Mineral imagery over many test sites in & Hydrocarbon S. America will include the study * Exploration of regional and local structural and tectonic patterns and their relationships to known ore and petroleum deposits U.S. Geological Survey Regional Geologic The preparation of Landsat geologic Mapping for Resources and hydrologic maps will aid in Development such development programs as mining and irrigation. Major product will be a geologic photo map for the entire area of the Yeman Arab Republic U.S. Naval Research Laboratory Microwave Signatures Utilize the Sl93 radar altimeter and Terrain to identify terrain characteristics Characteristics from space. U.S. Geological Survey Geological Mapping Uses of Skylab data to discriminate rock and soil units and zones of S mineralization PAGENO="0283" Geologic Division U.S~ Geological Survey Denver, Colorado National Weather Service __________ PROJECT DESCRIPTION Detect and identify areas susceptable to rapid soil erosion and sheetwash, for use in planning urban develop- ment, zoning, and in reclamation of watersheds, farmlands, and rangelands in Central Arizona 25 data collection platforms are used in a prototype volcano surveillance network in the U.S., Central America and Iceland 5 DCP's are being used in the cascades to investigate thermal properties of volcanoes in conjunction with Landsat imagery studies To determine the feasibility of using RF techniques for the identification of tornado bearing storms FEDERAL ORG?~NI ZATIONS U S Geological Survey National Center for Earthquake Research Menlo Park California APPLICATION Geologic Mapping Environmental Geology Volcanology Volcanology Tornado Detection PAGENO="0284" FEDERAL OP2ANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION tJSGS, RESTON, VIRGINIA MINERAL EXPLORATION Detection and mapping of mineralized areas in Utah and Nevada, using computer enhanced Landsat data TJSGS, DENVER, CULORADO PETROLEUN EXPLORATION Utilization of Landsat data to study alteration aureoles in surface rock overlying petroleum deposits PAGENO="0285" MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY DIVISION OF GEOLOGY MINERAL EXPLORATION SOUTH CAROLINA STATE DEVELOPMENT BOARD MAINE STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION DRAINAGE BASIN & GEOLOGY --GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ALABAMA STRIP MINING AND GEOLOGIC HAZARDS P1~DJECT DESCRIPTION Visually analyze SIPOA, S19OB, and S192 iinaqery to detect aeologically signifi- cant structural linean~ents Basic geologic mapping will be used in study of potential mineralizedzones, fault systems, and structural and tec- tonic features. Other tasks include water resources mapping, seismicity, land use pattern analysis and erosion problems Rock type and structural mapping to extenc knowledge of major ecologic characteris- tics of the state, identify potential ore deposits, and update existing maps Determine the usefulness of Skylab satellite photographs for geologic mapping and mineral exploration Detect, identify and delineate land surface features in the state of Maine as related to environmental quality! ecology, geology, hydrology, and geo- graphy using Skylab photographic data Studies of strip mine effects on environment. Study of underground limestone caverns and other hazards through use of remote sensing STATE ORGANIZATION APPLICATION DEPARPMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES GEOLOGIC LINEAMENTS INDIANA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY NEW MEXICO BuREAU OF MINES REGIONAL GEOLOGIC MAPPI ~G REGIONAL GEOLOGIC RECONNAISSANCE AND MAPPING PROJECT FOR RESOURCES EXPLORATION PAGENO="0286" UNIVERSITIES ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION DEPARTNENT OF GEOLOGY GEOLOGICAL MAPPING Interpret Skylab imagery data to detect THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA and map (a) possible rejuvenated crustal fractures; (b) suspected township-sized structural blocks; (c) correlations of olacial land forms and ancient non- flacial surfaces and (d) major rock types GEORGIA SOUTHWESTERN COLLEGE GEOLOGIC HAZARDS (1) Investigation of use of remote sensing to locate geologic hazards by detecting vegetation stress - (2) Utilize remote sensing to map metamorphic regions of Georgia using vegetation stresr LANONT-DOHERTY GEOLOGICAL GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION GEOS-3 is a geodetic and oceanographic INSTITUTE OF GRAVITY DATA FROM GEOS-3 satellite in support of NASA's Earth ALTIMETER EXPERIMENT and Ocean Dynamics' Program. The demonstration of satellite altimetry and the improvement of satellite borne and ground-based tracking systems are part of this project PAGENO="0287" UNIVERSITIES ORGANIZATION APPLICATION P~3ECr DESCRIPTION 0 UNIVERSITY OF UTAH MINERAL EXPLORATION Prolect will employ aircraft, Landsat, and other remotely sensed data to study the metallic mineralization patterns in two major mineral belts in the U.S. S ,W. MISSOURI UNIVERSITY GEOLOGIC MAPPING Use of Landsat data in geological mapping of N.W. Greenland and Ellismere Island areas Ti. OF ALASKA VOLCANOLOGY Landsat data used to study effects of recent eruption of volcano at St. Augustine on Cook Inlet, Alaska U. OF COLORADO GEOLOGIC HAZARDS To identify avalanche and landslide hazards in areas of expanding population growth, and to identify techniques for identifying and mapping these areas GEOPHYSICAL INSTITUTE, UNIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF TECTONIC STRUCTURE To combine naps of seismicity with OF ALASKA Landsat data to identify unmapped tectonically active faults, previously unrecognized major structural relation- ships, and develop a coherent regional tectonic model UNiVERSITY OF UTAH MINERAL EXPLORATION Remote sensing in mineral exploration from Landsat imagery COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES GEOLOGICAL MAPPING, MINERAL Use Skylab to map geological features SURVEYS DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY GEOLOGICAL MAPPING Analyze Skylab imagery using UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING stereoscopic viewers and color additive viewers for a first look evaluation of the data for geologic analysis PAGENO="0288" UNIVERSITIES ORGANI ZATIONS ___________ Environmental Research Institute of Michigan The University of Michigan Department of Geological & Mineral Exploration Geophysical Sciences University of Utah Office of Remote Sensing of Earth Resources The Pennsylvania State University PROJECT DESCRIPTION Determine whether or not Skylab data can be used to differen- tiate silicate rock types and produce recognition maps of ferric and ferrous c~~ounds in exposed rocks amd soils Test the feasibility of determining the surface composition of geologic units in large vecetatior- free areas of the earth's surface Interpret Skylab imagery visually and by means of densitometry and additive color viewing for geologic purposes. Study the various scales of Skylab, Landsat and aircraft imagery of the Susquehanna River Basin to characterize and classify gross geologic structure and tectonic features for purposes of mineral exploration. School of Earth Sciences Stanford University APPLICATION Geological Mapping Geological Mapping Mineral and Groundwater Exploration PAGENO="0289" UNIVERSITIES ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION University of Virginia Marine Geology Preparation of a predictive National Park Service model of barrier island physical feature changes through the correlation of past storms and their overwash activity using remote sensing technology Mackay School of Mines Geological Mapping Use field studies, RB-57 multi- University of Nevada band photographs, and Skv1a~ Sl90 photographs to evaluate the utility of multiband photographs for distinguishing between geological units, mapping geological structures, and identification of major draimage basins features in Nevada Department of Earth Sciences Volcanic Hazards; Interpret nighttime S192 Skylab Dartmouth College & Geological Mapping thermal infrared imagery of Central America to determine the relationship between volcanos, active faults, and hydrothermal features PAGENO="0290" ORSANIZATION INSTITUT FUR ALLGEMEINE AMD ANGEWANDTE GEOLOGIC UND NINERALOGIE DER UNIVEPSITAT MUCHEN WEST GERMANY VIRGINIA INSTITUTE OF MARINE SCiENCE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY UNIVEPSITIES APPLICATION GEOLOGICAL MAPPING MARINE GEOLOGY SOLID EARTH DYNAMICS GRAVITY MODELS UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN PROJECT DESCRIPTION Investigate the use of Skylab data for the geologic, hydrological and oceano- graphic interpretation of the Tuscan AppenineRegine of Italy Prepare chronological m~ps of sand dune locations and their vegetative surroundings for use in correlating the interaction between dune migrations and vegetative coverage GEOS-3 is a geodetic and oceanographic satellite in support of NASA's Earth and Ocean Dynam' Program. The demonstration of satellite altimetry and the improvement of satellite borne and ground-based tracking syRtonc are part of this project PAGENO="0291" FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION CSIRO, Govt. of Australia Mineral Exploration Potential mineralized zones will be identified through structural, lithologic, tectonic and other studies Geological Survey of Malaysia Mineral Exploration Landsat will be used to map najor structural features in the central belts and also to study coastal features Engineering & Water Supply Ground Water Surveys Landsat data will be correlated Dept., Australia with lysineter data for estimates of seasonal changes in evapotrans- piration and soil moisture, and results checked against catchinent of rainfall and run-off data Government of Turkey Mineral Exploration Landsat will be used to identify and Engineering major structural patterns in a Studies key copper ore region, and study engineering problems associated with karst terrain as related to fracture zones State Hydraulic Works, Groundwater Explora- Landsat will be used to identify Government of Turkey tion and Agricultural fracture zones in limestone, and Studies to pinpoint drilling locations for additional groundwater sources. The agricultural task will include irrigation, plant disease and pest control PAGENO="0292" FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION (~eological Survey of Iran Regional Geologic Mapping of large areas to identify Turkey and Pakistan Mapping and map major fracture structural and tectonic zones volcanic and igneous regions and to identify possible sources of ml?teralization related to these features I T C Geological Mapping Evaluate the potential of Skylab The Netherlands data for geological mapping in Spain Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo Petroleum Exploration Determine the applicatLon of Mexico space remote sensing data to hydrocarbon exploration Geolab Geothermal exploration Prepare a series of thematic Italy volcanic hazards maps based on Skylab data of volcanic and related phenomena tectonic characteristics and environmental quality. Geological Institude du Clausthal Geological Mapping Make 1 500 000 scale geological West Germany and tectonic maps of Ethiopia from the interpretation and compare to existing field geology and geophysical maps PAGENO="0293" ORGANI ZATIONS Research Institute of African Geology University of Leeds England Univ. Nal. Aut. De Mexico Instituto De Geofisica De Exploracion CD. Unjversitaria Mexico Geological Survey of the Federal Republic of Gernany FOREIGN PROJECT DESCRIPTION Study and develop the uses to which satellite imagery can be used for geological purposes in a large area of Ethiopia Determine the usefulness of Skylab data for metals exploration and nining activities in Mexico. Analyze (with multispectral techniques) geological structures, distribution of rock types, marine sediment transport, interaction between industrial and urban pollution and land use, distribu- tion of glacial sediments and their soils. Assess aircraft, balloon and Skylab imagery at various scales to develop a synthesis of the major geologic alignments Use S19OA, SI9OB, and S192 data for preparation of geologic and geomorphic maps. APPLICATION Geological Mapping Resource Inventory Resource Inventory Institute Francais Du Petrole Petroleum Exploration France Geographisches Institut Resource Inventory University of Technology Federal Republic of Germany PAGENO="0294" EGYPT, ACADEMY OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY FOREIGN PROJECT DESCRIPTION Landsat will be used cc identify major structural patterns in a key copper ore region, ar..d tc study engineerina problems associated with karst terrain as related to fracture zones To use aircraft, ground truth and Landsat for use in several engineering tasks as well as for basic structural studies To couple Landsat data with airborne geophysical and ground studies to identify potential radio-active deposits To identify major structural zones in New Zealand and relate them to volcanic activity, volcanic, prediction, active faults, geothermal energy potential, and mineral and petroleum potential To support ongoing resource exploration projects designed to map structural, tectonic, geologic features in support of Guinea Third Development Plan Study volcanic activity and thermal patterns in N.W. Mexico ORGANIZATION GVERNHENT OF TURKEY APPLICATION MINERAL EXPLCRATION & ENGINEERING STUDIES MINISTRY OF PLANNING, LIBYA'S ARAB REPUBLIC PLANNING AND NATURAL RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT &GEOLOGIC RECONNAISSANCE NAPPING EXPLORATION OF RADIO-ACTIVE MINERAL DEPOSITS GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF NEW ZEALAND SEISMOTECTONIC AND VOLCANIC STUDIES FOR EARTHQUAKE & ENERGY PLANNING BUREAU OF MINES & GEOLOGY, GUINEA RESOURCES EVALUATION & PLANNING COMISION FEDERAL DE ELECTRICIDAD GEOTHERMAL EXPLORATION MEXICO PAGENO="0295" FOREIG ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRAN REGIONAL GEOLOGIC ~kAPPING Mapping of large areas to it~entify TURKEY & PAKISTAN and map major fracture, structural and tectonic zones, and to identify possible sources of mineralization related to these features GOVERNMENT OF BOLIVIA MINERAL EXPLORATION User support by processing of remotely sensed data for purposes of mineral exploration PAGENO="0296" INDUSTRY ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION ILS. PETROLEUM AND MINERAL GEOID INFORMATION Computation of detailed gravimetric EXPLORATION COMPANIES geoids over land areas as well as over the oceans based ~pcn a combina- tion of satellite-derived and surface observed gravity data (CALESCO) CALIFORNIA EARTH EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS Processing Skylab imagery f or analysis SCIENCES CORPORATION of fault tectonics and earthquale hazards in California THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION STUDY OF GRAVITATIONAL GEOS-3 is a geodetic and oceanographic YIELD satellite in support of NASA's Earth and Ocean Dynamic' a Program. The demonstration of satellite altinetry and the improvement of satelite borne and ground-based tra&ira ~vstems are part of this project ARGUS EXPLORATION COMPANY MINERAL FXPLORATION Evaluate and compare Skylab deta with existing data including Apollo earth- looking photography, Landsat imagery, NIMBUS High Resolution Infrared data, geophysical data X-l5 photography Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) for the interpretation of geology and tectonics in the test site areas KERR-MCGEE MINERAL EXPLORATION Evaluation of Landsat data for mineral CCTh1OC'0 expior~o'~ b c~'eck..g tec'-~rc~es o fully explored site PAGENO="0297" INDUSTRY ORGANIZATIONS APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION Eason Oil Company Petroleum Exploration Compare the content of geological information in Skylab imagery of the Test Site Area with that of Landsat and aircraft imagery specifically for the location of potential accumulations of hydrocarbons Earth Science Research Corporation Fault Hazards Detect and map previously unrecognized faults in southern California and develop criteria for the detection of active versus inactive fault zones North American Rockwell Geological Mapping Determine the utility of Skylab Corporation S190 photographs for the detection of fault and tectonic line intersections, and analyze in terms of the distribution of mineral depositis, and the location of active fault zones PAGENO="0298" 296 WATER RESOURCES PAGENO="0299" ORGANI ZATION USGS Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development Environmental Protection Agency, National Environmental Research Center, Corvallis, Oregon Great Lakes Water Quality Board and EPA Region V USGS University of Miami US Navy NOAA Reservoir Control Center US Army Corps of Engineers APPLICATION Water Data System Water Quality !EDE~L Lake Eutrophication Reinot~ Sensing of River Discharges River Siltation Laser Sensor Development Reservoir Management !RO~CT DESCRIPTION Simulate an automatic water data collection and processing system Evaluation of remote sensing techni- ques for monitoring coastal and estuarine waters Use of remotely sensed data to classify the trophic state of lakes Use of remote sensing techniques to monitor pollutants discharged by major rivers into the Great Lakes Investigate the use of remote sensing to determine the suspended sediment load in inland rivers and reservoirs Develop a method for remotely sensing subsurface water temperature, tur- bidity, and salinity Correlate the apparent extent of floods as shown on skylab imagery with data from an extensive network of stream and reservoir gauging stations Determination of snow cover, snow melt using Landsat imagery NOAA/NESS Snow cover mapping PAGENO="0300" FEDERAL ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION TJ. S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS FLOOD ASSESSMENT Landsat imagery used to determine extent (VICXSBURG) of flooding resulting from 1975 spring floods ofthe lower Mississippi River (below St. Louis) CORP~ OF ENGINEERS FLOOD CONTROL Develop remote sensing techniques VICKSBURG WATERWAYS EXP. STA. to detect and assess leakage in levees along Mississippi River. U, S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, SURFACE WATER DETECTION AND Transfer and user application of an TEXAS MAPPING operational procedure for using Landsat data and computer processing techniques to map areas of surface water ten acres or larger U.S. CORPS OF ENGINEERS HYDROLOGICAL MONITORING SYSTEM Assist the Corps of Engineers in developing an insitu system for real- time monitoring of lower Mississippi River SATELLITE DATA COLLECTION PROJECT HYDROLOGY, METEOROLOGY AND WATER 25 USGS distructs are participating QUALITY MONITORING in an investigation to evaluate the satellite Data Collection System (DCS) for water resources monitoring. RESERVOIR CONTROL BRANCH HYDROLOGY, WATER QUALITY The Corps New England District is U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS using 30 Data Collection Platforms NEW~ ENGLAND DIVISION (DCP's) and a satellite DCS application' to flood control and reservoir manage- ment. WATER RESOURCES DIVISION GROUND WATER EXPLORATION Correlate regional fracture zones USGS with the location of abundant ground-water supplies PAGENO="0301" PROJECT DESCRIPTION Landsat data and NOAA Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) data are being evaluated to ascertain their contribution in sno~melt/runoff prediction for improved reservoir management, hydroelectric power production, and irrigation water supply estimation FEDERAL APPLICATION SNOW MAPPING SNOW MAPPING ORGANIZATION BONNEVILLE POWER ADMIN. SALT RIVER PROJECT (ARIz U.S. DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR - BUREAU OF RECLAMATION - GEOLOGICAL SURVEY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE * - NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S * DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE - SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS PAGENO="0302" STATE/REGIONAL/LOCAL ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION Northern Virginia Planning Hydrology Comparison of Landsat data and Commission conventional data related to flood control and waterworks design PAGENO="0303" ORGANI ZATION State of Colorado - Div of Water Resources State of Florida Game' and Fresh Water Commission Brevard County (Florida) Department of Health Virginia Water Control Board State of Florida Department of Environmental Regulation Inventory of Vegetation Adjacent to Lakes Develop a remote sensing system to to determine the distribution of various plant communities growing adjacent to lakes Determine the feasibility of using renote sensing to detect, identify, and locate underwater characteristic: effecting water quality and marine productivity potential Demonstration of Operational Use of Lands at Imagery to measure water area, water quality, and land use in reservoir watersheds Determine the feasibility of locat- ing free flowing artesian wells whic are submerged in the shallow waters off Florida's Gu)f Coast by remote sensing techniques California Dept. of Water Resources APPLICATION Snow Mapping STATE PROJECT DESCRIPTION Landsat data and NOAA Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) data ar~ being evaluated to ascertain their contribution in snowmelt/runoff prediction for improved reservoir management hydroelectric power production, and irrigation water supply estimation 0 Water Quality Water Quality and Land Use Identification of Artesian Wells PAGENO="0304" STATE ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION Governor's Office of State Flood Assessment Landsat imagery used to determine Planning, extent of flooding resulting from State of Louisiana 1975 spring floods of the lower Mississippi River (south of Baton Rouge) C PAGENO="0305" UNIVERSITY ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY HYDROLOGY Remote sensing of effects of cloud- seeding on water run-off ~U. OF ALASKA/GEOPHYSICAL NEAR SHORE ICE ANALYSIS To study the behavior of near-shore INSTITUTE ice and prepare a map of the Arctic Coast of Alaska indicating predictable near-shore ice conditions ti. OF ARIZONA WATERSHED ANALYSIS Assist local users in applying Landsat data to solve problems relative to watersheds WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING HYDROLOGIC LAND USE Use of Landsat and traditional land UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND use delineation methods for hydroloqic runoff modelling (Four Mile Run watershed, VA). SOUTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY WATERSHED ANALYSIS Landsat, aircraft and ground truth data will be collected for the Belle Fourche Watershed of South Dakota DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGICAL FLOOD HAZARD MAPPING Perform a stream network analysis of th SCIENCES THE UNIVERSITY OF Guadalupe River Basin in Central Texas TEXAS SCHOOL OF FORESTRY AND HYDROLOGIC LAND USE Provide hydrologic land cover CONSERVATION classifications UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PAGENO="0306" INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION UNDP/FAO, Nth'l University of Lesotho State Hydraulic Works, Govt. of Turkey USGS/Govt. of Iceland Mali, Direct. Mines et Geologie U. of Zurich Canada Dept. of Environment WAPDA, Pakistan Mekong Committee of the Secretariat, Thailand APPLICATION Surface Water Groundwater exploration Geology/Water Resources Watershed surveys Watershed surveys River Monitoring (water levels) Watershed Surveys Watershed Surveys PROJECT DESCRI PTION Use of Landsat data to determine seasonal variation of extent of surface water in Okanango Delta, Botswana Landsat will be used to identify fracture zones in limestone, and to pinpoint drilling locations for additional groundwater sources Landsat data request for continued study of tectonics, ice and snow coverage of Iceland Landsat imagery will be used in support of defining the Niger River hydrographic characteristics Landsat imagery will be used to nap and inventory natural resources and watersheds in Switzerland Data collection platforms are being used to transmit water level data from remote sites in Canada Landsat imagery is being used to determine snowcover in northern re- gions of West Pakistan Landsat data is being utilized for inventorying forest cover irrigable lands, floods, drainage pattern and and other land cover PAGENO="0307" FOREIGN ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION U. OF OSLO, NORWAY SNOW SURVEYS Snowcover information from Landsat imagery is used for predicting run-off amounts, flood warning and reservoir operations INLAND WATERS BRANCH HYDROLOGY, METEOROLOGY 25 Data collection platforms are being deployed throughout Canada in an experimental Hydrology- Meteorology Monitorinq Network GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE GROUND WATER EXPLORATION Search for fresh ground water in the FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY Pampa of Argentina using imagery from the S19OA, S19OB, and S192 Skylab instruments ENGINEERING AND WATER SUPPLY GROUND WATER SURVEYS Landsat data will be used for DEPARTMENT estimates of seasonal changes in AUSTRALIA eva~o-transpiration and soil moisture PAGENO="0308" INDUSTRY ORGANIZATION APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH & SNOW MAPPING Evaluate Skylab data for mapping TECHNOLOGY, INC. of snow cover UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI THERMAL POLLUTION MATH Develop math model for predicting * EPA MODEL temperature distributions resull4ng DUKE POWER COMPANY from po~~er plant thermal discharges FLORIDA POWER AND LIGHT CO. into water bodies PAGENO="0309" 307 MARINE RESOURCES AND OCEAN SURVEYS PAGENO="0310" PROJECT DESCRIPTION Determine sea state from passive microwave data. Calibrate radiometers, determine sea state & salinity, emphasis on L-Bank. A bio-optical assessment of southern California coastal waters (ocean chlorophyll) Monitor the characteristics of the Gulp Strean. Study of Geostrophic currents in the Eastern North Atlantic using S GEOS-3 data. Extraction of Sea State Descriptors 5: from GEOS-3 Altimeter Data. Hurricane Surge, Sea State and Wave Analyses Investigations to make ocean Geoid determinations and gravity model improvements. Determination of Tidal Parameters from Orbital Perturbations of GEOS-3. Research into determining Ocean Geoid using GEOS-C Altimeter Data. ORGANIZATION NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC & ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION ATLANTIC OCEANOGRAPHIC & METEOROLOGICAL LABORATORY MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING SECTION NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC & ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC & ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION NOAA - ATLANTIC OCEANOGRAPHIC & METEOROLOGICAL LAB NOAA - ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LAB NOAA - OCEAN REMOTE SENSING LAB NOAA GEODETIC RESEARCH & DEVELOP- MENT LAB FEDERAL APPLICATION SEA STATE MEASUREMENTS SEA STATE MEASUREMENTS COASTAL ZONE STUDIES SEA STATE MEASUREMENTS SEA STATE MEASUREMENTS SEA STATE MEASUREMENTS SEA STATE MEASUREMENTS SEA STATE MEASUREMENTS NOAR - GEODETIC RESEARCH & DEVELOP- SEA STATE MEASUREMENTS MENT LAB SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL SEA STATE MEASUREMENTS OBSERVATORY PAGENO="0311" PROJECT DESCRIPTION ~ Short Arc Analysis for determining detailed undulations in the North Atlantic. Studies of Radar Pulse Shapes, Sea State, and Wave Field Dynamics in the North Atlantic. California Near-Shore Processes Study Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System Application Flight. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System Application Flight Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System Application Flight. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System Application Flight. Field Tests for the Remote sersing of Ocean Currents Improve the Laser Profilometer ~ata Reduction Program. FEDERAL ORGANIZATION APPLICATION AFCRL SEA STATE MEASURFMFNTS NOAA - ATLANTIC OCEANOGRAPHIC & SEA STATE MEASUREMENTS HEI'POROLOGICAL LAB U S ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS COASTAL ZONE STUDIES OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH COASTAL ZONE STUDIES NAVAL OCEANOGRAPHIC OFFICE COASTAL ZONE STUDIES DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY COASTAL ZONE STUDIES NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY (NOAA) COASTAL ZONE STUDIES NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY OCEAN DYNAMICS NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY OCEAN DYNAMICS PAGENO="0312" PEDERAL National Marine Fisheries Service Naval Oceanographic Office (NAV OCEANO) U.S. Navy Fleet Weather Facility NOAA/LaRC APPLICATION Oceanography PROJECT DESCRIP~=!~ Landsat imagery used to study large grounded floeberg in Beaufort Sea (North of Alaska) Investigation of Landsat and Aircraft data for successful prediction of location and abundance of two important fish species Use of Landsat data to support joint U.S./Icelandic study of Denmark Strait Landsat imagery used to observe pack-ice dynamics as related to shipping safety considerations in Antartica Landsat imagery used to study surface circulation and turbidity distribution in New York Bight Landsat imagery used in connection with study of oceanic internal waves in Bermuda, Bahamas, and Antilles ORGANIZATIONS U.S. Navy - NAVOCEANO MARINE RESOURCES Oceanography Oceanography O~E~OGRAPHY Oceanography Deft~nse ARPA/AOML (Miami) C PAGENO="0313" FEDERAL ORGANIZATIONS APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION ,USGS, tJ~ of Washington Sea Ice Landsat imagery used to study (NSF, ONR) (AIDJEX Pioject) sea ice dynamics for genera] applications such as arctic shipping off-shore oil drilling off Alaskan Coast IJSGS/NOAA Bathymetry To determine utility of Landsat imagery in high-gain mode for potential bathymetric applications throughout Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Panama U.S. Coast Guard Oceanographic Oceanography To study ocean currents and ice Unit flow along the continental Washington,, DC shelf of EaStern United States Environmental Science Group, co~s~r~i~ ZONE STUDIES Analysis of existing data NOAA/NESS for spectral classification of Suitland, Maryland NOAA/AOML cOAsTAL ZONE STUDIES Analysis of data for correlations Miami Florida between temperature and color, especially in the area east and north of Cape Hatteras; PAGENO="0314" FEDERAL ORGANIZATIONS APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION National Marine Fisheries Service, MARINE RESOURCES Development of a satellite remote NOAA/Nat'l Fish Meal and Oil sensing technique to delineate Asscciation areas of high probability of finding Menhaden and Thread Herring - commercially important fish in the northern Gulf of Mexico National Marine Fisheries Service COASTAL ZONE STUDIES Experiment to develop satellite U.S. Coast Guard based (SEASAT) fishing vessel surveillance system NOAA/MESA (Marine Eco-Systems COAST ~ONE STUDIES Flights with Ocean Color Scanner Analysis) Expedition over New York Bight to determine location and motion of pollutants dumped into the New York Bight and to determine behavior and material contained in the plume of the Hudson River Fleet Weather Facility Sea Ice Monitoring Passive microwave data from U S Navy the Niinbus-5 and Nimbus-6 satellites are utilized in preparing weekly charts of global ice cover for military and civilian shipping interests operating in polar regions USGS Arctic Experiments Develop a computer model of NOAA AIDJEX sea ice dynamics ONR NSF PAGENO="0315" FEDERAL ORSPNIZATIONS U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY UNIVERSITY OF CORPUS CHRISTI U.S. ENGINEER DISTRICT SAN FRANCISCO `USACE CzCS U-2 PI~DJECT DESCRIPTION Establish feasibility of utilizing satellite data to assess and monitor the distribution of game fish. Use orbital remote sensing to study coastal water circulation, river plumes and effluent discharge of the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands. Determine the applicability of Skylab sensor data to studies of near-shore currents and sediment transport. Flights with Ocean Color Scanner over New York Bight to dmtermine location and motion of pollutants dumped into the New York Bight and to determine behavior and material contained in the plume of the Hudson River. NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE NSTL APPLICATION MARINE RESOURCES COASTAL ZONE STUDIES COASTAL ZONE STUDIES NOAA/MESE (MARINE ECO- SYSTEMS ANALYSIS) EXPEDITION PAGENO="0316" STATE ORGANIZATIONS APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION DELAWARE STATE PLANNING OFFICE MANAGEMENT OF MARINE & Use Landsat-2 to monitor changes of WETLAND RESOURCES hydrological and ecological para~ters over a longer time period including mapping of wetlands, oil slick movement models, sediment transuort, and acid waste disposal. STATE OF ALABAMA COASTAL ZONE STUDIES Tidal shoreline measurement by GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OFFICE satellite techniques. FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF COASTAL ZONE STUDIES Identification and quantificatiom NATURAL RESOURCES, MARINE of red tide organism in waters off RESEARCH LAB., ST. PETERSBURG, west coast of Florida. FLORIDA BREVARD COUNTY BEACH EROSION COASTAL ZONE STUDIES Investigate the use of remote sensing CONTROL BOARD for the measurement of beach erosion and accretion. STATE OF FLORIDA, RED TIDE RESEARCH Evaluation of Landsat and/or Ocean DEPARTMENT OF PROGRAM Color Scanner (OCS) data to monitor NATURAL RESOURCES and predict the onset of Red Tide blooms (Gymnodinium breve) off the west coast of Florida. FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF ~ TIDE RESEARCE Identification and quantification of NATURAL RESOURCES, MARINE red tide organism (G. breve) in waters RESEARCH LAB., ST. PETERSBURG, FL off west coast of Florida. PAGENO="0317" ORGANIZATIONS The Johns Hopkins University The Johns Hopkins University The Johns Hopkins University The Johns Hopkins University North Carolina State University at Raleigh North Carolina State University at Raleigh U. of Alaska/Geophysical Institute University of Delaware College of Marine Studies UNIVERSITY APPLICATION Ocean Dynamics Survey of Arctic Ice (Alaska) Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System Applica- tion Flight ~ROJECT DESCRIPTION Development of theoretical relationship between wind and waves Theoretical Study of the Propagation of Wave Groups in Current Syteins Theoretical Study of Waves Incident on an Abrupt Current Change (Ocean Front) Theoretical Study of the Interraction between Unsaturated Components in Wave Spectra and Ocean Currents Conducting Field Tests for the Remote Sensing of Ocean Currents Prediction of Major Current Boundary Location from Surface Thermal Signature To study the dynamic behavior of near-shore ice and prepare a nap of the Arctic Coast of Alaska indicating predictable near-shore ice conditions Overflight of Airborne Oceanographic Lidar for use in coastal water depth mapping and other water quality studies PAGENO="0318" PROJECT DESCRIPTION Study of the Tectonics of Ocean Regions Using `~EOS-C Data. Mapoing of Ocean Tides in the N.E. Pacific Ocean Using GEOS-3 Data. Invettigation for Rectifying the Vest Existing Graviemetric Geoid. Determine the feasibility of using Skylab passive microwave systems in space to measure and monitor the characteristics of sea and lake- ice and to compare ice parameters with numerical models. GEOS-3 Ocean Geoid Determination and Orbit Improvement Experiment. Determine sea state & infer winds over the ocean from active microwave data. Sbpirical Evaluation of the Global Tide Response Function Application of Landsat to the planning and development and promotion of Delaware marine and wetland resources Development of a multilevel program of remote sensing of dynamic coastal land forms UNIVEPS ITt ORGANIZATIOI UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA OCEAN DYNAMICS LAMONT-DOHEPTY GEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE SEA STATE MEASUREMENTS BA~2ELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE - GEODYNAMICS ICE DYNAMICS PI~)JECT - USGS UNIVERSITY OF PUGET SOUND SEA & LAKE ICE MONITORING JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY GEODYNAMICS CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK SEA STATE MEASUREMENT SCRIPPS INSTITUTE OF OCEANOGRAPHY UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT SAN DIEGO SEA STATE MEASUREMENTS UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE MARINE RESOURCES UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA MARINE RESOURCES 1~ PAGENO="0319" PROJECT DESCRIPTION Overflight of Airborne Oceano- graphic Lidar for use in coastal water depth mapping and other water quality studies To develop the high speed high resolution timing and data acquisition system for hydro- graphic lidar Study the use of NASA technology to coastal processes and mans interaction with these processes Use of Landsat data for bathy- metric studies of Australian Great Barrier Reef region Multilevel program for monitoring of rhyt1m~ic and crescentic coastal landforms and overwash sites To investigate Gulf Stream Eddies in the Western Sargasso Sea Measure oceanic currents, temperatures, and meterologica]. variables in Antartic Circum- polar Circulation with drifting buoys. ORGANIZATIONS University of Maryland Chesapeake Biological Lab Hampton Institute Virginia Institute of Marine Science Cranbrook Institute of Science (Michigan) U. of Va./Dept. of Environmental Sciences Graduat.e School of Oceanography University of Rhode Island Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory Columbia University UNIVERSITY APPLICATION Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System Application Flight Ocean Dynamics Applications of Remote Sensing to Estuarine Prblems Bathymetry Shoreline Form Analyses Oceanography Oceanographic PAGENO="0320" UNIVERSITY ORGANIZATIONS APPLICATION University of California, Oceanography San Diego Scripps Institute of Oceanography Texas A&M University COASTAL ZONE STUDIES Department of Oceanography Visibility Lab., Scripps COASTAL ZONE STUDIES Institution of Oceanog., University of California at San Diego PROJECT DESCRIPTION Determine importance of horizontal heat advection to heat budget of Central North Pacific; data collection by 20 drifting buoys To guide scientific community in use of algorithms for ex- traction of temperature, chloro- phyll a, gelbstoffe, and other particulate concentrations to demonstrate utility of CZC~ data formarine biologists, fisheries research, and oceanographers Spectral signature investigations to include interpretation of nearshore currents, sediment transport, river discharge, and estuarine surface characteristics. Bigelow Lab. for Ocean Sciences, W. Boothbay Harbor, ME COASTAL ZONE STUDIES Establish spectral signatures for the major factors responsible for coastal water color for purpose of: (a) recreatIon of characteris- tic water color and (b) `calibration of CZCS sensors to detect the contribution by each color component *COASTAL ZONE COLOR SCANNER PAGENO="0321" UNIVERSITY ORGANIZATIONS APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION Environmental Research Institute Determine sea bottom Develop multispectral data of Michigan topography in clear processing methods for University of Michigan water areas deternining water depths. PAGENO="0322" FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS APPLICATION PROJECT DESCRIPTION GERMAN FEDERAL MINISTRY FOR GEODETICS Analysis for tracking station coordinate RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY improvement for GEOS-3. Use of GEOS-3 data for off-shore geoid determination in the North Sea 1~OYAL NOI~~IEGIAN COUNCIL FOR ARCTIC OCEANOGRAPHY Read out in real time of Nimbus 5 and 6 SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRTAL RESEARCH ESMR* instrument to determine ice conditions CENTRE NATIONAL D'ETUDES SPATIALES OCEANOGRAPHY Experiment using instrumented platforms (CNES) - FRANCE deployed on icebergs and the Nimbus 6 Random Access Measurement System to study the Antarctic circompelar current OCEANOGRAPHY Experiment using the Nimbus 6 Random METEOROLOGY Access Measurement System (RAMS) to improve understanding of the capability of drifting buoys to provide accurate information on oceanographic and meteoro- logical parameter through a spacecraft data collection system SOUTH AFRICAN COUNCIL FOR OCEANOGRAPHY Drifting buoy experiment using the SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL Nimbus 6 Random Access Measurement System T* ~ ~ ~, , , :. ~ ~ ~ : it~ctL~tf~:~ ~*~3J~t~Y ~:f `~at UJP4AR !~llT11~1 [`~i:~, :;i:(A ~F At t~"1 I I ~4~c ~ I !J I tIJI~1Ittfjp.*~eiI ~*~t*t!t~? ~i42!3:'3 *~17~ !~ Psi PP The total planetary situation (chart SL76-1754) is not one with which we are very happy, frankly. The glories of the past year- Mariner Venus/Mercury, Viking on its way, Pioneer to Jupiter-were the result of a program started back in the late sixties. So I can stand here and tell you about the good results we have had, but I am really living off what other people started 5 to 10 years ago. After the MJS and Pioneer Venus launches, the planetary program will be iu a very drastic going-out-of-business situation. When you look at the runout of funding for the space flight projects in lunar PAGENO="0513" 5111 and planetary, you see very little left in here. This, I think, dramati- cally indicates to us, and I hope to you, the situation that, if we don't do something very soon, we are in great danger of losing the entire base of our planetary exploration. We can go on for awhile with a data analysis type of activity, but without the acquisition of the new data, without looking toward the comets, toward the chemistry of the inner planets, toward the in- vestigation of the atmosphere, of Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan. Per- sonally I think that we have abrogated our responsibility as outlined in the Space Act. We will not be a leader in space science. OFFICE OF SPACE SCIENCE FISCAL YEAR 1977 BUDGET LIFE SCIENCES (DOLLARS iN MILLIONS) TRANSITION FY 1975 FY 1976 QUARTER FY 1977 SPACE LIFE SCIENCES 15.0 16.0 4.3 17.3 PLANETARY BIOLOGY 3.3 3.3 .6 3.3 PLANETARY QUARANTINE 1.5 t5 15 TOTAL: 19.8 20.8 . 5.2 22.1 NASA HO SP76-1946(1) In the life sciences area (chart SP 76-1946) recently transferred to OSS, we see a small change as we put the planetary biology and planetary quarantine in the total life science efforts. We are starting some activity to get ready for a spacelab, which I will talk about a little more later. In planetary biology, which will be concerned in large part with Viking, we expect to see continued activity. It is through the efforts in the planetary quarantine program that we implement our responsibility to assure that our outer planet missions do not contaminate the outer planets. This is an international responsibility. PAGENO="0514" We are also, of course, looking downstream What if? Suppose Viking gives us indications of life on Mars? What is our next step? (Chart SB76-1672) One approach is to use follow-on missions to Mars. We have in our SRT program a very basic design phase of instrumentation that takes the next step' beyond Viking experiments to characterize any life that might be there, giving us a greater variety of options to deal with such life forms The other possibility would be to bring a sample of Mars back to Earth. Biologists want to look at the stuff. Of course, the implications of bringing a sample of life-containing material back to Earth are quite formidable The biologists now are having a problem of how to work with what they call recombinant DNA When they start to fool with putting different kinds of genes together, they are concerned that the resulting materials are contained so they won't have any possibility of altering the normal terrestrial pattern of life We are faced with the same problem We are in touch with those people and looking at what sort of containment facility is necessary to assure ourselves that bringing back other life forms will not be detrimental to life. PAGENO="0515" 513 A Mars sample return is something which is, we feel, probably reasonably far off, but we have to do the basic reseaarch, the basic thinking on the problems you could get into; How would you do it? How would you analyze? Would you sterilize on the way back? We do have some of that effort going at a low level to be ready to respond to the "what ifs." Next, (chart MM73-5063) life sciences is concerned, of course, with how are we getting ready for shUttle. From the total science aspect, we want to fly scientists on shuttle, to have them up there operating their experiments. We would like to have women, men, passengers of all ages. Part of Dr. Winter's program now is aimed at setting the medical standards for shuttle crews. We want that to tell us how we can fly what we would call "normal" people-some people object when I say that about scientists-in the shuttle missions. We are concerned that we do not set standards arbitrarily so high that we can not get the working troops up there. Along these lines, the effects of reentry gravity forces are being studied. PAGENO="0516" 514 (Chart SB76-1898.) In Apollo there was a very high short duration of the entry G-force across the body. In shuttle, we will have a lower total acceleration, but for a much longer duration, in the long axis of the body. After a few hours in orbit, the fluids redistribute and we have to look at the effect of this change in relation to the entry of acceleration. The zero G effect on the circulatory system could alter the tolerance to G forces in the long axis of the body during entry. Motion sickness is potentially very troublesome. Many of our crew members (chart MM74-6297) have experienced motion sickness, PAGENO="0517" 515 including five out of the nine Skylab astronauts. The trouble is, it seems to last for 2 or 3 days, during which your ability to do work is hampered. The basic shuttle mission is for 7 days. We don't want to be in a condition where our crew essentially is on the bag for 3 days when we expect them to do good science. We are trying to derive criteria to detect sensitivity of people: What kind of people are immune to this kind of motion sickness? What kind are particularly susceptible to it? (chart SB76-1646). PAGENO="0518" 516~ Next, we have underway development of hardware for Spacelab. As I mentioned before in the astrophysics and solar terrestrial pro- grams, Life Sciences is now working on bafrication of equipment to hold plants, rats, mice and other animal forms, in a speciman holding facility. We are going to get a start on what we call common operating research equipment (CORE), which can be changed between mis- sions and will supply the basic instrumentation for Life Science researchers. We expect to fly on every Spacelab mission; probably on every shuttle mission. This ends the discussion that I have in the presentation, Mr. Chairman. I will be happy to answer specific questions to any of the programs. Thank you. Chairman FUQUA. Thank you very much, Noel. As usual, a very fine job. The solar maximum mission involves development of a multiple mission modular spacecraft. Have any other spacecraft been con- sidered for this mission that would be adaptable, such as the OSO, or OAO? Dr. HINNERS. I'll turn to Dr. Calio on that, if I may. Dr. CALI0. As you know, we have a low-cost-systems activity within the agency where several spacecraft concepts have been looked at and surveyed to determine which kind of spacecraft bus might evolve into a standardized system. As a result of that, a standardized modular spacecraft bus is cur- rently being developed, for the solar maximum mission. It appears that a standardized modular spacecraft bus will be the best. HEAO PAGENO="0519" 517 has been looked at, and several other spacecraft have been evaluated as alternatives. Chairman FTJQTJA. You have not reached any conclusions yet? Dr. CALI0. Well, there is a standardization program going on within the agency, a program to allow us to build a basic modular spacecraft bus. These other proposed alternate spacecraft have been looked at and an assessment has been made. Chairman FUQUA. Have you estimated any cost savings on the mission-type spacecraft? Dr. CALm. There are some studies underway. I cannot recall those estimates. Chairman FUQUA. Could you provide them for the record? [Material referred to follows :J Question. Have you estimated any cost savings on the mission-type spacecraft? Could you provide these cost savings for the record? Answer. The studies of modular spacecraft buses have suggested several alternative implementation modes for development of the spacecraft buses. The potential savings per mission are affected in a major way by the method of con- tracting, the number of spacecraft buses in the initial and follow-on procurements, and the unique requirements of specific missions. While the range of possible cost savings is till being evaluated, we are firmly convinced that the impact of stand- ardized modular spacecraft approach will result in significant economies. Dr. CALIO. There is an evaluation, I think, from which we might be able to extract those estimates and give them to you for the record. Chairman FUQTJA. Noel discussed the space telescope and the present phase B contracts which will be concluded in March or April. By the last of March or first of April, will you have a decision on whether to have a contractor competition? Dr. HINNERS. That is correct. We have not looked previously at an option involving early contractor selection. We do not want to be too hasty, but the basic idea sounds good. We understand the con- tractors' desire not to keep teams together on speculation. If they should not be the winner, they want to get on to other projects where they might have a payoff. It is not clear that this option is completely advantageous to the Gove.rnment. When you have an early selection, you are obligated to the selected contractors and so we do have to be very careful to insure that we proceed in the best interest of the Government. Chairman FUQUA. Certainly. Have you looked at a Faliback position? You asked for $12 million. That was eliminated by 0MB. Have you considered what would be a less amount that you could operate at a minimum level of activity in the space telescope? Dr. HINNER5. We did take a quick look at that. The areas of greatest concern to us are in the detector and experiment development. That appears to be the long lead item. When we looked at that, it looked as if it would take $2 to $3 million to keep the development going. As far as the major contractor-type effort, we had already pretty well come down, to what was the minimum proi~ram. Initially, we had looked at a much larger figure than the $12 million for a first year. The $12 million represented a slow Rt.art on thA space telescope. We tried to drive the fiscal year 1977 fimdino' down fn where we could fit it into our budget. PAGENO="0520" 518 Chairman FUQUA What would be your fiscal year 1978 funding level? And what was your total runout cost estimate on the program? Dr HINNERS It looked like about $30 million for fiscal year 1978, and in the neighborhood of $400 million on the runout. Chairman FUQUA Four hundred total? Dr. HINNERS. Correct. Chairman FUQUA. On the runout. Dr. RuNNERs. We have always worked with a range from about the $370 to $400 million range. Chairman FUQUA. That is in fiscal year 1975 dollars. Dr. RuNNERS. 1977 dollars. Chairman FUQUA In dollars of the fiscal year 1977 budget Dr HINNERS Yes Chairman FUQUA Storage facilities for representative samples amounting to 20 to 30 percent of the lunar rocks has been arranged at Brooks Is there any space available for additional storage at Brooks Air Force Base? Dr. CALI0. Actually, the Brooks Remote Storage Facility con- templates storing about 15 percent of the samples and possibly you could get an additional 5 percent in there, but it's basic construction and we are trying to keep it at a minimal cost Chairman FUQUA Total of about 20 percent? Dr CALI0 A total of about 20 percent is the maximum you can get in there Chairman FUQIrA That is the maximum you can store? Dr CALI0 Yes, just about They are trying to officially use that area and also protect against any terrestrial contamination. Chairman FTJQUA. Now the remainder, which is 80 percent, I guess, is still at Johnson Space Center How much of that is stored in buildings other than Building 31? Dr. CALI0. There are three other storage areas outside the main curatorial facility, each containing about 10 percent, for a total of about another 30 percent Then there is about 5 percent of the col- lection that is out to the scientific community So, altogether, there is about 50 percent, or will be about 50 per- cent of the sample that will be removed from the main curatorial facility, leaving about 50 percent. Chairman FUQUA Would any of the underground levels of Building 37 facilitate any diversion to a vault for additional storage? Dr. CALI0. You know, the Houston area has a very high water table There is one area, the low-level counting facility that was in the original lunar curatorial, the lunar sampling-handling facility, that's about 40 feet below the surface It is a sort of mine shaft and it has gunnite construction around it It is a very small area and I don't think very many samples could be put in there If we did use the area and we did have rising water that flooded out the area I am not sure we would be able to pump it out, or keep that area dryenough. Chairman FUQUA. How about areas at the Marshall Center in * Huntsville? Dr. CALm. That is correct. Chairman FUQUA. We have talked before of the possible advantages of getting them distributed. I wouldn't think you would have as high a seal level at Hunstville as at Houston. PAGENO="0521" 519 Dr. CALI0. There has been a study which looked at other sites, other NASA centers, and we could get the results of~ that study. I think Marshall was one of the places that was looked at. [Material requested for the record follows:] Materials requested for the record on page 173, lines 18-21, by Chairman Fuqua during the hearing before the House Subcommittee on Space Science and Appli- cations on February 4, 1976. Question. Dr. Calio. There has been a study performed looking at other sites, other NASA centers, and we could then get the results of that study. I think Marshall was one of the places that was looked at. Answer. Attached are the hazard analyses made on three candidate buildings at NASA centers that were considered for the remote storage of lunar samples: Building 22 at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Building N-213 at the Ames Research Center, and Building 4646 at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Sig- nificant hazards, especially the danger of flooding, were found at all three sites. A Remote Storage Facility has subsequently been completed at Brooks Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, and lunar samples are now being transferred into it. MEMORANDU~E To: JA/Director of Center Operations, TA/Acting Director of Science and Ap- plications. From: TN/Chief, Planetary and Earth Sciences Division. Subject: Remote storage of lunar samples. An analysis of the hazards associated with Building 22, Goddard Space Flight Center and how they could affect the remote storage of lunar samples has been completed by Dr. U. S. Clanton of the Geology and Geophysics Branch. The use of target room 1, the proposed storage area, violates one of the guidelines of the Curator's Working Group that samples should not be stored in a basement location. Although the proposed area is not a designated basement, the location is underground and some water damage to the building could be expected from flooding in a 20-100 year interval through the vent system in the electrical equipment room. Flooding would result if existing storm drains are overloaded or become congested with debris. In addition, the underground walls and roof are subject to water seepage. Dr. Clanton's report is attached. Lead bricks and other types of contamination are present, and considerable effort would be necessary for their removal. Furthermore, the area is apparently still needed for its origi- nally intended purpose. Three buildings have been offered by various NASA centers for remote lunar sample storage: Building 4646 at MSFC, Building N-213 at ARC, and Building 22 at GSFC. The hazard survey of each location has indicated the presence of one or more hazards that could significantly jeopardize the safety of the lunar samples during long-term storage. There are no other buildings at NASA centers that have been offered for consideration to fulfill the need for remote storage of lunar samples. Thus we feel that it will be necessary to construct a new facility expressly designed for this purpose. As stated in a previous memo, the site should not be subject to the same natural disaster that could affect the storage facility at NASA-JSC. The White Sands site 1 (the knoll) meets this criterion and has already been approved by the Curator's Working Group. There probably exists sites at Goddard Space Flight Center that would be relatively free from hazards, particularly from flooding associated with a major hurricane. To locate such a site would require substantial additional assessment of hazards. Dr. Clanton was told by one Goddard official that a new addition to Building 10 was about to be designed and that perhaps the remote storage facility could be incorporated into that structure. Building 10 appears to be relatively free from flooding because of its elevation and favorable location in the drainage pattern. The existing building appears to be the locus of a number of heavy, vibration-causing activities. An additional study would be required, however, to determine what hazards the equipment and activities in Buildings 7, 10, and 15 may present for sample safety. The addition is not scheduled for completion before January 1977. PAGENO="0522" 520 We request your guidance on how we should now proceed Our preference based on our findings so far, would be to erect a minimum dedicated facility on site 1 at WSTF We are concerned about the long delay in arriving at a suitable solution to the problem of remote storage. Enclosure. LAIiBY A. HASKIN. NATURAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS, U S CLANTON, NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSTON, TEX. Natural hazards can be grouped into four basic scientific disciplines Meteorol ogy, hydrology, geology, seismology. Because of the interrelationships between the sciences a natural hazard may fall within the boundary of two sciences Consequently the following discussions tend to emphasize the hazard rather than the science discipline Hazards assessed under meteorology include Temperature extremes, precipita tion wind tornadoes hurricanes Hydrological hazards evaluated included Floods tides, wind driven waves subsidence because of ground water withdrawal. Geological hazards that were assessed both by field observation and literature review were Faulting ground subsidence, expansive soils, Karst topography Seismic hazards that were assessed included: Earthquakes, faulting, tsunamies, seiches, liquefaction and lateral spreading. Although information was obtained in each of these areas, only those hazards that appeared to be significant and perhaps beyond the design limits of the struc ture are considered in this report. GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER Building 22 is a 4 story structure with ground 1st 2nd and 3rd floors Entrance to the building is from 3 sides on the east and south entrance is at ground level On the west side the entrance is at the 1st floor level although there is no entrance on the north side, the ground elevation is at the second floor level. The accelerator area is constructed at ground floor level (193 0 ft) on the north end of the building and is covered by some 7 to 9 feet of soil. Drawings GF-A-4200 and GF-S-4238 (1) provide elevation and construction details Target Room 1 the proposed storage area, is separated from the cobalt 60 source by the west control room. Be- cause of flooding in the neutron pit area and the lead brick in the east wall of the room, some contamination should be expected Several nuclear power stations have been sited in this general area (2, 3 4, 5) and natural hazards have been well documented METEOROLOGY-FLOODING Annual rainfall averages about 45 inches per year, a minimum value of 18 and a maximum of 60 inches of rainfall have been recorded (6) Rainfalls of 7 19 and 7.82 inches have been recorded in a 24 hour period at Washington and Baltimore (7). The 10 year value is approximately 6 inches (8). Building 22 is located on the divide between two drainage basins; Beck Branch to the north and west and Bald Hill Branch to the south (9). The natural drainage in the area has been compromised by the location of some of the buildings. Much of the natural runoff is now fed into a storm sewer system Information furnished by GSFC indicates that the storm sewer system is designed for the 10 year flood (6) A partial survey of the site indicates that with the failure of the storm sewer system either by blockage or by rainfall in excess of the design parameters water may be forced into Buildings 3, 6 12 14, 22 and 23 Some of the buildings, es pecially 6, 12 and 23, would act as major dams across the natural drainage in the event of failure of the storm sewer system In such periods of high rainfall or loss of storm sewer drainage, a pond in excess of 3 feet deep and approximately 250 by 300 feet could form at the north end of Building 22 Water elevation could be in excess of 205 feet MSL in the ponded area Ponding may also occur along the west side of the building but to a lesser depth water to elevations in excess of 204 feet may overflow through the louvered vents into the electrical equipment room located on the ground floor. A conflict appears to exist between some of the contour maps (1) i.e., GFA-- 4200 and GF-M-4243 and the existing construction. The contour maps indicate PAGENO="0523" 521 that the north pond would overflow the curb at an elevation of 205 feet. The impression one gets from viewing the area is that the water would drain through the driveway along the west side of Building 22 and further compound the west pond flooding. Mr. Larry Brown, Assistant Division Chief, Facilities Engineering Division, GSFC was advised of these findings; additional leveling data wiil be obtained to clearify elevations. Access to the accelerator area for large equipment is by a series of removable concrete beams that form a hatch in the roof. After 7 to 9 feet of soil is removed, the roof beams are exposed and can be lifted out. The dimension of the hacth opening is 18 by 13 feet; two such openings exist (1). One of the openings has been utilized successfully and there have been no sealing problems. The second opening located adjacent to the proposed storage area has leaked extensively and repair has been required. The cause of failure is not clear. Some limited sanitary sewers exist in the accelerator area but separate floor drains do not exist. Utility trenches are provided and are utilized foa drainage in emergency situations. Such a situation has occurred in the past with the failure of a water line and some 5 to 6 feet of water collected in the pit area of Target Room 1. A shallow sump and pump are provided to remove water that may collect in the neutron pit. A well developed water mark on the walls of the pit documents previous water depth. The common wall between the building and the underground accelerator area remains a source of water leaks during heavy rains. Rooms and halls adjacent to this wall are stained and water marked. The north wall in Target Room 2 also shows some evidence of water leaks. SUMMARY-BtJILDING 22 GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER (a) Although GSFC sits on a divide between two drainage basins, several buildings block the natural drainage in the area. A total dependence on a storm sewer system designed for a 10 year maximum indicates that perhaps 6 buildings may be damaged by runoff in excess of the design parameters. (b) With the failure of the storm sewer system, water would pond at the north and west sides of Building 22 and may flood the ground floor through vents into the electrical equipment room. (c) Additionally, storage for extended periods may have to contend with water leaks along the underground walls and through the roof openings. (d) Because of previous flooding in Target Room 1 and the lead brick wall, some higher than normal level of contamination should be expected. REFERENCES (1) (1965) Mechanical Test Facility and Quality Assurance Laboratory, Bldg. 22 Accelerator and Cobalt 60 Facility: Drawing No. GF-S-4238, GF-A-4200, GF-S-4237, GF-M-4243, GF-M-4258. (1975) Photographs of Target Room 1, Bldg. 22, Goddard Space Flight Center: G-75-02108 Neutron Pit Area, G-75-021 10 Door Mechanism, south wall, G-75-021 12 West wall, G-75-021 13 North wall, G-75-021 14 East wall with Lead Brick, G-75-021 15 South wall with door. (2) (1975) Safety evaluation of the Summit Power Station Units 1 and 2~ Docket Nos. 50-450, 50-451, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Division of Reactor Licensing, Washington, D.C. NUREG-75/004. (3) (1972) Safety evaluation of the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-317 and 50-318, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Directorate of Licensing, Washington, (4) (1972) Safety evaluation of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3, Docket Nos. 50-277 and 50-278, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Directorate of Licensing, Washington, D.C. (5) (1973) Safety Evaluation of the Virginia Electric and Power Company North Anna Power Station, Units 3 and 4, Docket Nos. 50-404 and 405, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Direcorate of Licensing, Washington, D.C. (6) (1971) Environmental Impact Statement for the Goodard Space Flight Center, NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. PAGENO="0524" 522 (7) (1975) Telephone conversation with Mr Norman Poultney National Climatic Weather Service (8) (1963) Rainfall frequency atlas of the United States for durations from 30 minutes to 24 hours and return periods from 1 to 100 years Technical Paper 40 Department of Commerce, U S Weather Bureau (9) (1951) Geologic Map of Prince Georges County and the District of Columbia, State of Maryland, Department of Geology, Mines and Water Resources. (1971) Washington, East, MD DC 73/i minute quadrangle map U S Geo logical Survey (1971) Lanham, Md, 7~ minute quadrangle map U S Geological Survey (1971) Laurel, Md., 734 minute quadrangle map. U.S. Geological Survey. (1971) Beitsville, Md., 734 minute quadrangle map. U.S. Geological Survey. AMES RESEARCH CENTER Building N213 is a two story structure with basement The vault area would be constructed in the basement the floor level is 10 feet below ground level The ground elevation in 1967 was 17 feet and the basement floor was 7 feet above MSL (1) Ground elevations may be as low as 14 feet with a basement level of 4 feet as of 1975 (2) Some discussions are underway to provide an accurate and current survey of the bench marks in the area Precipitation At the Ames Research Center precipitation averages about 15 inches per year and runoff averages about 1 inch per year. The upper reaches of the Stephens Creek drainage basin have values that exceed the values quoted for the Ames area by a factor of 4 to 5(3) Precipitation is highly seasonal almost 90 per cent of the annual rainfall occurs during the 6 month period of November to April Most of the precipitation occurs in a series of general storms (4) Runoff flooding It is significant to point out that the 100 year flood design standard as deter mined by the Santa Clara Valley Water District for Stephens Creek at Highway 101, just as the creek crosses on to Ames property, is 8 700 cubic feet per second (cfs) The levees that channel the creek flow have not been built to the 100 year standard but instead are only designed to contain the 25 year floods (4,500 cfs) Failure of the present levee system can be expected when flow rates exceed the 25 year flood capacities (5). In addition, the upper portion of the drainage basin has been dammed to provide a percolation lake to recharge the depleted groundwater aquifers. The failure of this reservoir, which could contain as much as 3,600 ac. ft. of water, would add to the flooding hazard (6). The 100 year flood levels are complicated by land subsidence and continuing channel improvements in some of the flood prone areas along Stephens Creek. A report by the USGS indicates that the 100 year flood would produce water to elevations of approximately 15 feet MSL in the ARC area (7) Some plans have been made by the Santa Clara Valley Water District to upgrade the dike and levee system to the 100 year flood elevations, however, flood and erosion problems in the ARC area are to be the subject of a future planning study Right of way acquisition has been scheduled through 1980 construction will begin at a later date and start in the more flood prone residentia1 areas (6) Saltwater flooding Tides Based on a review of statistical data and an analysis of tidal heights the Mean High water level is + 4 6 feet the highest tide in any six month period would be +6 2 feet The Highest High Tide which would occur once every two years would be + 7.0 feet MSL. Low tide values are similar but negative numbers (5, 7). Waves: Wave action for the southern end of San Francisco Bay is complicated by bay geometry, the shallow marshland and salt ponds Caculations based on a 40 knot northwesterly wind indicate that wave heights approaching 6 0 feet could be expected Wave runup the vertical height above still water to which water will rise on the face of a slope ranges from 6 2 to 7 8 feet, depending on the rough ness and angle of the levee slope The salt pond areas would have wave runup values approaching 3 0 feet based on similar wind conditions If the maximum tide values are added to the maximum wave runup values, salt water could be moved to elevations in excess of 14 feet. Based on the greater frequency of Mean PAGENO="0525" 523 Higher High Water, however, values of 10 to 11 feet are more likely (5, 7). Cur- rently, the only protection against salt water flooding in the ARC area is provided by a system of levees that enclose a series of salt evaporation ponds. Should Leslie Salt Corp. discontinue maintenance of this levee system there would be essentially no salt water flood protection for the portion of ARC below elevation 6.5 feet MSL, the approximate highest tide in any six month period (5.) Earthquakes This seismicity evaluation is only intended to point out the obvious, the three major fault systems and several smaller faults, the historic record of the more damaging events, and the distance of the Ames area to the fault (9, 10, 11, 12, 13). The San Andreas fault, 8 miles southwest of ARC, has produced major shocks in 1838, 1865 and 1906. The maximum recorded value was 8.3 on the Richter scale in 1906. The Hayward fault, 9 miles northeast of ARC, has produced major shocks in 1836 and 1886. The maximum event occurred in 1886, at an estimated 7.0 on the Richter scale. The Calaveras fault, 13 miles northeast of ARC, produced major events in 1897 and 1911. The maximum event occurred in 1911, with an estimated value of 7.0 on the Richter scale (5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13). The Silver Creek fault, 5 miles to the south of ARC, displaces Pleistocene deposits but has not been active in historic time. Three unnamed faults in the subsurface occurring at distances of ~, ~ and 2~ miles from the site have no historic record of activity (12, 13). A more complete evaluation and discussion of the earthquake hazard for the ARC area has been made (11); however, data from the 1971 San Fernando earthquake were not included in the evaluation. The maximum acceleration measured for the 1971 San Fernando earthquake was 1.25 g, nearly double the maximum acceleration recorded prior to this event. The acceleration along the fault was projected to be 1.5 g. These values are not inconsistent with theory but because of the single point value, some question has arisen regarding a possible anomalous value (9). The design parameters for Bldg. N213 should be reevaluated using the higher acceleration values before any decision is made regarding the storage of lunar samples in this structure. Liquefaction and lateral spreading During earthquakes, when lateral accelerations exceed 0.15 to 0.20 g soft soils will move downslope in areas where a free face is exposed, especially near excava- tions, canals, drainage ditches, shore lines and ship channels (5, 13, 14). Lateral spreading may be expected in the vicinity of Stephens Creek and may damage the levee system (13). Liquefaction, the transformation of a granular material from a solid state into a liquid state as a consequence of increased pore pressures, is also activated by lateral accelerations in excess of 0.15 to 0.20 g. Test borings show the occurrence of sands and gravels in the subsurface (5, 13, 14, 15, 16); a more detailed drilling program would be required to fully define this hazard. The Ames area has been rated at low to moderate by the various studies that have been made (5, 13, 14). Subsidence Subsidence is caused by the dewatering of clays and some limited compaction of the sands in the aquifers that are tapped to produce groundwater. The 1967 releveling survey, the base for the current topographic map, indicated that there was 5.5 to 6 feet of subsidence in the Ames Research Center-Moffett Field area between 1938 and 1967 (1). Some reports suggest that the 1971 elevations may be 8 feet below the 1912 elevations (17). Various reports state that subsidence has been stopped (5, 6, 13, 17) based on the recharge of the aquifers. An extensometer located near the south end of the runways at Moffett Field indicated a continuing compaction of about 0.34 feet in the upper 1000 feet of sediments between 1967 and 1973 (18). A leveling program by the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) shows that in general subsidence had stopped by 1972; some benchmarks showed a limited rebound in 1973 and 1974. Two benchmarks in the ARC area (Elli and 2J(B)) continue to show declines in 1974. The total additional loss in elevation since 1967 appears to be about 0.6 feet based on SCVWD leveling data (19). The Santa Clara Valley Water District suggest that an additional 2 feet of subsidence is possible if a high use of ground water again occurs. The total de- velopment of surface water depends on several bond issues yet to be passed by the voters. A failure to pass the bond issues will force a return to subsurface water and additional subsidence may occur (17, 20). PAGENO="0526" 524 SUMMARY-BUILDING N2i3-AMES RESEARCH CENTER (a) This site is located in an active seismic zone An analysis of earthquake history indicates that events in the 7 to 8 (Richter Scale) range are not uncommon and can be expected to occur in the future. Additionally, the higher acceleration values from the San Fernando event need to be applied to the design of the existing structure (Bldg. N213). (b) Subsidence is ~ significant problem an elevation loss of 82 feet has oc curred in the ARC area. Additional subsidence can be expected if a heavy demand is again placed on groundwater (c) Water to elevations of 15 feet MSL is predicted for the 100 year flood. The present levee system along Stephens Creek is designed to contain the 25 year flood. A failure of the present control system could discharge water into the ARC area at elevations of approximately 36 feet MSL. The dike system around the bay and salt ponds is inadequate to protect the lower elevations from salt water flooding (d) Liquefaction and Lateral Spreading pose some limited hazard to the area A more complete evaluation would require a more detailed analysis of existing data and a drilling program (e) Floor elevation in the proposed vault area is 42 feet MSL SUBSIDEI~CE IN UNITED STATES DUE TO GROUND WATER OvERDRAFT-A REVIEW' ABSTRACT (By J. F. Poland 2) The 67-percent increase in population of the United States since 1930 has greatly accelerated the demand for water. Ground-water pumpage doubled from from 1950 to 1970. In many areas, overpumping has drawn down water levels 100 ft to as much as 600 ft (30-180 m). Where these declines have occurred in unconsolidated aquifer systems containing many fine-grained compressible interbeds, the increase in effective stress has caused extensive land-surface subsidence. Significant subsidence due to water level decline occurs in five States Louisiana, Texas, Arizona, Nevada and California Subsidence is greatest [29 ft (9 m)] and most extensive [5,200 m12 (13 500 km2)} in the San Joaquin Valley but is at least 13 ft (4 m) in San Jose, 8 ft (2.4 m) near Houston, and 7.5 ft (2.3 m) southeast of Phoenix. Principal problems caused by the subsidence are (1) changes of eleva- tion and gradient of natural drainages and water-transport structures, (2) failure of water wells from compressive rupture of casings, due to the compaction, and (3) tidal encroachment in lowland coastal areas. Large imports of surface water to several subsiding areas in California have greatly reduced ground-water pumpage, resulting in dramatic recoveries of artesian head that have slowed or nearly stopped the subsidence sources, water imports to Santa Clara County increased nearly fivefold from 1964-65 to 1972-73-from 30,000 to 144,000 acre-feet (3.7-17. 7x107m3). The dramatic recovery of artesian head, 70 ft (21 m) from 1967 to 1971 (well- 7R1, fig 14), was the result of the reduction in ground water pumpage caused by the import. The decrease in the rate of subsidence in response to the head recovered since 1967 is demonstrated by the bar graphs of annual compaction at wells 1,000 ft (305 m) deep in Sunnyvale and San Jose (fig. 15). In San Jose, at wells C5 and Cli, the rate of compaction decreased from about 1 ft (30 cm) a year in 1961 to 0.05 ft (1.5 cm) in 1972. In Sunnyvale, compaction decreased from about 0.5 ft (15 cm) in 1961 to 0.02 ft (0.6 cm) in 1972. Thus, public agencies in Santa Clara County by providing for imports equivalent to about 00 percent of the pumpage of the early sixties, have succeeded in almost stopping the subsidence as of 1973. CONCLUSIONS Subsidence of serious magnitude due to ground-water overdraft has occurred in nine areas in the United States For five of these areas in which maximum sub sidence has ranged from 4 feet (1 2 m) in Nevada to 29 feet (8 8 m) in California, subsidence is now being ameliorated (or stopped) by surface water imports that have largely replaced ground-water withdrawals. For two more, the Houston- Galveston area and south-central Arizona, where subsidence has been 8 and 1Publication authorized by the Director, U.S. Geological Survey. 2 U.S. Geological Survey, Sacramento, California. PAGENO="0527" 525 7 5 ft (2 4 and 2 3 m) , respectively, import facilities are under constructioti, these facilities when completed, will supply surface water adequate to replace respectively one half and one quarter of the present ground water drain for the remaining two areas in Louisiana where subsidence is less than 2 feet REFERENCES (1) (1968) Mountain View, California 7 34 Minute Quadrangle Map U S Geol Survey (2) (1975) personal communication Mr George Holdaway, NASA Ames Research Center (3) Rantz S E (1974) Mean Annual Runoff in the San Francisco Bay Region, California 1931-1970 USGS Basic Data Contribution 69 (4) Rantz S E (1971) Precipitation Depth Duration Frequency relations for the San Francisco Bay Region California USGS Basic Data Contribution 25 (5) (1973) Baylands Salt Water Flood Control Planning Study, a report to the Santa Clara County Flood Control and Water District by Tudor Engineering Corn- pany, etal. (6) (1974) Amended Planning Study for Stephens Creek, Santa Clara Valley Water District. (7) Lernerinos, J. K., Lee, K. W. and Lugo, P. E. (1973) Flood Prone Areas in the San Francisco Bay Region, California, USGS Interpretive Report 4, Water Resources Investigations 37-73. (8) Personal communication Mr James Satcliffe Santa Clara Valley Water District (9) Page R A, Boore, D M, Joyner W B and Coulter, H W (1972) Ground Motion Values for Use in the Seismic Design of the Trans Alaska Pipeline System USGS Geological Survey Circular 672 (10) (1961) Geologic Map of California San Francisco Sheet California Divi sion of Mines and Geology (11) (1966) Geologic Map of California San Jose Sheet, California Division of Mines and Geology. (12) (1974) Earthquake Ground Motion Criteria for NASA/Ames Research Center, prepared by Pregnoff, Matheu and Beebe, Inc., Contract NAS2-8123. (13) (1973) Consultation Re. Geologic, Foundation and Groundwater Con- ditions Ames Research Center Moffett Field California by Cooper Clark and Associates for NASA-ARC. (14) Youd T L (1973) Liquefaction Flow, and Associated Ground Failure, USGS, Geological Survey Circular 688. (15) Nichols, D. R. and Wright, N. A. (1971) Preliminary Map of Historic Margins of Marshland, San Francisco Bay, California USGS Basic Data Con tribution 9 (16) (1974) Modification of the 40 by 80 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel a report to Ames Research Center by John A Blume and Associates Engineers et al (17) Poland J F (1971) Land Subsidence in the Santa Clara Valley Alameda, San Mateo, and Santa Clara Counties, California. USGS Technical Report 2. (18) (1975) telephone conversation record, Mr. George H. Holdaway, NASA- ARC and Joseph F Poland Coast and Geodetic Survey (19) (1975) Leveling Profile, BM 11175 to G148, Santa Clara Valley Water District (20) (1975) personal cQmmunlcation W F Carlsen, Santa Clara Valley Water District NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION, AMES RESEARCH CENTER, Moffett Field, Calif , April 4, 1975 To Johnson Space Center Attn JA/Mr Joseph V Piland From Loren G Bright Director of Research Support Subject: Natural Hazards Analysis Report on Ames by Dr. Uel S. Clanton. Dr Clanton has submitted to you a Natural Hazards Analysis Report including the Ames Research Center site, a copy of which has been sent to Mr. George H. Holdaway of my staff. Although Dr. Clanton has done a thoroughly professional job of obtaining data on natural hazards in this area, certain of the analyses and summary statements and the inferences therein cause me considerable concern insofar as they may adversely affect Ames Research Center s competitive position in putting forth proposals for future facilities construction Although some of the engineering staff here have reacted rather violently to Dr Clanton's analysis, I 70-079 0 - 76 - 34 PAGENO="0528" 526 have chosen to record with you through this letter and enclosure an expurgated version of those comments in the expectation that these will become companion documents to the Clanton report when it gets "stuck into" and recovered from the archives for other purposes in the future. While there do appear to be spurious statements in the report, I rather suspect that we are seeing the results of somewhat overzealous advocacy on Dr. Clanton's part and righteous indignation on the part of my people. I doubt that it would be possible or even profitable to try to resolve these differences and would hope that the matter can simply be laid to rest with this exposition of the differing points of view. In any event, I would expect the basic decision on storage of the lunar samples will proceed irrespective of these differences. As indicated above I have attached the expurgated rebuttals for the record. LOREN G. BRIGHT. Enclosure. COMMENTS BY MR. GEORGE H. HOLDAWAY ON AMES RESEARCH CENTER PORTION OF NATURAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS REPORT BY DR. U. S. CLANTON The summary sheet (Building N-213, Ames Research Center) from page 7 of the Natural Hazards Analysis Report is attached hereto, and each of the five paragraphs are addressed in order. Paragraph a Ames Research Center is located about ten miles from known faults and thus in a region of seismic activity, but it is not true that severe earthquakes are common, i.e., ". . . events in the 7 to 8 (Richter Scale) range are not uncommon and can be expected to occur in the future." Also, our buildings are being evalu- ated with latest information and techniques. At present, a structural engineering firm, acknowledged as specialists in earthquake risk analysis (ERA), is perform- ing such analyses on selected critical facilities including associated buildings. Using the latest ERA procedures for establishing seismicity at Ames and in- putting the postulated ground motion to a mathematical model using finite element techniques, the dynamic responses and structural adequacy of the 12- Foot P.W.T. facility were determined. Even with a maximum, credible (200-year) event (8.3+ Richter) such as that which occurred in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Buildings N-206 and N-206A were found to suffer no damage as the maximum shear stress in the walls was less than ~10 psi. Building N-213, which is of very similar construction, is stronger because it has smaller windows. In any event, it is extremely unlikely that the vault with its 4-foot reinforced concrete wall will suffer any structural damage. Paragraph b Subsidence has occurred in the past, has not been a problem to any of our facilities, and is not expected to continue. This has been discussed with Mr. Joseph F. Poland, Research Hydrologist, U.S. Geological Survey, in Sacramento, California (Phone: 916-484-4258), who is a recognized expert on the subject of subsidence. Mr. Poland is encouraged by the present importation of water, the restoration of artesian well pressures, and this year believes that subsidence in the region of Ames (Santa Clara County) has stopped. The abstract of his report of a year ago (Enclosure 2) said, ". . . almost stopping the subsidence as of 1973." Dr. Clanton was given a copy of this report. Paragraph c The first two sentences and the last sentence of this paragraph are correct; however, Dr. Clanton could have mentioned that the fiscal year 1975 CoF Project to install a perimeter road with elevations up to 19 feet will provide protection from all types of salt water flooding and minimize and possibly eliminate the hazard of a possible 100-year flood. His third sentence is spurious, and we hope it is simply a typographical error. An analysis has been done by the Santa Clara Valley Water District which shows that even failure of the Stevens Creek Reser- voir would have no effect at Ames because of the large areas that would b~ flooded and the water retained prior to reaching Ames. The elevated sides of Stevens Creek would prevent the water from returning to the creek channels. Paragraph d Contrary to the implication of this statement under the heading used, there is no hazard for liquefaction and lateral spreading in the almost level ground of the site of Building N-213 or for the majority of Ames property. Test borings PAGENO="0529" 527 made prior to the construction of this stable, U-shaped building gave no reason to be concerned about liquefaction. Dr. Clanton's statement has possible truth for the Santa Clara Valley Water District property along Stevens Creek, i.e., the creek side of some of the dikes could possibly slump into the creek. The District is careful in the sel~tion of materials and cross-section of its dikes to minimize this possibility. Paragraph e The floor elevation in the proposed vault area may he as low as four feet above MSL based upon maximum subsidence; however, the surrounding ground ele- vation is at least 14 feet above MSL. If our elevated perimeter road (under construction) does not give protection from the 15-foot-above-MSL, 100-year flood, the possible one foot of water in the region of Building N-213 could very practically be protected against by elevating by six inches for a length of about 12 feet an existing concrete edge at the end of the areaway leading to the base- ment. Available emergency standby power and pumps can remove any water reaching the basement. Present 100-year flood maps do not show the water reaching Building N-213, and the vault can be water-proof. MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER Building 4646 is a two story blockhouse, the ground floor elevation is 572.5 and second floor elevation is 584 feet MSL. The original ground surface was 568 feet; the area was filled to its present level of 572 feet for the construction of the blockhouse and swingarm facility (1). The major drainage basin is formed by the Tennessee River; Indian Creek and Huntsville Spring Branch form smaller and more local drainage basins. Flooding Building 4646 sits near the confluence of Indian Creek and Huntsville Spring Branch. Water moves into Wheeler Lake and then down Indian Creek into the Tennessee River which has beed dammed to form Wheeler Reservoir. The water level in Wheeler Lake, Wheeler Reservoir and the swamps above Wheeler Lake is normally maintained at an elevation of 556 feet above MSL. Wheeler Lake is some 3000 feet from Bldg. 4646 and slopes in the area are typically 1 to 2 percent (2). The Tennessee Valley Authority has calculated that the 50 and 100 year flood for Indian Creek in the vicinity of Bldg. 4646 would be 570 and 571 feet MSL (3). Within a 10 year period (1964-1973) the MSFC area had two floods to elevations of approximately 570 feet (3, 4, 5, 6). The March 16 and 17, 1973 flood flow rates exceed the 100 year projections for three rivers in Alabama. Flow rates for the Paint Rock River near Woodville was 1.6 times the estimated 100 year flood; the Flint River near Chase was 1.9 times the estimated values and the Tennessee River at Florence peaked at 1.2 times the estimated 100-year flood flow rates (5). A map prepa.red by TVA for Redstone Arsenal was thought to have raised the 100 year flood level to 572 feet MSL (7). This "increase", however, turns out to be a problem of presenting data to one foot elevations on a 5 foot interval contour map and not to an increase in flood heights (3). Nuclear power plants in the Tennessee drainage basin have required an extensive study of flooding hazards (8, 9, 10). Browns Ferry and Bellefonte are located within a 40 mile radius of MSFC, a third site about 15 miles southwest is also under consideration. Flood analysis is complicated along the Tennessee River by 22 TVA dams and 6 private dams. At mile 325 on the Tennessee River, a point about 5 miles south of Bldg. 4646, the TVA has projected a "maximum possible" or using the Corps of Engineers and AEC terminology, a "probable maximum" flood. Such a flood requires a series of closely related events, i.e., maximum precipitation, sustained winds, wave runup, etc., such that maximum water depth is obtained. Such a, flood on the Wheeler Reservoir would reach an elevation of 598 feet above MSL; MSFC and Bldg. 4646 would be flooded but to a lesser extent (3), perhaps to 593 feet above MSL. This value is based on a water slope of 1 foot per mile on the flooding Tennessee River (11). Geology-Karst topography The exposed geologica.1 section in the Madison Quadrangle contains about 700 feet of limestone. The most extensive unit is the Mississippian age Tuscumbia Limestone which attains a thickness of about 200 feet. The Tuscumbia is under- PAGENO="0530" 528 lain by the Fort Payne Chert and the Chattanooga Shale; these units tend to limit somewhat the downward movement of groundwater. The limestones are extensively fractured, and, because they are subject to solution, may be quite porous (12, 13). Rainfall in the area averages about 51 inches per year and an excellent correlation can be established between rainfall, groundwater level and spring flow in Madison County (12). A Karst topography is well developed in south and central Madison County (12, 13). The extent and development can perhaps be best placed in perspective by noting that the 1975 International Association of Hydrogeologists, Conference on Karst, will be held in Huntsville, Alabama (14). The Alabama Geological Survey has produced a hazards map of the Madison Quadrangle and has indicated the locations of over 30 sinkholes and 5 caves. The largest sinkhole is over a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide (13). The MSFC has had some extensive problems with what is locally called "drop- outs", the sudden appearance of a sinkhole at the surface. During 1973, Buildings 4647 and 4656, some 1400 feet west of 4646, had dropouts; the largest was 12 to 15 feet in diameter and 20 feet deep (15). Cores from this area indicated cavities over 5 feet in diameter at a depth of 35 feet (16). During December of 1974 two dropouts occurred near Building 4670, the Saturn Test Stand, one half mile south of Bldg. 4646 (17). The rechanneling of excess cooling water and surface runoff in the vicinity of Bldg. 4646 may have some adverse long term effect on ground-water movement and solution of the limestone. Because of recent dropouts in the immediate vicinity of Bldg. 4646, drilling or geophysical methods should be employed to more completely define this hazard. Seismology The Southern Appalachian seismotectonic province encompasses MSFC. The nearest local earthquake was centered about 35 miles to the east and had a Modified Mercalli (MM) intensity of V; the nearest known epicenter of a damaging quake (MM VII) was approximately 75 miles to the southeast (9). The maximum intensity at MSFC was probably no higher than MM V. A Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) acceleration of 0.18 has been proposed for the Belief onte Nuclear Power Plant (10), a value of 0.20 g was used for the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant (8). The SSE event is very conservatively defined and has an extremely low probability of occurrence and a very low recurrence probability. Meteorology-tornadoes MSFC has a temperate climate that is characterized by warm humid summers and cool winters. The record high of 102F occurred on July 12, 1966 and the record low of - 18F on January 29, 1966. The mean monthly temperature ranges from 39F in January to 78F in July (18). Warm moist unstable air masses from the Gulf of Mexico contacting cold, dry continental air masses pressing southward and eastward are the primary cause of severe weather. During the period of 1955-1967, 38 tornadoes were reported in the one-degree latitude-longitude square that covers MSFC (1, 19). The most current data (20), based on reports of tornadoes occurring within a 100 mile square area centered on MSFC (total area 10,000 square miles) indicate that there were 150 events in a 23 year period. Damage estimates are incomplete for 25 events; 50 tornadoes caused damages in the $50,000 to $500,000 range; 18 tornadoes were in the $500,000 to $5,000,000 range and two tornadoes caused damage in the $5,000,000 to $50,000,000 range. The frequency of tornadoes in this 10,000 square mile area ranges from one in 1960, 1966 and 1969 to twenty nine in 1974, the maximum on record for this area. For 1974 there were 64 fatalities, 768 injuries and damage estimates are still incomplete for 20 of the 29 tornadoes (20). Several buildings (4200, 4201, 4202) at MSFC were damaged by a tornado on April 11, 1974. The tornado was rated Fl on the Fujita Scale and wind speeds were estimated to be in the 70-90 mph range (19, 21). A more complete discussion of hazards caused by tornadoes and extreme winds, and engineering practices to design for tornadoes and extreme winds has been prepared by the Institute for Disaster Research and The Department of Civil Engineers, Texas Technical University (19); one of the examples used in this report is the 1974 tornado at MSFC. There was no major structural damage to Bldg. 4200 but there was ex- tensive damage to window mullions, metal panels and window glass (21). PAGENO="0531" 529 BUILDING 4646 STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS The addition to Bldg 4646 the area under consideration for the storage of lunar samples is constructed so that the attachment point is poured concrete separated from the preexisting structure by a half inch expansion joint There is no indication of rebar or attachment between the two structures The foundation of the two portions of the building are of equal design but again, are not attached (22, 23) A ircraft hazards Building 4646 is about 7300 feet from the end of the Redstone Arsenal runway The building is 900 feet inside the approach zone and 1200 feet from the center line of the runway C5A aircraft have landed at this facility and the NASA modified 747 with "piggyback orbiter is also scheduled to land at this airport (7) The approximate gross weight of these aircraft during takeoff and landing would be 500,000 to 560,000 lbs, velocities would be 140 to 200 knots (24 25) In response to an inquiry to Redstone Arsenal the answer returned was "Redstone Arsenal does not now use this airport in the transport of nuclear weapons but this is a military base and the possibility exists at some time in the future" (7) SUMMARY-BUILDING 4646-MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER (a) First floor elevation (572 5 feet) is 1 5 feet above the projected 100 year flood level (571 feet) Flood water elevations in 1964 and 1973 were approximately 570 feet Additionally the low ground slope in the area combined with the more local drainage system poses some hazard in periods of extreme rainfall, the first floor elevation is only about 6 inches above ground level (b) The second floor elevation of 584 feet is well above the 100 year flood projection but well below the "maximum possible projected by TVA (c) A Karst topography is well developed in the area Dropouts the rather sudden appearance of a sinkhole at the surface, have been sufficiently frequent and close to Bldg. 4646 that further investigations (drilling or geophysical) are required to determine the extent of this hazard. (d) Seismic activity should present no direct hazard but may accelerate dropout formation or some limited foundation movements (see f below) (e) Tornado frequency is highly variable ranging from 1 to 29 in a one year period Structural damage fatalities and injuries are sufficiently frequent that permanent structures should be constructed to withstand this hazard (f) The two parts of Bldg 4646 are separated by an expansion joint there are no attachments in walls or foundation (g) Building 4646 is well within the approach zone to the Redstone Arsenal Airfield Limited use by aircraft up to and including C5A and 747 can be antici- pated REFERENCES (1) (1964) NASA-MSFC Drawing No FE-A-4646-A8 (2) (1964) Madison, Alabama, 7-1/2 Minute Quadrangle Map, U S Geological Survey (3) (1975) letter correspondence from Mr Bob Buehler, Chief, Flood Control Branch Tennessee Valley Authority (4) (1973) Floods of March 1973 in the Tennessee River Basin, Tennessee Valley Authority Report No 0-7129 (5) (1973) 1973 Water Resources Data for Alabama, Part 1 Surface Water Records U S Geological Survey (6) (1964) Floods on Tennessee River Aldridge Creek and Huntsville Spring Branch and Tributaries in Vicinity of Huntsville, Alabama Tennessee Valley Authority Report 0-6384 (7) (1975) personal communication Mr Joseph Graham NASA, MSFC (8) (1972) Safety Evaluation of the Tennessee Valley Authority Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant Units 1, 2 and 3, Docket Nos. 50-259, 50-260, 50-296, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (9) (1974) Environmental Statement, Bellefonte Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2, Tennessee Valley Authority, Docket Nos 50-438, 50-439, U S Atomic Energy Commission PAGENO="0532" .5~3O (10) (1974) Safety Evaluation of the Bellefonte Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Tennessee Valley Authority, Docket Nos. 50-438, 50-439, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. (11) (1975) personal communication-Mr. Bob Buehler Chief, Flood Control Branch, Tennessee Valley Authority. (12) Malmberg, G. T. and Downing, H. T. (1957) Geology and Ground-water Resources of Madison County, Alabama. County Report 3, Geological Survey of Alabama. (13) (1.973) Environmental Geology and Hydrology Madison County, Alabama, Madison Area. Geological Survey of Alabama, Intern. Report 1973. (14) (1974) First Announcement, International Association of Hydrogeologist, Conference on Karst, Huntsville, Alabama. (15) (1973) Surface Subsidence Study, Bldg. 4647 and Hydrogen Vaporization Area, Marshall Space Flight Center, Report Number B-1857, Law Engineering Testing Company. (16) (1962) Advanced Saturn G.S.E. Test Facility. Logs of Borings, NAS8- 5552, Sheets 1 and 2. (17) (1975) personal communication Mr. Laroy Caddy, NASA MSFC and MSFC photo number 564403. (18) Gilchrist, L. P. (1974) Marshall Space Flight Center Climate Calendar, NASA-MSFC office memorandum S&E-AERO-Y-2-74. (19) McDonald, J. R. et al. (1974) Engineering for Extreme Winds and Tor- nadoes, A Short Course, Institute for Disaster Research and Department of Civil Eng., Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock, Texas. (20) (1975) letter correspondence and computer printout, Albert Pearson, National Severe Storms Forecast Center, Kansas City, Mo. (21) McDonald, J. R. (1974) letter report, McDonald, Mehta dn Minor, Consulting Engineers to Mr. James Shephard, Assoc. Director, Marshall Space Flight Center. (22) (1975) personal communication, Mr. William A. Parkan, NASA-JSC-TL. (23) (1964) addition to GSE Test Facility, Blackhouse Addition, Foundation Plan and Details and Section and Details, file no. MSFC-9391 and MSFC-9393. (24) (1975) personal communication-Mr. Will F. Hoyler, NASA-JSC Space Shuttle Office. (25) (1975) personal communication-Mr. Albert H. Crews, NASA-JSC, Aircraft Operations Division. Chairman FUQUA. We have many buildings at Marshall and some of the other centers that are vacant and have been closed. Surely with modification, some of these buildings would be adequate for storage. Dr. CALI0. That is true. And there are two aspects to the study, as I recall it. One was natural hazards and the other was cultural hazards, from the standpoint of movement and activity around the area where a storage facility would be located. Those things were assessed at other NASA centers. At Brooks, the activity provides us with no cost for operation there, so it is a dead storage and the Johnson people can actually have access to that on an as-needed basis. Chairman FUQIJA. Somebody even suggested Fort Knox. With the gold being gone, there is probably room there. Dr. CALI0. There's a peculiar story associated with that. Right. But we also understand they flood some of those vaults. Chairman FUQUA. We wouldn't want that to happen. Mr. Frey. Mr. FREY. I just have a couple of questions. What is the completion date of the Skylab data analysis project? While you are getting that, I will ask another question. A lot of us are concerned about the fact that we don't seem to be doing as much as some of us would like in the upper atmosphere with continued research. PAGENO="0533" 531 There is a definite tradeoff between continuing existing programs and starting new programs Yet, it seems to me that we hear of instances where we got so much data from some of these things that we never are going to get through them anyway. I guess everybody is doing the best they can. I just hope we look at everything to make sure we are trying to maximize both I wish we had money to do both. Dr HINNERS We continually do that The Skylab data analysis is funded through fiscal year 1979 We do make this annual evalua.- tion of the data analysis programs One of the misconceptions sometimes you can get into here is that if you look at the total amount of data it is overwhelming, but there is a difference between total amount of data and information So we have got to be very careful that we indeed get the real in- formation out and don't go so far into it that we are dealing with trivial data Mr FREY How much, in terms of inflation and everything else is the real increased funding for fiscal 1977 budget request for the upper atmosphere research? Dr HINNERS $4 2 million Mr FREY $4 2 million? Dr HINNERS Right Mr FREY What is the balance between the in-house, university, and contractor funding for the upper atmospheric research funds in 1977? Do you have any breakdown on that? Dr. HINNERS. I can give you a fairly close one. To date, in the 1976 program, prior to putting in the new $3 5 million, it was about 45 percent university versus contractor and NASA in-house. Of the new money we put in, about 60 percent of the $3 5 million is in university research work Mr FREY Will we continue the ozone studies after the next year or so? Are there plans to continue those things over a period of time? Dr HINNERS Yes, as I say, we did add the experiment to the Atmospheric Explorer E The applications spacecraft, the sage, will be making ozone measurements, and the Nimbus G It would be our intent thatea ch spacecraft of that type which goes up would probably have an ozone-type monitor on it, so that we could indeed look at this long-term continuous variation of the ozone Dr HINNERS Dr Rasool would like to add to that Dr RASOOL Yes, one of the problems that we are having right now in evaluating the freon problem is that the stratosphere of the Earth was sort of ignored for the last two or three decades with respect to the upper atmosphere and lower atmosphere The problem was that we didn't have the measuring techniques in the upper atmosphere The satellite made the measurements in the upper atmosphere, ionosphere, so on, and looked back at the Earth and made measurements of the clouds, and so on Mr FREY You didn't have the right model to work from, in essence? Dr. CALI0. Right; we did not have measurements. We did not have computer techniques to do the global modeling, and so on. So the stratosphere has suffered as far as science is concerned. With thib funding that we have we are trying to build up a strato- spheric research program, at least for the next few years, so we will get PAGENO="0534" 532 a better basic understanding, so that any other time a problem like this develops we can quickly find the solutions to it. Mr. FREY. Well, like a lot of things that have had a great emotional outpouring, every committee in the Congress, I think, has been look- ing into this. That is why I didn't even push you on even a ball park guess, because I think the way you are going about it makes sense, when we have the answers to do it To do it otherwise, it is a bunch of nonsense When you are talking about the Saturn mission, f everything works well-and I like the idea of it by the way-I am just trying to think out loud I suppose there are going to be some people who are going to say, "Look, that's a bunch of money to spend up there on a second mission, if we are going to get everything we can from the first mission anyway. If you're just going to really take a pass and look at it and go on, is it worthwhile?" Maybe you could expand that a little bit for the record, because I think it is a question that will be asked Dr HINNERS Yes Basically, we have structured the outer planets' missions with two flights each time The investment in such a mission is usually such that, first of all, we want to guarantee that we get results for the work put into it So the delta cost of the second spacecraft is low relative to the total program-if you were to do one-~JI can't give you a percentage now, but a high part of the cost is in the basic engineering, the desgin So by buying the additional spacecraft-- Mr. Fiii~y. Throw the second one in, in essence. Dr HINNERS Right Spacecraft have failed before So we are just awfully queasy about- Mr. FREY. So you are going to do a backup second one. It just wouldn't make any sense not to We w ould have a real chance of wasting the money So we are not doing anything extravagant, we are just doing something that makes sense, that we have to do Dr RuNNERS That's number one, correct Number two, the mis- sions are structured to complement each other There is usually no way you can do everything you want to with one mission, particu- larly in the fly-by mode. So we usually would emphasize on one to look at planets and certain satellites and target the other one for a different set of satellites You are going past Jupiter and Saturn fairly rapidly So the basic missions are structured to complement each other in that sense They see the planets, et cetera, at different times We space them apart so that what one spacecraft sees may have changed by the time the second one gets there We can start to look at time effects say of Jupiter's radiation, et cetera Mr FREY Why can't you do the same thing with the first one? Dr. ETINNERS. You are just limited to what you can do with a given spacecraft If you take your second look at a different time, you look at different features Mr FREY But I mean Why can't you go whizzing past going out on the first one also? Dr RAsooL When you say "Mariner Jupiter Saturn mission, you are actually saying "Jupiter and its satellites" There are 13 satellites of Jupiter Four of them are almost as big as Mercury and Moon. PAGENO="0535" 5313 And one of them To, has recently been found to have an atmosphere of sodium, which is very amazing When you go to Saturn, there are 10 satellites, one of which, Titan, is as big as Mercury and has an atmosphere of methene-ammonia , and the rings So you are actually doing a 20-object mission. Mr FREY That wasn't spelled out while you were talking I think I understood what you were getting at, but I thought you ought to be able to make it clear, so it wouldn't look like you were going up there and, you know, whiz past and go on to the second one Dr RASOOL So you can arrange it in such a way that you can see part of an object with one and the other part with another Dr FREY So what we are doing is The second one will do most of the work anyway It is a backup that has to be done And what we are trymg to do is squeeze a little extra out of it by getting more for our money when, actually, it is something we have to do anyway Dr HINNERS Basically, we have two different, good missioijs going Mr FREY Thank you Chairman FUQUA. Thank you, Mr. Frey. Noel, what is the balance between the NASA, university and contractor funding for the upper atmosphere, the percentage? Did you already give that? Dr HINNETtS I think we got most of that with Mr Frey's questions About 60 percent of the new $3 5 million is for university research Chairman FTJQUA The results of the Space Science Board study on priorities in space research, have they considered the space telescope project to be the highest priority in astronomy? Dr. HINNERS. Yes. For several years now, the Space Science Board has had the Space Telescope as a top priority item Their report for the last session in October 1975 has not yet been released from the academy review process, but indeed they still vigorously support the Space Telescope Chairman FIJQUA I don't recall the exact funding they had for Viking, but you had the transition quarter more than one-half the funds for the entire fiscal year 1976 Can you explain that? One of the blue charts Dr HINNERS I'll call on Mr Kraemer, from the Lunar and plane- tary programs, for that question Mr KRAEMER Mr Chairman, are you referring to the total budget, or just the project management. Chairman FIJQIJA. The project management. Mr KRAEMER That item really contains quite a bit more than just the mangement of the project We have all of the science support, the analysis of the science data, included under that portion of the budget In the transition period, for instance, where we show a total amount of $2 3 million under project management, actually, only $0 6 million of that is for the management of the project The rest supports the scientists in all of their analysis of the data. That is our most intense period on the entire project It is during that period that we will have two orbiters and two landers, in a very intensive operation and we will be analyzing the data as fast as we can We can then send up new commands to optimize the next day's performance on each vehicle PAGENO="0536" 534 Chairman FUQUA. What would be the effect of a reduction of, say, in the neighborhood of $2 million in the Viking program? Dr. HINNERS. Most of our request in fiscal year 1977 is for the ex- tended mission, which is a little over $20 million. The request that came in from the centers was for about $37 million. We pared that down, and said there was just no way we could see to fit that in. So we pared down and reduced the operational team, say from 750 down to 250, and their bare bones request was $23 million, I believe, and we said, "Still can't do it," and took that down to about the $20 million level. We believe we have whipped that one about as dry as we should. There is some question about whether we will get through the total year of operations with that. We are working hard trying to do it with- in that limit. But I believe any further cut would be unwarranted and would be very detrimental to the operation of those four spacecraft. Chairman FUQUA. You couldn't even consider a $4 million cut? Dr. HINNERS. You are going the wrong way on that one. Chairman FUQUA. One final question. We do have some questions to submit for the record. In order to perform the research signals, particularly the group that is in the water-Ho region of the spectrum, and I guess around 1,300- 1,700 megahertz, are you going anything to make sure that spectrum is going to be available to you should you need it, and not have inter- ference from other Earth-based signals? Dr. HINNER5. Dr. Rasool. Dr. RAsooL. Yes; the whole question of which part of the fre- quency is to be used for extraterrestrial detection of intelligent life is being discussed actually this week or so by a workshop which is convened by Ames at our request and headed by Morrison, from MIT. The have discussed in great detail the band widths, and so on, that they will need. The studies, the workshop-part of the science, part of the study-is funded by OSS. The technology part is from OAST mainly. So in this week or so we will determine how much you would have to work in trying to keep the water band available. Chairman FUQUA. So you are pursuing that now? Dr. RAsooL. We are doing that now. Chairman FUQLTA. That's good. I think it is most important. Dr. RAsooL. The first standpoint they come up with will happen next week. Chairman FUQUA. Thank you very much, Noel. As usual, you have done a very fine job. I want to echo the remarks you made about the future of our planetary funding. I don't like what I see on the chart as far as diminishing funds. I think it is a very important field, and I hope that NASA and 0MB, and Congress in its wisdom, will improve, recognize the importance of those programs. Dr. HINNERS. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Chairman FUGUA. Thank you very much. We will adjourn until tomorrow morning at 10 o'clock in this room, when we will hear from Mr. Gerald M. Truszynski, NASA Associate Administrator for Tracking and Data Acquisition, and Mr. Arnold W. Frutkin, NASA Assistant Administrator for International Affairs. PAGENO="0537" 535 [Whereupon, at 11:33 a.m., the subcommittee recessed, to reconvene at 10 o'clock, Thursday, February 5, 1976, in room 2318, Rayburn Building.] [Questions and answers submitted for the record follow. See also Volume I, Part 3 for additional questions and answers.] PAGENO="0538" 536 General Questions on Interstellar Intelligence submitted by the Subcornniittee on Space Science and Applications on February 4, 1976. QUESTION 1: We understand NASA is performing a series of workshops discussing the possibility of searching for signals from other civilizations in the universe. What is NASA1s official position on this type of program? ANSWER: The Science Workshops in Interstellar Communications you refer to, and accompanying studies, are designed to produce a feasibility assessment and program plan before the Agency makes any further commitment. Preliminary output from these studies points to the desirability of supporting limited technology developsent and more detailed evaluation studies before committing major resources to an extraterrestrial intelligent life search. The next 5 to 10 year period would thereby a~low the initiation of a modest search program and the orderly appraisal and planning of a future enhanced national, or international commitment. PAGENO="0539" ANSWER: If both programs, after appropriate prelilr-Lrdry studies appear to be viable pursuii s foi the Agency then possibly compe~t~on for funding might occur ~Thi1e a commitment to the Search for lxtratcrre.,trial Intelligence (SETI) would requir fairly substantial funding the resource implications for an 0 Neill space colony are of a far larger order of magni- tude. In terms of exploratory studies., both piogiams might be pursued simultaneous- ly QUESTION 2: 537 Do you considei. this piogram competitive for fur di~ig with say U~e 0 Neil space colony concept in the post-Shuttle funding years c~flead~? PAGENO="0540" 538 QUESTIO\ Did your Outlook ~o.c Space report addre~s itself to the possibility of a Cyclops type array for interstellar searches, or did you consider it too far in the future, as you d with tne ~ ANSWER LloOk for Space does address the search extraterrestrial intelligence as a or theme providing a significant cc ii~ution to human knowledge The co anion volume A Forecast of Space Tee otogy identifies Cyclops for this p ~. which is felt to be within our teL~1ology horizon Our current studies indicaLe alternative approaches exist to the Earth-based Cyclops concept that appear attractive and adequately competi- tive to warrant further study PAGENO="0541" 539 QUESTION 4: How much support does the Interstellar Communication Study Group have at Head- quarters? That is, how much more funding do you plan to spend on these types of activities? ANSWER: The Amas Research Center Study Team and *the co~.tinuing Science Workshops on the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) are crucial to the development of a NASA program plan and the identification of altcrnatives for action. Spin-off workshops such as the Extra-Solar Planet Detect:Lon, have been added to the study. We will probably continue this activity and ara in the process of determining its funding level. PAGENO="0542" 540 QUESTION ANSWER: 5 Would you be willing to devote some of your funds ar background esearch in astronomy and antenna desi,n related to the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)2 Yes, we would like to initiate a limited commitment to the search, and are consid ring programs in extra-solar planet detectLon The Office of Aeronautics and Space i~echno1ogy (OAST) is considering the development of super sensitive receivers and multi-channel analyzers PAGENO="0543" 541 QUESTION 6: We have become aware that if this country is to perform an actual search for signals, that a consensus has been reached within your group that the "waterhole' region of the sp~ cLrum, from about 1390 - 1720 MHz would I ~he best place to start a search. Are y.~ doing anything to ensure that this portiox. of the spectrum will remain relati\~:J.y free of interference from other ground-h~ed and space-based systems so such a search can be performed? ANSWER: As protection of the "waterhole" is critical to certain aspects of an Earth- based signal search effort, the studies have generated a proposed position paper now under consideration by NASA for transmission to the appropriate Federal bodies for presentation at the General World Administrative Radio Conference (GWARC) in 1979. However, some of the space-based alternatives to Cyclops offer an "escape" from the problem by electro- magnetic isolation. 70-079 0 - 76 - 35 PAGENO="0544" 542 (~eneral Questions on Lunar Sample Curatorial Facility :ubmitted by the House Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications on February 4, 1976. QUESTION NO. 1: How many scientists used the present lunar curatorial facilities in FY 75 and FY 76? How many scientists were denied use of the present lunar curatorial facili- ties in FY 75 and FY 76 because of lack of space? ANSWER: During FY 75, 16 scientists made at least one visit inside the Curatorial Facility to plan interdiscipli~- nary studies on specific lunar samples or to make essential observations when large or unique samples were being cut. So far in FY 76, six scientists have made such visits. Because of the limited space in the Curatorial Facility, each such visit interrupts normal facility operations and sample processing. During FY 75, 39 outside scientists visited the lunar sample thin section library outside the Curatorial Facility to examine prepared slices of lunar rocks under the microscope. All these individuals requested access to the Curatorial Facility itself to expand their studies by examining the original samples. Be- cause of lack of space, none of these requests could be granted. So far during FY 76, 21 scientists have visited the thin section library; no requests from these individuals for access to the Curatorial Facility could be granted either. These are minimum figures for the number of requests refused. Most lunar scientists, aware of the diffi- culty of access to the Curatorial Facility, make brief informal requests of which no permanent record is .kept, or make no requests, assuming that the answer will be negative. PAGENO="0545" 543 QUESTION NO. 2: Hew many scientists do you envision requesting use of curatorial facilities in FY 77? How many scientists will NASA have to deny use of lunar curatorial facili- ties in FY 77 if the proposed C of F facility is denied? ANSWER: We expect that the number of requests for access to the Curatorial Facility will be about the same in FY 77 as in the previous two years. If the proposed C of F facility is denied, we expect that at least 35 to 40 requests for access by established scientists will have to be denied. This number is about one.-third of the number of Principal Investigators now involved in lunar sample research. We expect that many more requests would be made once the proposed C of F addition is completed. At present, many scientists with worthwhile projects do not request access because they are aware that such requests car~ rarely be granted. PAGENO="0546" 544 QUESTION NO. 3: Storage of a representative sample (20 to 30%) of the lunar samples has been arranged at Brooks Air Force Base. Is there space available for additional sample storage at Brooks Air Force Base? ANSWER: Approximately 15 percent (by weight) of the lunar sample collection is now planned for storage at Brooks Air Force Base. With extreme crowding, the present Brooks facility could store no more than about 50 percent (by weight) of the ollection. The main prob- lem with such storage is that there are now more than 20,000 different "splits" or subsamples of the original specimens, all of which would have to be stored in individual containers. Furthermore, the samples stored there cannot be easily removed for study or for distri- bution to scientists. PAGENO="0547" 545 QUESTION NO. 4: Of the remaining 70 to 80%, how much of the lunar material is stored at JSC in facilities other than Building 31? ANSWER: Approximately 30 percent (by weight) of the lunar samples are now in interim storage in Johnson Space Center buildings other than the Curatorial Facility. The material so stored cannot be easily recovered for scientific study. Distribution of the remainder of the sample collection is as follows: 15 percent is planned for secure storage at Brooks Air Force Base, 50 percent remains in the present Building 31 Curatorial Facility, and 5 percent has been distributed for scientific studies and public displays. PAGENO="0548" 546 QUESTION NO. 5: Would not some of the underground levels of Building 37 facilitate easy conversion to a vault~ ANSWER Conversion of the underground levels of Building 37 to a vault to store the lunar sample collection is a highly undesirable alternative to the requested addition to Building 31. The greatest natural hazard estimated for the Johnson Space Center area is flood- ing associated with hurricanes, and underground storage of the collection would greatly increase the danger to the samples from such flooding The underground levels of Building 37 are also unsatis- factory because they presently lack vault-type con- struction and contain only one-quarter of the floor space required for the vault in the requested C of F facility. Usable floor space in the Building 37. sublevels is only 670 square feet, whereas the C of F facility design requires 7000 square feet, of which 3100 square feet are required for the vault itself PAGENO="0549" 547 General questions for Lunar and Planetary Programs submitted by the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications on February 4, 1976. QUESTION NO. 1: In response to a query by the Subcommittee in November 1975, regarding the cracked mirror for the infrared telescope planned for Mauna Kea, NASA stated that a decision was anticipated in mid-December and the sub- committee would be informed. Since the Subcommittee has still received no answer, I would again ask: What is the cost impact of the cracked mirror for the infra- red telescope planned for Mauna Kea? ANSWER: Negotiations are presently underway to replace the fractured mirror blank for the infrared telescope facility planned for Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Owens-Illinois has provided a quote "on an acceptable replacement blank which they had in inventory. The "quote' includes an allowance for the trade-in of the fractured blank; and the rough configuring of the replacement blank to ready it for the grinding and polishing operation which will be done ~by Kitt Peak National Observatory. It appears that the net additional cost to replace the fractured mirror will be between $150,000 and $200,000. A more significant increase in cost of the total facility has, however, been introduced by the unavoidable delay in the facility completion date caused by the need to obtain the replacement mirror. The revised total C0F cost increase of the project is $6,644,000 or a $604,000 increase which has been accom- modated by a realignment of funds as provided for in the annual authorization acts. PAGENO="0550" 548 QUESTtON NO 2 What is the anticipated lifetime of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages? ANSWER The anticipated useful scientific lifetime of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages are as follows Apollo 12 June 1979 Apollo 14 September 1979* Apollo 15 August 1979 Apollo 16 June 1980 Apollo 17 August 1979 Estimated lifetimes are calculated by monitoring the decreasing power output of the Radioisotope Thermal Generators (RTGs) that provide power to the ALSEP experiments The date given is the estimated time at which the power provided to the ALSEP will become insufficient for essential temperature control, experiment operation, and data transmission *Apollo 14 ALSEP ceased to transmit data on January 18, 1976 It may have been detected faintly on February 7 and February 8, 1976 This ALSEP once before stopped transmitting and then recovered within a few days and started to send valid data We will continue to monitor this frequency to determine if the possible current recovery will continue PAGENO="0551" 549 QUESTION NO. 3: What would be the impact of a reduction of $2.2 million for Viking in FY 77? What would be the impact of a reduction of $4.2 million? ANSWER: This question was answered in the testimony on page 182, lines 15-25, and on page 183, lines 1-7. Almost all of the FY 77 request, $20.3 million, is for the extended mission. This number already represents a significant reduction from the initial request of over $30 million and the "bare bones' estimate of $23 million. To have stayed at the $23 million level would have required that the existing flight team be reduced from its present level of 750 people to 250-275 people. We are now working on how we can get through the year on $20.3 million. If we should have to take a further cut, it would probably force a termination of the mission before the end of the fiscal year. Approximately one month of operations would be lost for every $2.0 million reduction. Following a termination, it would not be possible to restart the mission in F~ 78 because of the loss of people. The science objective of obtaining data over the length of a Martian year would be lost. PAGENO="0552" 550 QUESTION NO. 4: Describe in detail the expected impact of the oven mal- function which has been reported on VIKING. ANSWER: The Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) instrument on each Viking Lander contains three identical ovens for the organic chemical analysis of three different samples of surface material. If the sampling area available to the 10-foot-long surface sampler at the landing sites is homogeneous, the loss of the ability to do an analysis in triplicate is not significant. If the available area appears varied, it will be studied with the cameras and a decision will then be made as to sample selection. In a varied area, it would be desirable to have three rather than two samples. However, it is not possible to assess the impact of the loss of one analysis until we have more information about the chemistry of Mars' surface material. PAGENO="0553" 551 QUESTION NO. 5: Why does project management for Viking for the transi- tion quarter entail more than one-half the funds for project management for the entire FY 1976? ANSWER: This question was answered in the testimony on page 181, lines 18-25, and on page 182, lines 1-11 (Transcript of hearing before the House Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications on February 4, 1976). PAGENO="0554" 552 Qtft~S'1'.[ON NO. 6: have any problems other than the oven malfunction been identified on the VIKING spacecraft? ANSWER: Durinq the cruise period, there have been two other anomalies on the Viking 2 Lander: 1. A battery charger circuit failed in the Bio- shield Power Assembly (SPA). It did not operate the first time it was tried after launch. The charger is used only during cruise to charge the Lander's batteries with power from the Orbiter's solar panels. After a thorough investigation into the probable cause of the failure, a backup charger circuit in the BPA was switched on and operated correctly. There should be no further impact on the mission due to this failure. 2. An ambient temperature sensor in the meteorology instrument is reading erratically and about 10C low. The potential mission impact is to reduce the accuracy when measuring Martian air temperature and wind velocity. It may be possible to reduce these errors by a computer software change to substitute the measurement of another external temperature sensor for the erratic sensor. PAGENO="0555" 553 QUESTION NO. 7: Are there any remaining development problems with the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn spacecraft or experiments? ANSWER: Remaining development problems with the Mariner Jupiter/ Saturn (MJS) spacecraft and experiments are: 1) The traveling wave tubes for the MJS radio represent a major development still remaining for the MJS Project. There are two items of concern. One has to do with the lack of stability of the S-band tubes under certain operation conditions. Evaluation of a fix for these tubes is currently in process. The second concern has to do with tube leakage which is thought to be related to the manner in which the tubes are encapsulated and affects both the S- and X-band devices. Analysis of the possible stresses associated with the encapsulation process is underway. 2) The trajectory correction attitude control propulsion unit thrusters have development problems with respect to plugging of the capillary lines between the thruster and the Valves. This problem is currently under investigation. 3) Reticon detectors used in the Ultraviolet experiment are not compatible with the expected Jupiter radiation environment. A redesigned detector is under development. Such problems are not unusual in a developmental project of this nature, and progress in the overall program is considered good. PAGENO="0556" 554 QUESTION NO. 8: DOeS the Pioneer Venus Project still have support from the scientific community? Have the science experiments been descoped since the project initiation? Is the project on schedule and within cost? What total funds will have been spent on the project by the end of FY 76? What type of contract is being used on Pioneer Venus? ANSWER Pioneer Venus has been strongly supported by the scientific community for a number of years,evidenced by the fact that it has had high priority endorsement by.the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences. In its most recent report, "Opportunities and Choices in Space Science, 1974," this support was again reiterated A more recent indication of scientific support for Pioneer Venus was the widespread concern expressed by scientists when a one~year deferral of Pioneer Venus was voted by the House Committee on Appropriations. There has been no apparent reduction in this support to date. No science experiments have been descoped since the project initiation. The science experiments have been continued as planned at the initiation of the project. While detailed schedule adjustments have been made, as is to be expected, the overall program is continuing on schedule and costs have remained within established budgets Total cost of the mission is estimated to be in the range of $160 OM to $190 OM By the end of FY 76, approximately $83.5M will have been obligated for the Pioneer Venus project. The contract with Hughes Aircraft Corporation for. the spacecraft is CPAF (cost plus award fee.):. PAGENO="0557" 555 QUESTION NO. 9: Provide the distribution by Center of the Supporting Research Technology and Advanced Studies for FY 75, FY 76, and FY 77. ANSWER: LUNAR & PLANETARY $JJPPORTING RESEARCH AND TEcHNOLOGY/ADVANCED STUDIES (~Q0Q_~) gENTER ~Y 7~ E~ 76 ~ 77 Ames Research Ctr 4414 1269 565 1370 Goddard Space Flt Ctr 653 3165 145 700 Jet Propulsion Lab 2544 3055 1255 5350 Johnson Space Ctr 225 125 35 125 Langley Research Ctr 165 185 45 185 Marshall Space Flt Ctr 20 0 0 0 Wallops Flt Ctr 55 55 15 50 Headquarters contracted ~j4 ~ 440 3820 TOTAL 11000 11000 2500 11600 PAGENO="0558" QUESTION NO. 10: How many new scientists are expected to enter the Lunar Data Analysis and Synthesis program in F? 77? How many new scientists entered the program in F? 76? ANSWER: In F? 76 seven new projects involving about 30 scientists were funded by the Lunar Data Analysis and Synthesis (LD&S) Program, out of a total of about 70 projects funded to date. Five of these proposals were new to the Program, the other two represent redirections of effort by scientists already involved in lunar research Six other projects, involving a total of about 25 scientists, are now being evaluated for possible funding in F? 76 four of these projects are new to Lunar Programs We expect that the LD&S Program will receive about 10 new proposals in F? 77 Each proposal will probably involve three or four scientists, so that involvement of a total of 30 to 40 new scientists is anticipated in F? 77 556 PAGENO="0559" 557 QUESTION NO. 11: What progress has been made on the development of the portable Lunar Laser Ranging Station? ANSWER: Construction of a portable Lunar Laser Ranging Station has not yet begun. The University of Texas at Austin was invited on January 9, 1976, to submit a proposal to provide the design, construction, and testing of such a transportable Lunar Laser Ranging Station. It is antici- pated that a contract for construction of the portable ranging station will be signed with the University of Texas by May 15, 1976. Construction of the station is expected to begin immediately after the contract is signed. 70-079 0 - 76 - 36 PAGENO="0560" 558 QUESTION NO. 12: How much have the-ALSEP experiments degraded? How much degradation is considered acceptable before the data is no longer useful? ANSWER: At present, sixteen of the original twenty-eight experiments on the ALSEPs are operating and returning valid data. This includes four experiments on the Apollo 12 ALSEP which have lasted five years beyond their nominal one-year lifetime. The principal areas in which these experiments are returning data are lunar seismic events and heat flow, which contribute to our understanding of the interior processes of the terres- trial planets; and meteorites, interplanetary dust, and solar wind measurements, which contribute to our under- standing of the solar system. Of the experiments which are no longer operating, eight failed. Two were turned off because they were returning invalid data; one was in stand-by when the command receiver failed, and one was turned off because the expense of operation was not justified by the data being returned. Two of the operational experiments are on the Apollo 14 ALSEP which is currently either not transmitting or transmitting very weakly. The quality of the data being returned from each ALSEP is monitored constantly. When an experiment is found to be providing invalid or questionable data, it is either turned off or carefully followed so that only periods during which the data is completely valid are used. In addition, there is an annual review by NASA Headquarters in which the status of each operating ALSEP is carefully examined to determine (a) whether the data being returned is valid; (b) whether continued operation and reduction of data from that experiment will contribute to further understanding of the Moon and the solar system; (c) whether the value of the possible additional data justifies the required expenditure of funds; and, (d) whether competent scientists are interested in working with future data. The last such annual review took place on October 24, 1975. PAGENO="0561" 559 2 Recommendations to turn an experiment off because of invalid data can be made at any time either by the scientists reducing the data or by the engineers at the Johnson Space Center who monitor both the quality of the data and the housekeeping telemetry from the ALSEPs PAGENO="0562" Genera)? Question on Life Sciences Submitted by the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications on February 4 1976 Question What efforts are made to augment the transfer of technolo~y developed in the Life Sciences Program to the civil ~ Answer The principal activity for transfer of NASA technology to the civil sector including that technology developed in the Life Sciences Program is the NASA Office of Technology Utilization The Technology Utilization Office interacts directly with health care institutions to identify opportunities where the work of the institution can be assisted by the application of NASA technology These interactions are carried out by NASA personnel including representatives of the Life sciences Program, and by special contractor-operated' Biomedical Applications Teams built around professionals in the medical or biomedical- engineering field As a result of these interactions specific projects are frequently undertaken combining the talents and resources of both the health care institution and NASA to adapt existing NASA technology to fit the needs of the institution Such projects have resulted in improved instrumentatiori diagnostic procedures and other devices and processes for use by the civil sector health care community. NASA's Life Sciences program supports the Technology Utilization Office in this effort by advising and consulting on the work of the Biomedical Applicatons Teams by evaluating and advising on `~pecific projects and by providing a biomedical engineer from the Life Sciences Offices to work directly in the biomedical program of the Technology Utilization Office. 560 PAGENO="0563" 561 General questions for Physics and Astronomy submitted by the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications on February 4, 1976. QUESTION NO. 1 A Dual Air Density (DAD) Explorer was launched in December, but did not achieve orbit due to malfunction in the launch vehicle. (a) Is there a backup spacecraft available for a backup mission? ~b) What equipment is available for a backup mission? Cc) Were there any lauzich window constraints on the DAD launch? Cd) What is the projected cost of a backup mission? (e) Do you plan to reprogram? Where will the funds for the backup mission come from? ANSWER: (a) Because the Explorer program is conducted at minimum cost, no backup spacecraft is available. (b) A substantial number of subsystems are available as spares, such as the very high frequency transmitter. Many key. elements have to be procured, such as the solar cells, and one of two command receivers. (c) December 1976 was considered the latest desirable launch date, because feasibility of coordinated observations with the Atmosphere Explorer would have become questionable and NASA telemetry stations are phasing over to S-Band. (d) A backup mission would cost $4.1 million ($2.4 million for spacecraft and data analysis, and $1.7 million for the Scout launch vehicle). Ce) A final decision has not been made on whether or not to fly a backup mission. Hence, no funds have.been identified for reprogramming. PAGENO="0564" 562 QUESTION NO. 2: In November, Dr. Hinners testified that the investigation by the Dual Air Density (DAD) Explorers would complement other studies being performed by Atmosphere Explorers AE/C, D, and B. Will this also be the case for any backup mission? ANSWER: A final decision has not been made on whether or not to fly a backup mission. If there is a backup mission, it will complement the Atmosphere Explorer studies. PAGENO="0565" 563 QUESTION NO. 3~ You have increased the budget estimates for the High Energy Astronomy Observatories (HEAO) by $2.6 million in FY 1976 and $1.5 million in the Transition Quarter. Does the FY 1977 Budget Estimate also reflect an increase from earlier estimates? What is the total increase in the cost of HEAO over the estimate at the time of project approval? Break this increase down by HEAO-A, B, and C. ANSWER: The FY 1977 budget reflects an increase of $6.8 million over the Agency's preliminary estimate at this time last year. Of this amount, $5.5 million is for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite Systems (TDRSS) compatibility and for Shuttle retrieval modifications to HEAO-C. We now anticipate that the runout cost for HEAO will fall into the range of $230 to $250 million compared with the previous range of $200 to $220 million. We do not have a breakdown by mission beacuse the three missions are budgeted as one project. However, $8.3 million of the increase is for TDRSS compatibility and Shuttle retrieval of HEAO-C. PAGENO="0566" QUESTION NO. 4: NASA is requesting funding for a new start called the Solar Maximum Mission. What is the total estimated funding and manpower requirements of the mission by Fiscal Year? Give a breakdown by spacecraft and experiments. ANSWER: SOLAR MAXIMUM MISSION PROGRAM R&D ESTIMATES (MILLIONS) * Fl 77 FY 78 Fl 79 Fl 80 Fl 81 TOTAL SPACECRAFT 7.3 12.1 7.9 1.2 28.5 EXPERIMENTS 8 * 3 4.3 3.4 TOTAL 21.3 30.6 16.2 5.5 3.4 77.0~~ C;' MANPOWER ESTIMATES (DIRECT AND INDIRECT) Fl 77 Fl 78 Fl 79 Fl 80 Fl 81 TOTAL SPACECRAFT 119 150 135 36 5 445 EXPERIMENTS 55 39 195 TOTAL 166 204 190 75 5 640 * Excludes Delta Launch Vehicle **This point estimate is preliminary only, pending award of contracts for the spacecraft modules, experiments, etc. Our current planning estimate, expressed in terms of a range of $75-90 million9 recognizes the uncertainty of estimates for projects in the early stages of their implementation. PAGENO="0567" 565 QUESTION NO 5 It is our understanding that the Solar Maximum Mission involves the development of a multi-mission modular spacecraft' (a) What other spacecraft if any have been considered for this mission? ANSWER During the conceptual design phase a number of space- craft designs were considered These include OSO, OAO OGO IUE, SATS, IMP, EOS, ITOS, RAE, HEAO, and ERTS (LANDSAT)/NIMBUS Many of the design concepts and components developed on these programs are incorporated in the SMM system designs (b) Why were the OSO, OAO, and the HEAO spacecraft ruled out? ANSWER The 050 series of spacecraft was initiated in the early 1960's It featured a spin stabilized structure with a despun platform for solar pointing The scientific instrument capability for continuous solar pointing is limited to a maximum of 250 lbs (115 Kg) The Solar Maximum Mission instrument complement is estimated at 1250 lbs (570 Kg) The OAO, also designed in the early l960'~ features a large 3 axis stabilized structure designed for stellar observations The basic OAO spacecraft combined with the SNM instrument complement would not be compatible with a Delta series launch vehicle The cost of modifications necessary to use the OAO in the SMM mode coupled with the costs of a much larger launch vehicle was the basis for not considering it further The HEAO spacecraft designed in the mid 1970's is also a large observatory like the OAO The HEAO-B spacecraft system was the one considered Geo- metrically a modified version of the flEAO could squeeze into a Delta launch vehicle but the combined weight of the service equipment module supporting structure experiment module TDRSS antenna, solar arrays and SMM experiment complement would exceed the weight capability of the Delta 2910 to place the observatory into the designed orbit A lower orbit because of an overweight spacecraft would affect the observations by the instruments PAGENO="0568" 566 (c) Is it possible to decrease spacecraft cost by using an existing spacecraft and therefore, avoiding the development costs of a new spacecraft" ANSWER A number of existing spacecraft designs were evaluated to determine their suitability for the SMM Since there is a requirement that the spacecraft be Shuttle corn- natible as well as orovide for launch on a Delta 2910 considerable modifications to existing designs would be necessary The engineering design changes would then only provide a spacecraft that would be tailored to 5MM requirements at a cost approximately the same as the estimated cost or the SMM spacecraft Cd) Please provide the Subcommittee with additional information on this new spacectaft ANSWER The SMM Observatory (Figure 1) is divided into two major elements which are o The Service Spacecraft o The Experiment Module The Service Spacecraft will provide the essential sup- port subsystems which maintain the support and overall functioning of normal spacecraft activities. The Experiment Module will contain the instrument comple- ment and its electronics capable of meeting mission objectives Both elements will be fully integrated but their modularized design has the capability of easy separation through simple mechanical and electrical interfaces This permits greater flexibility and independent element design Service Spacecraft The Service Spacecraft element contains the main support structure and the primary support subsystems which are o Power Subsystem o Attitude Control Subsystem o Communications and Data Handling (CDH) Subsystem The modules are grouped in a triangular arrangement within the main structure Primary features of the configuration include PAGENO="0569" degree of standardization for the support and structure such that the same design may be used for many types of missions; o A well defined mechanical and electrical inter- face with the experiment module The Service Spacecraft module design will be adopted as a NASA standard to eliminate redesign and added cost for future missions. Primary consideration will be given to the maximum use of flight-tested and NASA standard components to enhance spacecraft integrity In the initial design of the Service Spacecraft the following points were considered o Compatibility with Delta Laun~h Vehicle interfaces o Compatibility with Shuttle interfaces o Compatibility with TDRSS o Three-axis stabilization by proven techniques o Modular design to facilitate system checkout and integration In addition there is mission-unique structural hardware The solar paddles which are structurally connected to the instrument support plate and electrically interfaced with the Service Spacecraft power module are bifolded flat panels which deploy to a fixed position The paddles are equipped with retraction mechanisms to facilitate Shuttle retrieval The aft-looking girnbaled TDRSS antenna is mounted in the ce~ ter area of the triangular arrangement and is deployed to an operational position after launch vehicle separation Experiment Module The experiment module until mechanically and electri- cally mated to the service subsystem module is a completely independent structure The experiment module is designed to accommodate from seven to nine candidate payload instruments To implement the basic * solar-pointing objectives of the set of diverse instruments, the following requirements have been defined for the experiment module: o A rigid, stable platform for mounting a set of diverse instruments requiring precise angular coalignment o Maximum modules 567 PAGENO="0570" 568 o A common mounting interface to provide coalignment and to simplify mechanical mounting of a wide variety of instrument configurations o A thermal control housing placed around the instru- ment complement and its mounting *plate to provide a stable thermal environment producing minimum structural distortions o Accommodation of additional components including instrument electronics and mission unique systems components o Flexibility in design to accommodate many types of experiment configurations The requirements for precise coalignment of instruments dictated the use of a support structure that would pro- vide strength rigidity and dimensional stability under dynamic and thermal loads The thermal stability requirement suggested simplicity in the design to reduce thermal and structural discontinuities thus producing a configuration capable of reliable theoretical analysis and prediction The need for a single structural element to accommodate various experiment complements suggested the use of a maximum mounting for a given volume with a minimum of radiation blockage. The instrument support plate of aluminum sandwich-plate construction with aluminum alloy face sheets with a core of aluminum web separators was selected Skin and core are assembled and joined by hot dip-brazing techniques Mounting pads are provided in the plate for attachment of instruments This design concept is being employed by a DOD weather satellite program Instrument Mounting Design The selected mounting approach decouples the experiments mechanically from the mounting plate via flexible mounts and thermally by multi-layered insulation. The instru- ment mounting design can be summarized as follows o The instrument is insulated and provided with three attachments~ two flexible mounts and one fixed mount which prevents transmission of loads due to dimensional changes between the support plate and the instrument baseplates PAGENO="0571" 569 o InstruMent elect,~onics are mounted on the heat rejection surface of the ex~riz~tent module h9uainq. H H o Instr~iment coaligriment is me~s4ed via alignment cubes on the bas~p1ates and is pre~-1auncI~ adjusted via mounting pads on t~e fle~c mounts. Tbermal Subsystem The ther~mal~ subsystem of the S~4M Expe1~iment Module utilizea heaters and appropriate surface q~oatings to maintain exp~riment and e]~ek~tronics temperatt~es within acceptable 1i~mit3s. Po~,er Su1~sybtem The power subsystem is an unreguiated~system opera~ing at ~8+7 vdc~ negative ground. The priz~ar~y source of pow~r is a 8olar array consisting of twc~ deployabi paddles mounted to the space~raft st9ctlure.. EclIpse power ~nd ~aytime poLer e~deec~ir~g the sole. array outpu~ ~re obtained frpm ~wp ni4k~l.c~dmium batteries th t are connected to~ the l~a b~s. Power Regnlation U it~. The PRU ac~cept~ u lat~ed PC power from the sol~r array "main" secti~r~, s~ipplies the spacecraft ~us (28 ~ vdc) requirement~, ~ controls battery c1~iajrge currents ]py d~uty cycleii~ ar4d~filtering techniques. 1~attery. The power su1~s~jstem ~i]~l use ~he L~w Cost Systems O~f ice (LCSO) 20 ampore 1~ourt~ndard NiCd cells. T1~ese bai~teries `~d~ll each conta~n 22.se~iea connectec~ cells. Solar Ar~ay i The~ SMM sc~lax~ array `is ~onsidere~ missior~ t~r~iqu~ and ~ new solar~ceIl layout will be us~d, All `d~34gn~ details used in t1~e donstruction of the ~olaz~ array ~ consist of flight~-proven t~chniques fqr this part~ic~lak o1~bit. The solar arra~'s are externally fl!oun1~ed on either side of the spac~ecraft~ body ~mnd wil]t ~ 4~l~2q0:wa~ts at beginning of lif~ an~ 1167 w~tts; at. t1i~. e~4 df two vear~ - PAGENO="0572" 570 Communications and Data Handling (9&pH~ ~ubpystem The Communications and Dat~ Handling Subsystem provid~s a means for ground and on-board control of ~ll space1 craft and sensor data. This subsystem consists of the Communication Equipment and Data Handling which' is composed of a command group, a telemetry groqp, ~ind an on-board computer. Redundancy is implemented in the basic subsystem through the use of stangb~' spare equip- ments. Two NASA Standard Recorders (10 ~it capacity) are included. A. key feature of 1~he subsy~tem imple- mentation is that alimajor compd~nenta are existing Or planned NASA standard:units. Communications Equipi$nt. communications with the spacecraft is achieved through use o~ afi omnidirectional antenna system and the NASA standard STDN/TDRSS trans-' ponder. Command and forward ranging signals1 will be received t~irough the omni antenna whLLe telemetry and the return r~inginq signal will be transmitte~ thr9ugh either the omni antenna to STDN ground statithis or a missiofl peculiar directivei(high gain) antenna to TDRSS. Data ~1andling Equipmer)t . The comman~i and data h~ndli~g hardware design is based on lhe concept of rdmotE~ multi~exing of telemetry data and remote distribution~ of comd~ands. Cbmmand and telemetry data are routed to and frq!m other spacecraft and ins1trument subsystems vie' a seri~. digital multiplex data bus to minimi~e inter- conneciV problems and to allow sizing the system to a~tual~equirem~nts. The telemetry format is contro~led 1 by eip~zer the computer or a read-only memory. TelIemt~y ~1 and cnommand formats fully comply with GSFC Aerospace I Data System Standards. ` U~e of the on-board NASA StandardSpacecraft Computer (NSSC) wi~ll provide low cost implementation of many on- board ~unctibns and will permit autonomous operation. Qmmun~4ations between all subsystems and the ccmputer ~re ac~eved by time sharing the multiplex data bus. such as stored commands, cont~rol law ~omputa- tions, jTDR$S antenna pointir~g, battery charge control, suxnxnar~' message generation, and parameter limit checking can be routinely implemented. AttItude control Subsystem (A$j To accomplish its scientific objectiye the ~ ~.s equipped with a three-axis stabilized space observatory meeting the following requirements: PAGENO="0573" 571 o Ability to point the optical axis of a telescope to any selected point on the solar disc (implies 16 minutes of arc pointing range in each of two axes); o Pointing accuracy of +5 s of arc (rms) about each of two axes. o Pointing stability of +1.2 s of arc (rms) for more than 5 mm of time in each of two axes; o Stabilization accuracy and knowledge of inertial attitude within 0.10 (rms) about the third axis (rotation about line-of--sight to sun); o Reorientation in response to attitude commands. A two-axis slew through 5 mm of arc in 30 s of time with a design goal of 15 seconds. o Maintenance of inertial attitude memory during orbit night and rapid reacquisition at orbit dawn; o Ability to acquire from any orientation. The ACS uses reaction wheels in a momentum exchange control system with magnetic torquing to remove secular torque-impulse. The attitude sensors include a three- axis strapdown inertial reference. assembly using inertia]. grade rate-integrating gyros, a group of acquisition sensors consisting of a set of sun sensors and two stellar aspect sensors, and a three-axis magnetometer. These elements comprise the basic ACS. (e) What benefits and cost savings are expected from this multi-mission modular spacecraft? ANSWER: The SMM program will develop a spacecraft that can serve a wide variety of mission requirements. This will result in savings of non-recurring design of specialized spacecraft. It will standardize interfaces to experi- ment modules resulting in reduced integration time and cost. It will provide the Shuttle Transportation System with a standard automated payload interface reducing Ground Support Equipment costs and time. By controlling interfaces and specifications on performance multiple buys of subsystems can be made for a number of missions at greatly reduced costs to the government. PAGENO="0574" SERVICE SPACECRAFT C;' EXPERiMENT (INSTRUMENT) MODULE Figure 1. Exploded View-SMM Observatory PAGENO="0575" 573 QUESTION NO. 6: Please provide by center the distribution of funds in the Spacelab Science Program for FY 1975, FY 1976, and FY 1977. ANSWER: PAYLOAD DEFINITION GSFc MSFC ARC JPL HQ FY 1975 FY 1976 TRANS. FY 1977 1,330 1,450 400 1,695 700 1,300 275 1,505 * 400 400 125 500 DEVELOPMENT -- 50 -- 900 300 100 300 3,330 3,500 900 4,000 PAYLOAD MSFC IIQ StJMNARY GSFC MSFC ARC JPL IQ -- 912 2,550 5,255 -- -- 188 1,100 50 2,600 745 6,000 1,330 1,450 400 1,695 700 2,212 2,825 6,760 400 400 125 500 -- 50 -- -~ 900 3,330 488 4,600 150 3,500 1,045 10,000 70-079 0 - 76 - 37 PAGENO="0576" ANSWER The Atmospheres, Magnetospheres, and Plasmas-in Space (AMPS) program is currently in Phase B definition study, and is a very strong candidate for initiation of the implementation phase within the Spacelab Payload Development Program in FY 1978 A final determination of its status in the FY 1978 budget will be made. as the Phase B study results materialize, and as other candidate payload program requests are identified and prioritized AMPS, as a program, is not being considered for Spacelab 2, but it is quite likely that some of the experiments which will be proposed and flown on Spacelab 2 will be from the disciplines represented by AMPS, and if this is the case, such experiments may then become part of AMPS 574 QUESTION NO 7 When does NASA plan to request a new start for the Atmospheres, Magnetospheres, and Plasmas-in-Space (AMPS) payload for the Spacelab? Is AMPS being considered for the second Spacelab Payload? PAGENO="0577" 575 QUESTION NO. 8: What parameters and requirements have been established for a pointing system for astronomy and solar physics investigations in the 1980's? Are these requirements being coordinated with OAST or is 055 pursuing independent development of a pointing system? ANSWER: The requirements and parameters established for pointing systems for the 1980's cover a wide range, and will probably dictate more than one kind of pointing system. Certainly, the ability to point experiments to less than one arc second accuracy and stability has been established as a requirement for the Space Telescope (7,000 kg) and the Large Solar Observatory planned for the mid 1980's. Less accurate body pointing may be satisfactory for Spacelab payloads of about 4,000 kg. At this time, the European Space Agency (ESA) is developing a pointing system for Spacelab use. We are reviewing the design of the ESA system for performance characteristics, and will make a decision this year on the need for NASA to start development of an alternate or complementary pointing system. Some dynamic analysis simulations indicate that major new technology may not be required, but that some new techniques may be required. The Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is supporting general development of gyroscopes, reaction wheels, and control moment gyroscopes. OSS has been working on adapting these subsystems to the specific Space Telescope requirements. The fine guidance sensor will be used with the 2.4~meter telescope and is, thus, a mission peculiar development. PAGENO="0578" 576 QUESTION NO. 9: What definition studies and detailed designs in the Solar Terrestrial Explorer programs were deferred by the decrease in funds for the transition quarter? ANSW~: Definition studies were deferred for the following missions: Solar Mesosphere Explorer, Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Experiment, Hawkeye Auroral Physics Explorer, Equatorial Ionospheric Irreg~i].arity Study Satellite. PAGENO="0579" 577 QUESTION NO. 10: What are the high priority missions discussed in the Budget Book which are being considered for funding by the Solar Terrestrial Explorer program in P11977? ANSWER: Eleci~rodynanics Explorer, Solar Mesosphere Explorer, Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Experiment, Havkeye Auroral Physics Explorer, Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularity Study Satellite, San Marco D & E. PAGENO="0580" 578 QUESTION NO 11 When does NASA expect to proceed with the Ga~nma Ray Explorer? What spacecraft is beir~g considered for this mission? ANSWER The Gamma-Bay Explorer Mission (OnE) renains under consideration for t~ture implementation However, the que~tion of how we may proceed with this mission or on which spacecraft is presently under revxei~ PAGENO="0581" 579 QUESTION NO. 12: How nuch of the funds in the Sounding Rocket Program is managed by univer~ities? How much is used to support inhouse sounding rocket programs? ANSWER: In FY 1975, universities were allocated about $l~.8 million br sounding rocket experiments and NASA Centers used $i.I~ million for the same purpose. The balance of sounding rocket funding was used to purchase the vehicles, provide payload integration, launch, tracking, and recovery services, and provide support for experiments from industry and other Government agencies. No major changes in relative funding levels for' university and field center experiments are anticipated in FY 1976 and FY 1977. PAGENO="0582" 580 QUESTION NO. 13: What is the total cost of the Gravity Probe-A project? How does this compare with the estimated cost in FY 1972 when the project was initiated? M~SWER: It is now estimated that the total cost for Gravity Probe-A will be $4.4 million plus $1.7 million for the Scout vehicle. The FY 1972 estimate was $2.4 million plus launch vehicle. Major technical difficulties had to be overcome in order to insure that the accuracy of this experiment would not be degraded by environmental effects. PAGENO="0583" 581 QUESTION NO. 14: Please provide ~ breakdown of the Airborne Research Program funds between operations and experiment development for FY 1975, FY 1976, and FY 1977. 2~NSWER: The distribution of funds for the Airborne 1~esearch Program is as follows: ($K) FY 76 FY 77 FY 75 Current Budget Actual Estimate Trans. Estimate Aircraft Operations 1,415 1,280 350 1,300 Experiments 1,070 1,170 300 1,150 Instrumentation and Support 1, 373 1,350 350 3,858 3,800 1,000 3,800 PAGENO="0584" 582 QUESTION NO. 15: How many scientific balloon flights are planned in FY 1977' ANSWER: After the highest priority flights have been selected, we anticipate supporting 45 flights. PAGENO="0585" 583 QUESTION NO. 16: Please provide the distribution by center of the SR&T funds in FY 1975, FY 1976, and FY 1977. ANSWER: The distribution of SR&T funds by center is as follows (dollars in thousands): FY 1975 FY 1976 FY 1977 CENTER ACTUAL CURRENT EST. TRANS. BUDGET EST. GSFC 3.392 2,714 700 2,700 MSFC 808 995 250 1,000 JPL 466 473 120 400 JSC 947 958 300 958 ARC 200 85 30 100 LaRC 80 15 15 20 HQ 7,977 9,160 2, 185 9.522 TOTAL 13,870 14,400 3,600 14,700 PAGENO="0586" 584 QUF~STION NO. 17: Whtt is the.balance between Data Analysis program funds between PSI `5 at field centers and P.1 * `s at other institutions? ANSWER: Approximately 50 percent of the Data Analysis Program funds allocated for Principal Investigators (P.1. IS) are provided directly to universities, other government agencies, and nonprofit institutions The other 50 per~ cent is provided to NASA centers, primarily for support of analysis by P.1. `s at the centers. However, a significant portion of the center funding (up to 25 percent) is sent by the centers to universities for analysis of data from older spacecraft projects and for a cooperative analysis program involving center and university ~ `5. PAGENO="0587" 585 QUESTION NO. 18: When is completion of the Skylab Data Analysis project Planned? ANSWER: Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) solar experiment analysis activities are currently underway at fourteen institutions. It. is. planned that the ATM analyses will be continued thrcugh FY 1979. The primary analysis activities are proving highly productive and a number of collaborations have already been initiated with other ground based observers and theoreticians not originally involved in the Skylab project. In addition, a new activity, called the Skylab Solar Workshops, has recently been initiated to encourage a focussed effort on various important areas of solar physics studied by the ATM scientists. PAGENO="0588" 586 QUESTION NO. 19: Please provide a breakdown by program element for the funds under Upper Atmospheric Research for FY 1976 and FY 1977. QUESTION NO 20 What elements and amounts (FY 1976 and FY 1977) were transferred from other Program Offices' ANSWER (19 & 20) The attached chart gives a breakdown by program element for the funds under Upper Atmospheric Research for FY 1976 and FY 1977 The chart also reflects the funds which were transferred to the Office of Space Science from other NASA Program Offices PAGENO="0589" UPPER ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH (Dollars in Millions) FY-76 TRANS. FY-77 OSS - DIRECT 3.5 1.0 11.6 FIELD MEASUREMENTS (2.1) (0.3) (6.9) LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS (0.9) (0.3) (2.5) THEORETICAL STUDIES (0.4) (0.4) (2.2) TRANSFERS TO OSS 3.9 1.1 - OSF 1.0 0.4 FIELD MEASUREMENTS (0.9) (0.4) LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS THEORETICAL STUDIES (0.1) OAST 2.9 0.7 ~ MEASUREMENTS (1.8) (0.4) LA~ORATORY EXPERIMENTS (0.4) (0.1) THEORETICAL STUDIES (0.6) (0.2) TOTALS 7~ 2.1 1]~6 FIELD MEAS. (4.8) (1.2) (6.9) LAB EXP. (1.4) (0.5) (2.5) THEO. ST. (1.1) (0.5) (2.2) PAGENO="0590" 588 QUESTION NO. 21: What real increase in funding does the FY 1977 budget request represent for Upper Atmospheric Research? ANSWER: The F? 1976 funding level for Upper Atmospheric Research consists of the $3.5M of new effort shown in the budget, plus $3.9M transferred to the Office of Space Science from other Program Offices for continuation of going effort for a total of $7 4M Hence, the FY 197/ budget request of. $11.6M represents a real increase of $4.2M over F? 1976. The major effort of F? 1976, the Chiorofluoro- methanes (CFM) Assessment Program, will grow by about $2.OM (to $5.5M) and is aimed at assessing the effects Of CFMs on stratospheric ozone. NASA plans to issue a report.on the impact of CFMs in September 1977. The balance of the funding increase will be utilized to establish a broader base for study of the upper atmosphere PAGENO="0591" 589 (JtIt I ION No 22 Whit is LIie balance beLween in-house universiLy and coritracLor funding for the Upper Atmospheric Research funds in FY 1976 and FY 1977' ANSWER: Approximately 55 percent of available FY 1976 and FY 1977 funding will be provided to NASA centers The balance of funding will be divided between universities (30 percent) and industrial contractors (15 percent) 70-079 0 - 76 - 38 PAGENO="0592" 590 QUESTION 23: There appears to be a hiatus in continuous worldwide measurements of ozone after the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) mission. What are NASA's plans to provide continuous measurements of ozone following the SAGE mission? ANSWER: Satellite global monitoring of ozone was initiated in 1970 with the launch of NIMBUS 4 carrying the Back- scattered Ultraviolet (BUy) spectrometer. This in- strument is still operating today and was augmented in 1975 with the launch of Atmosphere Explorer-E (AE-E), also carrying the ]3UV spectrometer. With the planned :Launches o:E NIMBUS G in 1978 and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) missions in 1979, continuity in satellite ozone monitoring should be maintained into the early 1980's. The NIMBUS G satellite will carry the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet/Total Ozone Mappinq System (SBUV/TOMS) spectrometer, an improved version of the basic BUy. SAGE will monitor stratospheric ozone by a different technique based on observing the sun through the earth's limb. We recognize the need for continuing ozone monitoring beyond SAGE and are actively looking at alternative follow-on missions. These include small dedicated satellites and Spacelab-based instruments. In addition, we are holding discussions with NOAA regarding the possible inclusion of an instrument such as the SBUV/TOMS aboard one of next generation of operational meteorological satellites, TIROS-N, planned for launch on two-year intervals beginning in early 1978. During the next year, we will focus on defining the best approach to assure continuity in the ozone data. Meanwhile, NOAA is operating a network of six to twelve ground stations with Dobson photometers for total ozone measurements; this network is expected to continue through the 1980's. PAGENO="0593" 591 QUESTION NO 24 Provide a distribution by center of the Upper Atinos- pheric Research funds for FY 1975, FY 1976 and FY 1977 (Reflect the fact that part of these funds were in other Program Offices in FY 1975 and FY 1976.) ANSWER The attached table reflects the currently planned center distribution of Upper Atmospheric Research funds PAGENO="0594" UPPER ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH (Dollars in Millions) FY-76 TRANS. FY-77 OSS - DIRECT 3.5 1.0 ~1l.6 FIELD MEASUREMENTS (2.1) (0.3) (6 .9) LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS (0.9) (0.3) (~ .5) THEORETICAL STUDIES (0.4) (0.4) (2.2) TRANSFERS TO OSS 3.9 1.1 OSF 1.0 0.4 FIELD MEASUREMENTS (0.9) (0.4) LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS -- -- THEORETICAL STUDIES (0.1) -- OAST 2.9 0.7 FIELD MEASUREMENTS (1.8) (0.4) LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS (0.4) (0.1) THEORETICAL STUDIES (0.6) (0.2) TOTALS 7.4 2.1 11.6 FIELD MEAS. (4.8) (1.2) (6.9) LAB EXP. (1.4) . (0.5) (2.5) THEO. ST. (1.1) (0.5) (2.2) PAGENO="0595" 593 QUESTION NO. 25: Provide a breakdown of the Uppe.r Atmospheric Research funds for FY 1976. and FY 1977 between field measure- ments, laboratory measurements, and theoretical studies. ANSWER: This question has been answered in the chart provided to answer questions 19 and 20 (copy attached) PAGENO="0596" UPPER AT~)SPHERIC RESEARCH (Dollars in Millions) FY-'76 TRANS. FY-77 OSS DIRECT 3.5 1.0 11.6 FIELD MEASUREMENTS (2.1) (0.3) (6.9) LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS (0.9) (0.3) (2.5) THEORETICAL STUDIES (0.4) (0.4) (2.2) TRANSFERS TO OSS 3.9 1.1 OSF 1.0 0.4 FIELD MEASUREMENTS (0.9) (0.4) LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS -- THEORETICAL STUDIES (0.1) -- OAST 2.9 0.7 FIELD MEASUREMENTS (1.8) (0.4) LMORATORY EXPERIMENTS (0.4) (0.1) THEORETICAL STUDIES (0.6) (0.2) TOTALS 7.4 2.1 11.6 FIELD MEAS. (4.8) (1.2) (6.9) LAB EXP. (1.4) (0.5) (2.5) THEO. ST. (1.1) (0.5) (2.2) PAGENO="0597" 595 QUESTION NO. 26: NASA has been studying a Space Telescope project which Is a very large complex space observatory. The following questions relate to matters identified in a General Accounting Office study of the Space Telescope Project: (a) Will NASA's funding requirements for the ST divert funds from other projects deemed necessary to main- tain a balanced space astronomy program? (b) What are the results of the recent Space Science Board's study on priorities in space research? Does this organization still consider the ST project to be the highest priority program in astronomy? (c) What is the current life-cycle-cost estimate for the ST project? Does It Include all cost associated with the project? (d) What specific research data cannot be obtained with the 2. 4~-meter ST that could have been obtained with the 3.0-meter instrument? (e) What is the current status of the work on (1) develop- ment of the primary mirror and detectors for the scientific instruments, (2) fine pointing and stabili- zation controls, (3) definition of contamination controls, and (4) development of thermal controls? Can these areas be satisfactorily resolved without performance degradations? (f) Since certain factors, such as the ST's physical size, prevent full operational testing prior to launch, how much technical risk is NASA taking? Explain the limited test program presently planned. (g) What are the specific duties and responsibilities of the ST Science Institute? How much control over the operations will NASA have? What are the estimated annual funding requirements for the Institute? ANSWER: (a) NASA believes that the ST funding can be phased properly to maintain a balanced space astronomy program. In their response to PAGENO="0598" 596 tiis question, the Physical Sciences Committee stated that they believe that NASA can fly the ST without up- s3tting the balance. However, in some fiscal years, e~phasis will be given to the ST just as we are now devoting a substantial fraction of astrophysics resources to the High Energy Astronomy observatory (HEAO). (b) The Space Science Board still considers the ST pcoject to be the highest priority program in astronomy because of its ability to make critical observations not possible in any other way. (c) NASA has concentrated its efforts on ascertain- leg the feasibility of the ST concept and the definition of the optical telescope assembly and the support system medule. tn addition, NASA and its contractors have pur- sued advanced technological development tasks to resolve technical uncertainties and develop realistic cost esti- mates. This is normally done on NASA projects prior to reaching a decision to request Congressional approval to proceed with development. The GAO report quotes a planning estimate for the ST of a cost range from $370M to $445M (FY 1977 dollars). This cost range was used in FY 1976 cost estimates. The present cost estimate for the design, development, test and engineering, and in-orbit verification of the ST is still within this range. Present studies are not complete, but early estimates show an annual operations cost of $lO-l5M~which includes the cost of the Science Institute. The ST will benefit from the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite and other NASA capabilities. Costs associated with maintenance and in- orbit refurbishment which will occur approximately three years after launch have not been studied in detail. (d) The 2.4-meter ST will be able to study all of the celestial objects which we are now aware and plan to study. However, the smaller light gathering capability will reduce the efficiency of our observations by virtue o~ the longer tine required to obtain the same data, In addition, it is highly probable that the new objects would be discovered by the 3.0-meter ST which cannot be observed by the 2.4-meter ipstrument. PAGENO="0599" 597 (e) A 1 * 8-meter ultra-low-expansion fused silica light weight mirror blank was ground and polished to a better figure than required (,A/64 where 7t~ is 6328~). This mirror was from three to five times b:~tter than a ground-based telescope mirror and verifies that the re- qtired technology for the ST mirror has been developed. Present day dctector technology must be advanced to take full advantage of the Sr; however, detector development for space astronomy is continuing with the anticipation that it will be available in sufficient time. In the other technology artas, work performed to date has given us high confidence. Fine pointing and stabilization controls are in breadboard form at both Itnk and Perkin-Elmer undergoing bench tests. Total system simulation models have been run on the computer. Vibra- tion characteristics and damping coefficients of candidate reaction wheels have been measured. It is further planned to assemble a total control loop using candidate reaction wheels, a breadboard fine guidance sensor, and other components placed on a low noise air bearing table for a complete test. The thermal control technology is state of the art. Contamination studies are continuing in other parts of NASA, especially in the Space Shuttle area. (f) NASA will test and calibrate the ST at the highest practical a:;sembly level on the ground. The ST will be thoroughly tested in its space environment which can never be simulated on the ground. Any modifications required can be accomplished by a Space Shuttle visit. The performance risk associated with reduced ground testing is con- sidered acceptable. (g) As now envisioned, the ST Science Institute will be responsible for planning the observing program. This includes identification of objects to be observed and definition of the observations to be made. NASA operators will control the in-orbit operation of the telescope. The Science Institute is to be managed for NASA by a consortium of universities. A study of the Institute is currently in progress and is expected to be completed in April 1976, along with estimates for the options and cost. PAGENO="0600" 598 QUESTION NO 27 The following questions rclate to the Space Telescope (a) What are your plans for the Space Telescope competition? (b) Will the program be completely defined at the con- clusion of the Phase B studies (March 15, 1976)? (c) Is it not needless waste of contractor s expense maintaining teams while waiting for a competition when the program Is already well defined~ (d) When are you going to supply us with firm data on new starts for FT 1978'? (e) Isn t it to NASA s advantage to have the earliest com- petition once you define the program'? The losing contractor's talents would then be available to help other important future NASA programs. (f) Are there any valid arguments for further delaying the contractor selection~ (g) What would be your reaction if Congress were to recom- mend holding the Phase C/D competition this fiscal year~ ANSWER~ (a) Present plans for the initiation of the Space Telescope pro- ject call for the release of the Request for Proposals (RFP's) to Industry as early in CT 1977 as Is consistent with the budget cycle (b) The Phase B definition studies will be completed by the contractors in March 1976 The Marshall Space Flight Center will then synthesize the specifications for the major Space Telescope systems in preparation for release of the Request for Proposals. Current advanced technological development tasks being performed by the two optical firms will be com- pleted by June 1976. PAGENO="0601" 599 (c) At the Committee `s request, we are reviewing the feasibility and the problems of releasing the Requests for Proposals and holding the competition in 1976 to select contractors for each of the major modules (d) Based upon current processes, data on new starts will be included in the President's Budget in January 1977 (e) It is generally to NASA s advantage as well as to industry s to hold a competition as early in the program cycle as the definition of the program will permit. An early competition allows the losing proposers to move on to other areas of interest and allows the winning proposer to concentrate on the project rather than on winning the competition Much of the advantage to the Government of an early competition is lost, however if the program cannot be implemented for a long period after selection since the contractor s efforts is seriously limited until Congressional action We are studying the advantages and disadvantages of an early competition and will advise the Corn- mittee in about sixty days (f) An early release of the RFP s would require the contractors to expend a substantial effort on the preparation of their proposal before there is reasonable assurance that the ST will be initiated in F? 1978 (g) As requested by the Committee, we are exploring the feasibility and the associated problems of releasing the Request for Proposals and holding the competitions this year to select contractors for detailed definition of Space Telescope subsystems and interfaes with no further comp-~ etition for the hardware phase. Our reaction depends upon the results of our assessments which should be completed in about two months. PAGENO="0602" 600 General questions for the Office of Space Science sub- mitted by the House Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications on February 4, 1976 QUESTION 1 Have Headquarters personnel from OSS program offices Expendable Launch Vehicles and OMSF offices in Life Sciences been transferred to OSF and OSS respectively2 ANSWER Yes On September 28, 1975, responsibility for the Launch Vehicle and Propulsion Program was transferred from the Office of Space Science to the Office of Space Flight and retitled Expendable Launch Vehicle Programs At the same time responsibility for the Life Sciences Program was transferred from the Office of Space Flight (previously called the Office of Manned Space Flight) to the Office of Space Science Funds and Headquarters personnel associated with these programs were trans- ferred at the same time / PAGENO="0603" 601 QUESTION NO 2 The lunar science program is still funded at over $20 million including $5 million for sample analysis How much longer do you see the need for significant funding in this area~ ANSWER The lunar science program was the first in which NASA* made a firm commitment to long-term post-missiOn science activity As a result, the scientific momentum of this program has continued since completion of the Apollo missions Although expansion of our currently available data is still necessary in specific areas, the emphasis in lunar science has now shifted from the collection of data to the synthesis of the data into theoretical models of the origin and evolution of the solar system Since we have more information on the Moon than on any planet other than the Earth it plays a critical part in our study of the solar system. Support at a significant level of much of this activity will be required for many years The level of support for lunar sample analysis has been declining and will continue to contract for the next few years However, a core program in this field must be maintained since results from these measurements provide increasingly stringent boundaries on the proposed theories. Data from the lunar samples, together with similar measure- ments performed on meteorites and Earth rocks, contribute essential basic information to our study of the solar system A yearly review of all lunar activities is con- ducted to assure ourselves that we are getting a good return on the investment and that we have a clear view of the relative priority of this work PAGENO="0604" 602 QUESTION 3 Isn t it necessary for NASA to be careful about long- range commitments to data retrieval and reduction for space science programs'? Isn t there a danger that considerable budget fraction will get tied up in such commitments so that new programs have limited dollars to compete for'? ANSWER There is a definite trade-off between continuing to fund data retrieval and reduction from existing satellites and the initiation of projects to provide data in new scientific areas We review very carefully the potential value of the information which may be obtained by continuing retrieval of data from existing satellites If there is an opportunity to obtain new information which will contribute materially to the mission objectives it is to our benefit to continue operation of the satellite and thus increase the return from our investment The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) operation and the third Mercury encounter for the Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 (MVM'73) mission are examples wherein the decision to continue operation has significantly enhanced the mission return and our knowledge in the science areas involved On the other hand we have turned off the return from several satellites such as the Atmosphere Explorer-C and San Marco C-2 when our conclusion was that the information to be screened from the data retrieval would probably not be of significant value Data retrieval and analysis activities have constituted approximately five percent of the total Space Science budget for the past several years Our FY 1977 budget request is consistent with that level PAGENO="0605" 603 QUESTION 4 Are scientific instruments bought for university investigators with OSS funds? What is the procedure for disposition of such items when an investigator's grant or contract runs Out~ Is OSS seeing to it that such instruments are recycled through university departments and/or placed on surplus lists for claim by interested parties? ANSWER The scientific instruments used by university investi- gators purchased with OSS funds are normally highly specialized instruments constructed to meet specific scientific objectives They are government property and are accounted for under normal government procedures. When an investigator s grant or contract is completed NASA procedures insure that all equipment is made avail- able to that university in-house NASA needs and other NASA projects before it is placed on surplus lists for claim by interested parties through the General Services Administration property disposal system This procedure implements 42 U S Code 1892 PAGENO="0606" 604 QUESTION 5 Are there new priorities in space science which will call for major increases in funding in supporting R&T9 ANSWER After a detailed review of supporting research and technology, the Physical Sciences Committee has recoin- mended significant increases in funding We hope to provide additional funding as soon' as budgetary constraints permit PAGENO="0607" 605 QUESTION NO. 6: Major aspects of physics, astronomy and planetary R&T have to do with plasma physics. Funding by center indicates that there is little participation by Langley or Lewis in these progr~mis despite considerable compe- tence in plasma physics at those centers. What is the nature of the OSS/OAST interface in this area? ANSWER: Plasma physics covers a wide range of phenomena, from the very tenuous plasmas in interplanetary space to the very dense plasmas used in experimental energy conver- sion machines. The Office of Space Science (Oss) is primarily concerned with the plasmas of space, and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) is primarily concerned with the plasmas used by power and propulsion machines. Expertise in these different areas is therefore concentrated in different NASA Centers. To ensure proper coordination, summaries of the research tasks performed in each area are circulated in the form of "Research and Technology Operating Plans" (RTOP's). The RTOP's are annually coordinated between OSS and OAST, to ensure that the skills available to NASA at different Centers are appropriately recognized and that no need- less duplication occurs. Specifically, Lewis concen- trates on "Plasma Dynamic Energy Systems" and Langley on "Plasma Core Reactor Research," bo.th of which concen- trate on dense plasmas, and therefore the research has limited utility to space plasma research. 70-079 0 - 76 - 39 PAGENO="0608" 606 Technical questions for the office of Space Science submitted by the Subcommittee Ofl Space Science and Appii~tiofls for the hearinq held on February 4, 1976. QUESTION NO. 1: What do you mean by "hot spots in the magnetic field" on page four? Are they regions of high field intensity or simply locations of intense radio waves? ANSWER: The Crab Nebula emits a complex beam of radio waves and X-rays. The theoretical explanation of these phenomena requires local confinement of energetic charged particles in a very strong magnetic field. The hot spots are formed where the magnetic field lines of the neutron star converge toward a magnetic pole. PAGENO="0609" 607 QUESTION NO. 2: What kind of assumption about, the nature of the universe is made in calculating the age of the cosmic rays? ANSWER: Cosmic rays represent a direct sample of material which originated in energetic events occurring in different astronomical objects, such as the Sun, distant stars, supernovae arid pulsars, both within our galaxy, and perhaps in other galaxies. They are charged particles moving through the interstellar medium with velocities near the speed of light. In their travel the radio-active atoms decay and all atoms- interact with the inter-stellar material to.form - different elements' and isotopes. The detailed chemical and isotopic constituents of the cosmic rays are affected di~ferently by the amount of material encountered, and by the time elapsed sir~ce their `formation. This makes it - possible to determine the age of cosmic rays by using laboratory data and making few assumptions. An example of such a case is the determination of the age of cosmic rays from Be1 observations. The initial abundance of Be~ ~ derived from models of nucleosynthesis which agree with the elemental abunc3ances found in nature. After leaving the source, the Be~- isotope decays with a charactristic time or "half-life." By comparing actual Be~1- abundances observed at earth to the original values, one' obtains the age of the cosmic ray sample being studied. PAGENO="0610" 608 General questions for Life Sciences submitted by the Sub- committee on Space Science and Applications on February 4, 1976. QUESTION 1: To what extent is the Office of Technology Utilization involved in the measures OSS is taking to speed the transaction of life sciences developments into the private sector? ANSWER: The principal activity for transfer of NASA technology to the civil sector, including that technology dev~1oped in the Life Sciences Program,. is the NASA Office of Technology Utilization. To expedite the flow of applicable Life Sciences developments to uses outside of NASA, the OSS Life Sciences Division has always maintained a close interface with the Office of Technology Utilization's Biomedical Applications Program. The NASA Office of Technology Utilization is responsible for providing for the rapid and effective transfer of NASA technology to other federal government agencies, state and local governments, and private industry. The Office of Technology Utilization, through its biomedical applications engineering program, four Biomedical Applica- tions Teams, and six Industrial Applications Centers, maintains a close liaison with the Life Sciences Division, and the OSS life sciences R&D activities at NASA Field Centers To assure the medical soundness of the Technology Utiliza- tion Biomedical Program, the Director for Life Sciences provides technical and medical consultation regarding Life Sciences projects, and regularly reviews ongoing Technology Utilization Biomedical projects and candidate projects for the following year. When required, the Director for Life Sciences has assigned technical per- sonnel to work directly with the Technology Utilization Office on an extended basis to provide technical expertise and guidance to the Technology Utilization's biomedical program and provide continuing review for the Director for Life Sciences. PAGENO="0611" 609 QUESTION NO. 2 Does NASA have contact at all levels with NIH to review developments in life science research? ANSWER: NASA has multiple contacts with the NIH at different levels to review developments in life science research. The Director for Life Sciences sits on several inter- agency coordinating committees under the sponsorship of the NIH; for example, the Interagency Technical Committee on Heart, Blood Vessel, Lung and Blood Diseases and Blood Resources (IATc). A function of this committee is to review and compile all ongoing research throughout the federal system relating to these problems. Program officers in NASA work with their counterparts in the NIH to compile and review such information in order to insure that new developments are recognized and redundancies eliminated. Program directors within the OSS Life Sciences routinely participate in working level committee meetings with counterparts from the NIH in research areas of interest to NASA. PAGENO="0612" 610 QUESTION NO. 3: Are there plans to follow up the KOSMOS 782 Program with more substantial experiments having more complicated nterface with Russian spacecraft? - TSWER: We are presently negotiating with the Soviets a set of U S experiments to fly on the KOSMOS 1977 mission Flow- ever we do not plan to follow up the KOSMOS 782 Program with experiments having morecomplicated interfaces than that which has flown, except for one experiment. If it is accepted by the Scviets, it would require a simple telemetry capability that must be compatible with their sys tern. PAGENO="0613" 1977 NASA AUTHORIZATION THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 5, 1976 U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SUBCOMMITTEE ON SPACE SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS, Wa8himgtom, D.C. The subcommittee met at 11 a.m., pursuant to notice, in room 2318, Rayburn House Building, Hon. Don Fuqua (chairman of subcommittee), presiding. Chairman FUQUA. The subcommittee will be in order. We are pleased to have with us this morning Mr. Gerald M. Truszynski, Associate Administrator for Tracking and Data Acqusition. Following Mr. Truszynski will be Mr. Arnold W. Frutkin, Assistant Administrator for the Office of International Affairs. We are happy to have you here this morning. You may proceed any way you choose. Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Before I start, I would like to introduce two members of my staff who will be with me this morning: Mr. Richard Stock, Director of Resources, and Mr. Fred Bryant, Director of Network Systems Development. Mr. Chairman, I have a prepared statement which I would like to subn~dt for the record and summarize through the use of vugraphs. Chairman FUQUA. We will make it part of the record. Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. In addition, we will be discussing our activities on the tracking and data relay satellite system. I have a narrative report on the methodology used in our lease versus purchase analysis which I would also like to submit for the record. Chairman FUQUA. We will make it part of the record. Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. This is the analysis that we had discussed with your staff before today's meeting. [Prepared statement, document appears in Volume I, Part 3. The biographical sketch of Mr. Truszynski follows:] GERALD M. TRTJSZYNSKI Gerald M. Truszynski is responsible for planning, development, and operation of global tracking networks, facilities, and systems for communications and data acquisition for all NASA ffight programs. NASA's Office of Tracking and Data Acquisition is charged with support of manned and unmanned spacecraft in the scientific exploration of space near the earth and beyond the moon and planets; commercial and foreign space projects; and support of other U.S. agency spacecraft such as scientific satellites of the (611) PAGENO="0614" 612 Department of Defense. The office also has agency-wide functional responsibility for automatic data processing activities, administrative communications, and frequency management. Mr. Truszynski was appointed to his position in March 1968. He succeeded from the post of Deputy in the same office, which he ha.d held since its creation in 1961. 1-Ic caine to NASA Headquarters in 1960 from NASA's Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. In his career at I-Ieadqua.rters, Mr. Truszynski has directed the design and construction of: the Spaceflight Tracking and Data. Network (STDN) which supports all earth-orbital flight projects, including manned missions such as Apollo and Skylab; the Deep Space Network (DSN) which supports flights to the planets and beyond; and the global NASA communications system. Beginning his career upon graduation from Rutgers University in 1944, he joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NASA's predecessor), at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, hampton, Virginia, a.s an engineer in instrument research and development. Three years later he was transferred to the NACA station at Edwards, California, as instrument project engineer on the rocket-powered X-1, first a.irpla.ne to breach the speed of sound. In 1954 Mr. Truszynski became Chief of the Instrumentation Division at Edwards. 1-Ic headed development and operation of instrumentation and tracking systems for the national research airplane program under NACA-including a series of jet- and rocket-powered aircraft such as the X-1, X-2, D-558, and X-J 5, which pioneered supersonic and hypersonic flight. In 1969 Mr. Truszynski twice received NASA's highest award, the Distinguished Service Medal, for support of Apollo manned flights to lunar orbit (Apollo 8) and man's first landing on the moon (Apollo 11). He is a member of Taim Beta Pi. In June, 1973, the American Astronautical Society (AAS) elected Mr. Truszynski as an AAS Fellow for his significant contributions to astronautics. 1-Ic was born in Jersey City, N.J. I-Ic and his wife, the former 1-lelen Bennett, of East Millstone, N.J., and two children live in Chevy Chase, Md. PAGENO="0615" 613 STATEMENT OF GERALD M. TRUSZYNSKI, ASSOCIATE ADMINIS- TRATOR FOR TRACKING AND DATA ACQUISITION, NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION OUTLINE OF PRESENTATiON * CURRENT PROGRAM STATUS * NE1WORK CONFIGURATION * SUPPORT ACTI VITY * FUTURE MISSION PREPARATION * LAGEOS * WE *MJS * SHUTTLE * FY 1977 FUNDING REQUIREMENTS * TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM * STATUS * LEASE VERSUS PURCHASE ANALYSIS *SUMMARY NASA HO IC 76-2116 (1) 2-2-76 Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. I will proceed then with the use of the vugraphs (T 76-2116). What I would like to summarize for you today is the status of our program currently, the updates since our November hearings, some preparations that are going on for upcoming missions, and a summary of our fiscal year 1977 funding requirements. Also, I'll discuss the activity on our tracking and data relay satellite system, and the results of our lease versus purchase analysis. PAGENO="0616" 614 The next chart (T 76-1949) summarizes the tracking and data acquisition functions. These are the types of activities that our office is responsible for and which are familiar to the committee members. PAGENO="0617" 615 On the next chart (T 76-1019A), is shown the worldwide network that we use currently for support of the flight programs. If you were to count the stations, there are 13 land stations in the network, supplemented by one instrumented ship and instrumented aircraft. We expect this network configuration to remain stable until the time period of the TDRSS system. PAGENO="0618" 616 SUPPORT ACTIVITY NASA NETWORK HAS HEAVY WORKLOAD * EARTH ORBITAL MISSION SUPPORT * SUPPORT TO 40 IN-ORBIT SPACECRAFT * DATA BEING ACQUI RED FROM ABOUT 250 EXPERIMENTS * PREPARING FOR UPCOMING MISSIONS SUCH AS HEAO, IUE, AND SHUTTLE * PLANETARY MISSION SUPPORT * SUPPORTING 2 VIKING SPACECRAFT, 2 HELlOS MISSIONS, AND 6 PIONEER SPACECRAFT * PREPARATIONS UNDERWAY FOR MJS'77 AND PIONEER VENUS `78 MiSSIONS NASA HO iC 76-2115 (1) 2-2-76 Summarizing our support activity, we continue with a heavy work- load in both Earth orbital missions and planetary missions. As shown on this chart (T 76-2115), in the Earth orbital area we are supporting some 40 in-orbit spacecraft. This represents some 250 experiments from which we are receiving information. At the same time we are supporting these spacecraft, of course, we are preparing for upcoming missions. In the planetary area, again we have very heavy support require- ments. As you might expect, we will be very busy with the Viking later this year, while at the same time preparing for upcoming mis- sions such as the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn, and the Pioneer Venus 1978 missions. PAGENO="0619" 617 The next chart (T 76-1113) reminds us that we are going to have a busy support activity with Viking. As you recall, the network will be supporting four spacecraft simultaneously, two orbiters circling Mars and two landers on the surface of Mars. We will be receiving three information streams simultaneously as well as manipulating the various spacecraft through the command systems in the network. This support is essentially the mission objectives, as I am sure the committee is well aware. PAGENO="0620" 618 FUTURE MISSION PREPARATIONS *LAGEOS * INTERNATIONAL ULTRAVIOLET EXPLORER * MARiNER JUPITER/SATURN * SHUTTLE NASA HQ TC 76-2119 (1) 2-2-76 The next chart (T 76-2119) lists some of the upcoming missions. I would like to talk very briefly about preparations for Lageos, a satellite soon to be launched which has an extremely increased re- quirement for tracking accuracy. Our activities involving the inter- national ultraviolet explorer provides a good example of the new types of missions that we must support. There is an actual realtime interaction from the ground experimenter via the network system to the experiment onboard. Next, I'll note some activities that are underway for the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn mission, particularly as it relates to the navigation requirements for this mission. It is an area which is generally not very well known, but which is extremely critical. I would like to just summarize that, and then mention the early support planned for the Shuttle. The Lageos is a satellite which is essentially an optical reflector. It is a very dense satellite and will have a very stable orbit. In order to get the extreme accuracy that is required of the orbital parameters, we need to go to laser-tracking systems. One of these systems is illustrated on this chart (T74-4018). We are currently operating three of these systems and have five more under PAGENO="0621" 619 construction. Thus, there will be a complement of eight for support of the Lebeos satellite as well as the upcoming Seasat program. The emphasis here, as I say, is on tracking accuracy. This type of system consists of a powerful laser transmitter and receiver. It is basically an accurate radar which gives us tracking accuracies of the order of 10 centimeters. Hopefully, we can extend that to the order of 2 centimeters in the coming years. The international ultra violet explorer, as I mentioned, is a good illustration of the interactive experiment missions that we are getting more of. We have illustrated here (T76-2050) that the explorer is essentially a powerful telescope in synchronous orbit. PAGENO="0622" 620 Information is sent down to the network and then displayed in the control center in a way that an experimenter can actually pick out a particular star, or celestial object, that he wants to observe through the telescope. He can command the telescope to the point where it is actually looking at the specific object. Essentially then, he can pro- gram the telescope from the control center.. You have heard us mention these kinds of experiments and the type of systems that we must provide to allow the experimenter to be in control of the experiment while it is aloft. PAGENO="0623" 621 The next chart (T75-15652) depicts the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn mission and illustrates the distances that we are facing more of in support of the planetary programs. For example, the Mariner spacecraft, when it gets to Saturn will be some 1.5 billion kilometers from Earth. As you know, there is a plan now to send it to Uranus, which will be on the order of 2~ billion kilometers from Earth. Yet, it is imperative that the spacecraft get to the right point when passing the planet to get the required informa- tion. I would like to review the navigation accuracies that we have been required to provide the flight missions and the improvements that we have been able to make in this particular tracking field. 70-079 0 - 76 - 40 PAGENO="0624" 622 GROUND BASED NAVIGATION - REQUIREMENTS TREND 4 5 667 9 10 I/S I- I I I I I ~-1 1962 1964 1967 1969 1971 1974 1977 I have illustrated the improvements on this chart (P76-2062). What we see here is, starting from 1962 to the present time, how we have been able to increase the navigation accuracies by illustrating the decreases in the aiming boundary through the course of time. For example, in 1962, about the best we could do was put the Mariner 2 spacecraft inside this area as it flew by Venus. It is a very large area. To get a relative size comparison, the dashed line circle is the equivalent size of the Earth. So all we could do was put the Mariner 2 spacecraft somewhere in this large area. In the course of time, however, we have improved the ground system by going to higher frequencies, extremely accurate timing systems, and other tracking techniques. For example, at about the time of the 1969 Mars missions, we were able to put the spacecraft in this area, and the relative size of this area is about one-third the size of the TJnited States. Going on to 1977, the final point on the chart, this is what we are required to do in terms of the aiming.boundary at the location of one of the Moons of Saturn, Titan, specifically. The equivalent area at this point is some 60 by 60 kilometers at the distance of Saturn, which is 1.5 billion kilometers. This is a good illustration of the improvement in capability that we have been able to provide over the years. As I say, it is not an area that is well known, but it does illustrate, I think, the significant improvement in what our networks have gone through in the course of this timespan. o oQ VENUS MARS VENUS MARINER MARS NASA SQ 1762062 (3) PAGENO="0625" 623 `j" On the~next chart (T76-1115), we show the early support needed by the Shuttle. As'you know, the first Shuttle operations that we are planning to support are the approaching and landing tests at Dryden Flight Research Center. Sketched here is the kind of overall system we plan. As I mentioned previOusly to the committee, we have redeployed what used to be the Newfoundland Station for use at the Dryden Flight Research Center and we will operate in a somewhat different technique in terms of how we furnish Shuttle support. For example, all the information that will be received from the Shuttle will be sent directly to the Johnson Space Center, which is the mission control center. The plan is for the Shuttle operations to be controlled from the Johnson center through our station at the Dryden Flight Research Center. Our activities have started in terms of preparing that station for the first flight. PAGENO="0626" 624 TRACKING AND DATA ACQUISITION PROGRAM FUND REQUIREMENTS (IN MILLIONS OF DOLLARS) TRANS. FY 1975 FY 1976 PERIOD FY 1977 * RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT * OPERATIONS $192.6 $193.5 $50.1 $206.8 * SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION 42.5 38.1 11.0 42.5 * ADVANCED SYSTEMS 9.3 9.2 2.3 8.7 * TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM 3.6 - - - TOTAL R&D $248.0 $240.8 $63.4 $258.0 NASA HQ T76-2045 (1) 1-16-76 On the next chart (T76-2045) we have summarized our fund re- quirements for fiscal year 1977. You can see we are requesting an increase of some $17 million. Essentially, $13 million of this increase is in our operations line item, and I will speak, in a minute, to the reason for this increase. The remainder of the increase, some $4 million, is in our systems implementation line item. These increases are associated with preparations for some of the upcoming missions that I reviewed with you earlier in the presentation. TRACKING AND DATA ACQUiSITION IMPACT OF INFLATION * AS DISCUSSED IN THE NOVEMBER HEARINGS, COST ESCALATION DUE TO WORLDWIDE INFLATION ISA SIGNIFICANT FACTOR * SPAIN AND AUSTRALIA PARTICULARLY HIGH (15 TO 20%) * DOMESTIC OPERATIONS ALSO IMPACTED *ALASKA - 25% *GOLDSTONE - 13% * ESTIMATED COST ESCALATION FOR OVERALL NETWORK OPERATIONS IS 6~% ABOVE FY 1976 NASA HO Ic 762111 (1) 2-2-76 PAGENO="0627" 62~ As I mentioned, we are experiencing quite an inflation problem. The next chart (T76-2 111) lists the major increases. We have the "luxury", I guess, of having to combat this problem, not only in the United States, but worldwide. There are some particularly high escalation rates in some of our foreign stations, for example: In Spain and Australia, we are facing inflation factors on the order of 15-20 percent per year. We are also facing certain areas of high escalation in the United States, particularly Alaska, where, as you might expect, the influence of the construction of the pipeline is being felt. Consequently, we are experiencing quite an inflation factor increase in Alaska, as well as places such as our Goldstone station. On a total basis we expect this to be about 6.5 percent above fiscal year 1976 operations. Mr. WYDLER. What do those figures represent? What does 25 per- cent mean? Is that the inflation rate in Alaska, or what? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. That is the inflation we are experiencing in terms of our operation contract, and in that sense reflects the basic inflation rate in the State. These are unionized stations, and these increases represent the wages paid in Alaska for this kind of operation. Chairman FUQUA. There has been a 25-percent increase in wages? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Yes, in Alaska. Chairman FUQUA. For 1 year? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Yes, the first year of a 2-year contract. Mr. WYDLER. I am still not clear. For example, you say the last chart showed certain rates for-there it is-the span for Australia has 15-20 percent. Is that the national inflation figure? Mr. TRTJSZYNSKI. That is both ours and the national. The stations are operated in those countries by host-country contractor personnel and our increases reflect the average inflation in those countries. Mr. WYDLER. That is logical, but I am asking you: Is that a factual? For instance, I would doubt that Alaska has suffered a 25-percent inflation increase in the last year. If that is their inflation area increase in the State of Alaska-it may be so, but I would be~ very surprised if it were true. Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. This represents the actual increase in our par- ticular operations contract, Mr. Wydler. Mr. WYDLER. That is what I am trying to find out. Which is it now? Are we talking here about the amount of the increase in infla- tion in the area, or the amount of your inflation? And, of course, you cannot justify a budget by saying your prices went up a lot, because that is what we are here to try to stop from happening. You cannot lift yourself up by your bootstraps by saying "We need more money because we are spending more money." I mean, that doesn't make any sense at all. What you have got to do is tell me what those figures are. Is that the rate in that area that you have to deal with, or is this just your problem? I still don't understand. I cannot believe that Alaska's inflationary rate was 25 percent last year. Mr. DowNING. Do you know what they are paying truckdrivers in Alaska? $1,500 a week. Mr. WYDLER. I understand that. But I am still saying I would like to know, when people give you figures; what they mean. I still don't know what those figures mean. PAGENO="0628" 626 When you write, "Alaska: 25 percent", what does that mean? Mr. TRUSZYNSKL That percentage, Mr. Wydler, is the actual per- centage increase due to escalation that we have faced, that we are facing in our operations contract. It is an actual number and what is representative of the increase that is existing in the particular area. Mr. WYDLER. Increase for what? Cost of food? Mr. ThUSZYNSKI. Yes, indeed. The cost of food, the cost of labor and other items. There have been large increases-very large in- creases-in the rates of pay in Alaska, generated by the requirements on the pipeline, in all categories of labor. The increases in labor rates are arrived at by union and contractor negotiations and are based upon a salary survey in the area. And in that sense are quite related to the increase in escalation in the area. Mr. WYDLER. Your civil service rates haven't gone up like that. They are controlled by a different standard, aren't they? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Yes, Mr. Wydler, they are since these stations are operated by contracted personnel. Mr. WYDLER. Under some sort of agreement, though, aren't they? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. These increases are a result of union agreements. Mr. WDYLER. And you gave the workers in Alaska a 25-percent increase last year, that work on your installations? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. This was the result of a union contractor negotia- tion, yes. Mr. WYDLER. OK. Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. And, again, these are not unique increases to the NASA station. They represent comparabilities to increases in similar labor categories in Fairbanks, Alaska. Mr. WYDLER. And Goldstone? You gave the workers at Goldstone a 13-percent increase last year? Is that what that chart indicates? Mr. TRTJSZYNSKI. That is what that chart indicates, yes. Again, it is a matter of increases that are based on wage surveys and compara- bility with area wage rates. Mr. WYDLER. Is each year your contract with the operators of these bases subject to whatever the labor negotiations are? I mean, in other words, you have to pay whatever they agree to? Is that the idea? Are you operating these stations yourself, or are they being done under the contract, or what? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. These are done under contracts. There is an operations contractor, and these wage negotiations go on periodically. As you know, the union agreements last for certain periods of time, 2 or 3 years. Mr. WYDLER. You are not involved in those negotiations. What you are involved in is negotiations for the contractor. What does that provide? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. The contractor does carry out the negotiations through the union structure for these kinds of rates. Mr. WYDLER. Your agreement with the contractor is: Whatever you settle with the unions for, we pay? Is that it? PAGENO="0629" 627 Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Mr. Wydler, we have to exercise our proper management responsibilities, and are in touch with our operations contractor in all of these situations. We do have a choice. We can accept a strike at a station, and we have, in fact, gone into these kinds of modes. These are normal management considerations. Mr. WYDLER. What I am still trying to drive at is: If I was a union negotiator, and I realized that whatever arrangement was made by the company I worked for was going to be picked up automatically by NASA, and paid, brother, I would iusist on tremendous increases, because I could realize there is no limit practically to what we could ask for here. The sky's the limit. Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Mr. Wydler, you are exactly right. But I aseurs you, we do not settle, nor does our operations contractor settle, for any initial suggestion on the part of wage increases. These increases are negotiated, and there is a lot of negotiation that goes on. I might say, the initial suggestion on their part is always simply higher than the final numbers. This does not represent some lack of negotiation effort, I can assure you. Mr. WYDLER. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. I would like to go on to a discussion of our track- ing and data relay satellite activity as indicated on the next chart- T76-2110. TRACKING El' DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM TDRSS * SYSTEM CONCEPT * PROCUREMENT APPROACH * CURRENT STATUS * LEASE/PURCHASE COMPARISON NASA HQ TC 76-2110(1) 2.2-76 I would like to talk about four areas: the system concept; our procurement approach; the current status of our procurement; and the methodology of the lease versus purchase analysis. The next chart illustrates the TDRSS-T74-4020-systems PAGENO="0630" 628 concept. Bascially it is a system to provide a tracking and data relay service through the use of two satellites in synchronous orbit transmitting information to one ground station in the United States. On this chart-T75-15626-shown, I have the ground network as PAGENO="0631" G29 it will appear in the TDRSS time period. This represents the number of land stations that will remain at the time the tracking and data relay satellite system services become available. As you recall, we have~ been pursuing the acquisition of TDRSS services through a leased service arrangement, and our plan is to enter into a long-term contract to provide this service. As noted on this TRACKING Et DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) PLANNED PROCUREMENT APPROACH * ENTER INTO LONG-TERM CONTRACT WITH COMMUNICATIONS CARRIER TO~ PROVIDE TDRSS SERVICE *1O YEARS SERVICE PERIOD `CONTRACTOR TO DEVELOP, I MPLEMENT, AND OPERATE THE SYSTEM TO PROVIDE SERVICE TO NASA `SERVICE TO BEGIN JANUARY 1980 . PAYMENTS BEGIN WHEN SERVICE BEGINS NASA HO TC 76-2107 (1) 2-2-76 PAGENO="0632" 630 chart-T76-2 107-the service period is 10 years. The contractor would develop, implement, and operate the system to provide 10 years of service. Our schedule calls for service to begin early in January, 1980, and payments, of course, would begin when service begins. The next chart-T76-2 106-shows the status of our procurement STATUS * TWO PROPOSALS FOR TDRSS SERVICE RECEIVED - JANUARY 15, 1976 * RCA GLOBCOM AND WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH CO. *TECHNICAL DESIGN AND FIXED PRICE PROPOSALS * PROPOSALS BEING EVALUATED AT GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER *SELECTION BY MID 1976 * CONTRACT AWARD - LATE 1976 * DURING THIS COMPETITIVE EVALUATION PHASE, CONTRACTORS PROPOSAL DATA CANNOT BE RELEASED *COSTS *TECHN I CAL *OTHER PROPRIETARY INFORMATION NASA HO IC 76-2106(1) 2-2-76 activities. We have now received two proposals for providing TDRSS service on the 15th of January. You will recall that there are two teams involved in this competition, one RCA Globcom, the other Western Union Telegraph Co. The proposals provided a technical design and fixed price cost proposals for the service period. The proposals are currently being evaluated at Goddard Space Flight Center and will proceed for some time. We expect contractor selection to occur about the middle of this calendar year, leading to a contract award later this year. Since we are in this competitive mode, we are not able to discuss the proposal data in terms of actual cost, detailed technical configura- tion of the system, or other proprietary information. PAGENO="0633" 6~31 CONTENT OF CONTRACTOR PROPOSALS * PROPOSALS PROVIDE CONTRACTOR LEASED SERVICE COSTS *TECHNICAL DESIGN DETAILS * HARDWARE DETAILS AND COSTS IDENTIFIED AT SUBSYSTEM LEVEL *IN SHARED SYSTEM APPROACH HARDWARE RELATED TO THE NON-TDRSS COMMERCIAL SERVICE IDENTIFIED NASA HQ T76-2128 (1) 2-4-76 CONTENT OF CONTRACTOR PROPOSALS (CON'T) * CONTENT PERMITS IDENTIFICATION OF EQUIVALENT PURCHASED SYSTEM *LEASED SERVICE SYSTEM DESIGNED TO DETAILED NASA TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION *PURCHASED SYSTEM WOULD BE BASED ON SAME NASA PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION *SAME BASIC HARDWARE SYSTEMS WOULD BE - REQUIRED *COSTS IDENTIFIED WOULD BE APPLICABLE TO EQUIVALENT PURCHASED SYSTEM The next two charts-T 76-2 128 and 2127-list the content of the contractors proposals in terms of the kinds of detail that we requested and that was provided I would like to review this part of it with you The proposals received from the contractors, of course, provide the lease service cost. In addition, they provided detailed technical design where the hardware and costs were identified at detailed subsystem levels, and to the extent that the system is shared, the hardware related to the non-TDRSS commercial service was also identified. / PAGENO="0634" 632 Proceeding further then, with this information in the proposals it does allow identification of an equivalent purchased system The leased service was designed to a very detailed NASA technical per- formance specification The purchased system, if we were to proceed with one, would be based on the same performance specification Accordingly, the same basic hardware systems would be required, and the costs identified, in general, would be applicable to an equiv- alent purchased system PROCEDURES FOR LEASE VS PURCHASE ANALYSIS * LEASE VS PURCHASE COMPARISON USES WIDELY ACCEPTED CONVENTIONAL ECONOMI C ANALYSIS TECHN IQUES * TECHNIQUES APPLIED * USING CONTRACTOR PROPOSAL DATA * ESTABLISH TOTAL COST OF LEASE APPROACH * INCLUDE COST OF NASA CIVIL SERVICE STAFF FOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT * ESTABLISH TOTAL COST OF PURCHASED SYSTEM APPROACH * INCLUDE COST OF NASA CIVIL SERVICE STAFF FOR CONTRACT AND TECHNICAL MANAGEMENT * FOR SHARED SYSTEM, REMOVE COSTS RELATED TO COMMERCIAL SERVICE NASA HO TC 76-2114(1) PAGENO="0635" 633 * PROCEDURES FOR LEASE VS PURCHASE ANALYSIS (CON'T) * IN BOTH LEASE AND PURCHASE APPROACH, EXPRESS COSTS THROUGH LEASE TIME PERIOD IN CONSTANT DOLLARS *PROVIDE COMMON BASE FOR COMPARISON * IN EACH APPROACH, REMOVE FEDERAL INCOME TAXES * GIVES NET COST TO GOVERNMENT * FOLLOWS STANDARD GOVERNMENT PROCEDURES FOR CONDUCTING LEASE VERSUS PURCHASE ANALYSIS ** IN EACH APPROACH, DETERMINE PRESENT VALUE OF TOTAL COSTS * THROUGH LEASE PERIOD *PROVIDES A PROPER ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF COMPETING APPROACHES HAVING GREATLY DIFFERENT YEAR BY YEAR COST STREAMS * COMPARE TOTAL COSTS OF EACH APPROACH The next two charts-T 76-2114 and 2129-outline the methodology of how we conducted our lease versus purchase analysis. We used techniques that are in wide use, in government and industry. They are not unique to the TDRSS system. We used standard lease versus purchase comparison techniques. The techniques we applied were as follows: Using the contractor proposal data, we, of course, established a total cost of the lease approach. And by "total," I mean including other costs, such as the cost of NASA's civil service staff that would be required in the management of the contract for the lease approach. Likewise, we established a total cost of a purchase system approach, again including the necessary number of NASA civil service staff for contract and technical management. In the case of a shared system, we removed those costs related to any commercial service that might also be included. In both the lease and purchase approach, to provide a common basis for comparison purposes, we expressed the costs through the lease time period in constant dollars. This removes the differing effects of estimates of inflation in each proposal. PAGENO="0636" 634 In each approach, we also removed Federal income taxes to provide a net cost to the Government as the basis for comparison. This step again follows standard procedures for conducting these kinds of analysis. Finally, in each approach, we determined the present value of the total cost of the lease period in order to derive a proper economic comparison of two competing approaches with greatly different cost streams over time. And, finally, of course, we compared the total cost of each approach to get the lease purchase comparison. This then is the technique we used in conducting our lease purchase analysis. The next chart-T76--2 126-shows the results of this analysis. - As LEASE VERSUS PURCHASE COMPARISON *FOREGOING PROCEDURES HAVE BEENAPPLIED TO DETERMINE LEASE VS PURCHASE COMPARISON *BECAUSE OF COMPETITIVE CONFIDENTIAL NATURE OF CONTRACTORS' COST DATA PRIOR TO FINAL SELECTION, *COMPARISON IS PRESENTED IN TERMS OF LEASE-TO-PURCHASE COST RATIO * RESULTS: *COMPOSITE RATIO 4- = .98 *ASSESSMENT *LEASE APPROACH CONTINUES TO BE VIABLE NASA HQ T76.2126 (1) 2 4-76 we mentioned, we cannot provide the results in terms of specific cost information. Therefore, we are providing a comparison in terms of a lease versus purchase cost ratio. The result we have come up with is a composite ratio. The composite ratio, lease to purchase, is 0.98, indicating a slight amount in favor of a leased approach. Our assessment continues to be that the lease approach is viable and we would pursue this approach. PAGENO="0637" 635 SUMMARY OF NEAR-TERM TDRSS ACTIVITIES *COMPLETE EVALUATION AND PROCEED WITH CONTRACTOR SELECTION *NASA REVIEW FiNAL RESULTS WITH COMMITTEE BEFORE AWARD OF CONTRACT *REQUEST CONTINUATION OF EXISTING LEGISLATIVE LANGUAGE IN FY 1977 AUTHORIZATION BILL NASA HQTC76-2118 (1) 2-2-76 A summary of our near term activities is shown on the next chart- T76-2118. We plan to complete the evaluation and proceed with a selection. And as we indicated in previous testimony, we plan to review the final results with the committee before final award of an actual contract. This year, we are requesting continuation of the existing legislative language in the fiscal year 1977 authorization bill. The last chart-T76-21 13-summarizes my presentatioh. We T&DA PROGRAM SUMMARY * WORKLOAD ON NETWORK REMAINS HIGH * ONGOING * NEWAPPROVEDMISSIONS * ESCALATiON MAJOR PROBLEM * PARTI CULARLY AT OVERSEAS LOCATIONS * TDRSS ACTIVITiES PROCEEDING * LEASE APPROACH VIABLE * NASAHQTC76-2113(1) 2.2-76 PAGENO="0638" 636 indicated that we have a continuing heavy workload on the network, while at the same time are preparing for new missions. We have noted that we have a major escalation problem, particularly at over- seas locations. Also, we are proceeding with our TDRSS activities, and the lease approach continues to appear viable. Mr. Chairman, that concludes my summary presentation. Thank you. Chairman FUQUA. Thank you, Mr. Truszynski. You are requesting $206.8 million for operations in the fiscal year 1977 budget. Does this reflect inflation only, or is that some increased costs that you have incurred, or an expansion of activities? Mr. TETJSZYNSKI. This represents a minor increase in support activity, and essentially is all related to inflation. Chairman FUQUA. What was the estimated value of the closing of the Madagascar station? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. At the time it closed, we were operating about a $3.5 million level. Chairman FUQUA. So you would save about that much then? That would be an additional savings you would make? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Mr. Fuqua, that saving was largely experienced in fiscal year 1976. Chairman FUQUA. That would be an obligation that you would not have to incur this year. Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. I should point out that we were required to replace that capability through increased use of our tracking ship and offloading the workload to other network stations. Chairman FUQUA. Were there any cost savings then? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. The net effect was actually slightly more ex- pensive. The Vanguard ship, as you know, is an expensive facility. In that sense, we were required to increase other operations as a result of the loss of that station. Chairman FUQUA. In the international launches, are you recouping your tracking and data costs from those? Or, is that computed into the cost? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Yes, we are, Mr. FUQUA. Where we support a wholly owned international or commercial vehicle, we get reimbursed for that effort. And that amount of reimbursement is netted out of our budget. Chairman FUQUA. Mr. Downing. Mr. DOWNING. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. You show a cost ratio of 0.98 percent between lease and purchase of the tracking and data satellite system. What does that mean? Mr. TRU5zYN5KI. That means, in comparing the cost of getting this service through a leased approach as opposed to building this system and operating it by the Government, the cost of the service through a leased approach is essentially the same as that if we were to build it and operate it through the Government. Mr. DOWNING. Will NASA be prepared to provide a detailed cost anslysis at the completion of the competition and prior to the award of any contract? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Yes, we will, Mr. Downing. * Mr. DOWNING. Competitive bidding is still the preferred route over cost plus approach, is it not? PAGENO="0639" ~37 Mr. TRTJSZYNSKI. We think there is a place for competitive bidding of fixed price approaches, Mr. Downing. And in this particular in- stance, we requested a fixed price proposal for the tracking and data relay system services. Mr. DOWNING. And the company itself will absorb the R. & D. costs? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Initially, yes. In this kind of arrangement, the company would provide the funds for development and operation of the system, to provide the service to NASA. Chairman FTJQUA. You said there was a fixed fee? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Fixed price lease. Chairman FUQUA. For the whole 10-year period? Mr. TRTJSZYNSKI. Yes. Chairman FUQTJA. They will have escalation clauses in it, like you are talking about on your 25-percent increase in Alaska, and 13 percent at Goldstone? Will this have increases of that magnitude? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Mr. Fuqua, for a contract of this time period, we would have to include escalation clauses, whereby escalation effects. would be negotiated year by year so as to get a real measure of the actual escalation. Chairman FUQUA. Are you including that in your factor of 0.98? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Yes, we are in that effect would be about the same in either approach. Chairman FUQEJA. All right. Mr. DOWNING. Only two companies are competing for this bid? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Yes, Mr. Downing. We did go out on a com- petitive procurement and two teams formed and decided to bid on it. As you recall, this is a request for a service and, in that sense, gen- erally, you would expect the teams formed to be a communications carrier and a technical satellite construction firm. These are the teams that are formed. Mr. DOWNING. Why do you think only two companies would agree to take this project? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Mr. Downing, we wondered about that. I think it gets directly down to the particular business activity of the momentS in the various companies. I think it is a matter of their activities, such as whether they have enough technical people to take on yet another fairly big R. & D. job. I know personally that that was a consideration in one of the companies. I think it is primarily that type of con- sideration. Mr. WYDLER. Would the gentleman yield to me? Mr. DOWNING. Yes, Mr. Wydler. Mr. WYDLER. Specifically, why didn't A.T. & T. bid for this? It seems this would be something, I would think, they would be inter- ested in. - Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. All I can report, Mr. Wydler, is their sort of response. They did indicate that a large amount of their resources in this time period were required elsewhere, and they chose not to put them into this particular program. Mr. WYDLER. I mean, really, from the shared service approach, it would seem almost ~ natural for them to have those two satellites up there that could reach any point in the world. Something there seems to be so appealing to me from a business point of view, I don't know why. They must have something better. That is the only thing I can conceive. 70-079 0 - 76 - 41 PAGENO="0640" 638 Why wasn't Comsat involved in this? Mr TRUSZYNSKI There, again, I think it is primarily the amount of work that the Comsat Corp. is involved in in the near term. As you know, they are committed very heavily with several programs. They are involved with the Aerosat program They are involved with a new combined business venture satellite with two other companies They are also heavily involved with the maritime satellite I think there comes a time when one has to evaluate whether he has enough technical resources to take on yet another job I think these are the primary considerations involved in these decisions Mr DOWNING I didn't realize that Western Union had this capa- bility. Have they been in the li. & D. field to a large extent? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Yes, indeed, Mr. Downing. As a matter of fact, they are one of the first operators of a communications satellite, the Westar Mr DOWNING Thank you very much Mr WYDLER Let me take this page of your report, whatever you call this one It is not numbered You talk about entering into a long-term contract with communications carrier Does that word "contract" mean a lease? Is that what you are talkmg about? Mr TRUSZYNSKI Yes, it is It is a contract for a leased service Mr WYDLER Why is it a 10-year lease? Mr TRUSZYNSKI We chose 10 years as a proper length of time in terms of our operations requirement, yet not to be so long that we would be faced with obsolescence of systems that were initially developed It appears to us that about 10 years is a reasonable time period to look to in terms of the kind of system you would put up initially Mr WYDLER Are there going to be options to renew the lease at the end of the 10-year period? Mr TRUSZYNSKI Yes There will be options, and we would look at that situation, of course, as we get close to the end of the contract period Mr WYDLER Well, but the point is you have to look at it right now You get into the contract now You cannot look at the end of the contract period You have to determine right now whether you are going to have an option, and, if so, what the option is going to be, and so forth You cannot wait until the end of the period to start thinking about that Mr TRUSZYNSKI We will certainly include options in the initial contract. Mr WYDLER Well, when you say that, you haven't negotiated any part of this contract yet, have you? Is that a fact? I don't want to put you on a spot as to what you are going to say or do, if it isn't already known to the two companies that have bid. Has this been in negotiations yet? Mr TRU5ZYNSKI No, it hasn't, but in our request for proposals, we included a 5-year option as a part of the basic contract Mr WYDLER So, in other words, you would have really, in effect, a 15-year period of the lease Is that what you are saying? Mr. TRU5zYN5KI. That is one way to look at it, I think. Yes. Mr. DOWNING. Will the gentleman yield? Mr. WYDLER. Yes. PAGENO="0641" 639 Mr. DOWNING. Option extension would be a much lesser cost then, wouldn't it? Mr. TRTJSZYNSKI. Yes, indeed, Mr. Downing, because we would expect- Mr. DOWNING. Because the company would cost it out at the end of the 10 years. Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Yes. Mr. WYDLER. Well, I'll tell you this: I really am not going to try- first of all, let me say generally, I know you have been working hard on this. And I'm not trying to be obstructive to NASA's objective, which I fully understand is basically one of dollars, in trying to get a program which they consider important. I think it is important to their budget in such a way so that you don't get overwhelmed by the cost. I am not going to try to obstruct you from that objective as long as the Government gets a fairly reasonable deal out of the whole proposition. But I am concerned very much with what happens at the end of these 10 or 15 years, because you would be literally without a system at that point, and at the mercy of the owner of the system. That thought kind of bothers me. Ten years seems like a long time now. It has a way of going by, and then you are sitting there with a great big problem on your hands. And that is what I am very concerned with in this whole situation. Now I have no reason to doubt the manner in which you went around costing out these two approaches. But I am suspicious of it. I will say that because, apparently, you have used the normal government way of doing it, which sounds all right when you first hear it, except I, personally, am not sure that using an approach which GSA might use for buildings really is valid when you approach a project of this kind. Now it may be, but it may not be, too. So I am going to ask-I'm just going to tell you this so it won't come as any surprise. I am going to ask the General Accounting Office to review the methodology of what you have done here and give us some kind of an idea of whether they really think it is valid to do it this way, which may be a perfectly normal, proper way to do it under certain circumstances. But I am not totally convinced, without going into every detail myself, that it is the proper way to do it for a project of this unique kind. So I am not doing that for any purpose of obstruction, because, if it works out the way you say, I'll be glad that you can get this project built and in your budget, and can handle it without having it over- whelm you, which I understand is your basic problem. Other than that, I have no questions, Mr. Chairman. Chairman FUQUA. Thank you, Mr. Wydler. Could you update us on the status of your negotiations with the Federal Communications Commission regarding this? Mr. TRTJSZYNSKI. Mr. Fuqua, we have always planned to interface with the FCC at the proper time. We have had a study prepared on the question of whether FCC would have cognizance over this system, and we made that study available to both contractors, and also the Federal Communications Commission. Chairman FUQUA. Are they anticipating requiring a tariff? Mr. TRTJSZYNSKI. Mr. Fuqua, this is not yet decided. The way this will proceed is that, at some point soon, we will be able to present the characteristics of this system to the FCC, and a decision will be made at that time. PAGENO="0642" 640 Chairman FUQUA. I assume that you are considering the impact that, if a tariff is required, the impact that will have on the system? Mr TRUSZYNSKI Yes, indeed Chairman FUQUA. You are considering that? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Yes, we are. Chairman FUQUA. I notice in the authorization, in one of the charts, about the high data rate in the handling equipment, and you had another peak year of support, Viking being one among others, and yet, I notice no increase in funding since 1975 fiscal year Mr TRUSZYNSKI Yes, Mr Fuqua However, as you might expect, our systems implementation line item does vary in its internal distri- bution So what is happening there is, as we complete systems for projects, that funding drops off and is replaced by requirements for new projects It turns out that although the emphasis in our implementation line item changes, it has remained constant on a total basis. But the em- phasis is certainly changed in terms of equipment that is required for wide band communications and other new capabilities. Chairman FUQUA In the operations costs for OTDA, since they are the same m 1975 and 1976, this year you have gone up some What was your reason for that? Mr TRU5zYN5KI Mr Fuqua, the change from 1975 to 1976 was essentially constant because, as you recall, we closed some stations The effect of those station closures was offset by the inflation factor in that time period We are not planning any more station closures So in 1977, we are seeing the full effect of the inflation in operations. Chairman FUQUA. In the advanced systems, there is a reduction in the 1976 program of $9 2 million to a level of $8 7 million And a level of $8 7 million is planned for this year Did you request more for this and it was reduced by 0MB? Mr TRUSZYNSKI In this line item, this was the amount that we went forward to 0MB m our budget It does not represent a specific decrease by 0MB Chairman FUQUA You didn't request anymore then? Mr TRUSZYNSKI Not in this area Chairman FUQUA Could you use additional moneys in this area? Apparently not. You didn't request them. Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. No, Mr. Fuqua. I have to say we could use more. The type of activities that we would emphasize would be our normal progression to higher frequencies, primarily in our planetary deep space network Chairman FUQUA If there was a decision not to proceed with the TDRSS, what cost would be mcurred, additional cost, to upgrade your ground base system? And, also, would you need additional tracking systems? I am thinking primarily of the shuttle operation plus your other requirements. Mr TRTJSZYNSKI Mr Fuqua, we would require substantial increase in our budget to upgrade the network if we were to go ahead without the TDRSS system. Our requirement to go to a higher frequency band because of the shuttle and spacelab data rates would require some $50 to $60 million in implementation budget between now and the time of the shuttle flight tests. PAGENO="0643" 641 But I think there is an even more significant part to that question. If we weren't to go with TD BSS, we are facing, as you might expect, quite an increasing obsolescence factor in our network. For example, our tracking ship was equipped in the middle sixties, and by 1980 it will be 15 years old. We maintain it, of course, but the point is that, to replace that tracking ship in the 1980 time period, will represent a major capital investment. Similarly, we are facing the same general kind of situation in our tracking stations. We would be facing significant cost increases were we not go to the TDRSS route. Chairman FUQUA. One of the things I am sure is of concern to your office in your operations is that of operating frequencies, satellite, and increased activities. So that, going on, does NASA play a role in determining how many operating frequencies there are, and the as- signment of those? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Yes, we do. We play a fairly major role, as you might expect, in considerations for space research frequency bands. We participate in the World Administrative Radio Conferences that determines the allocations. We provide a considerable amount of technical information that allows these assignments to be made. Once frequency bands are established, our office acts as the agency representative in procuring the actual operating frequencies. Chairman FUQUA. Do you foresee any problem of inadequate amount of frequencies? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Mr. Fuqua, I think, in general, the different requirements can be satisfied. We find that more and more the situa- tion is one of finding ways to share frequency bands between different services; for example space services versus ground services. This really is the only way to try to live in this highly competitive area of frequencies. And you find that this is the emphasis that we are taking in trying to cope with this problem. In this sense, I think we can find ways in which to have adequate frequency allocations. Chairman FUQUA. With more and more operational satellites, do you see this as a problem to interferences with radio astronomy? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. There is this consideration and it is not a new one. It is one that has been around for some time. We continue to try to solve that problem, and we have an active coordination structure with the radio astronomers. We try to plan our frequencies with them. We have two instances right now where we moved our frequencies to prevent insipient interference with radio astronomy frequencies. This is on the Seasat program and the prospective Landsat follow- on program. So we do try to work on these problems before they happen. We had incidences in the past where we haven't quite done that. But I think, again, we have invited the users' participation and co- ordinated with them to try to solve those problems. Chairman FUQUA. The funds for the systems implementation were reduced in the fiscal year 1976 by $3.3 million. Was there any reduction in the quality or quantity of work that was experienced? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. What we have to do in a situation like that, Mr. Fuqua, is essentially delay the readiness stage of the new systems. So, in that sense, yes, we face a decrease in the quality of our activity, because it pushes closer to the launch date the time when we can check PAGENO="0644" 642 out our. new systems. So, yes, there has been that kind of increased risk. Chairman FUQUA. You have the funding in the fiscal year 1977 budget that is the same as in the 1976 budget, or 1975 budget, at this time. Is that workload in mix going to compare with what you had in 1975 in 1977? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Yes, we think so. It represents the change in the internal distribution of that line item. And we feel we can operate with this level. Chairman FUQUA. Thank you. Mr. Frey. Mr. FREY. No, thank you. Chairman FUQIJA. Mr. Emery. Mr. EMERY. No questions. Chairman FUQUA. Mr. Downing. Mr. DOWNING. As I understand it, you will come back to this committee later on and present the details of the lease system vis-a- vis the purchase system. Then this committee will make the decision as to which course we will follow. Is that correct? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Mr. Downing, we have always agreed to come back to the committee with the final results based on the actual proposals, and the committee can certainly- Mr. DOwNING. The committee would have to authorize a 10-year lease, would it not? Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. In effect, yes, Mr. Downing. And the mechanism we have used is the language in our authorization bill that permits NASA to undertake this kind of contract. That is the mechanism. Mr. Dowxixo. Thank you very much. Chairman FUQUA. Thank you, Mr. Truszynski. We may have some additional questions. We may want to submit them for the record. We appreciate your indulgence with the subcommittee this morning. Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Thank you. Chairman FUQUA. I want to assure you, as Mr. Wydler and all of us, that we certainly have no questions of impropriety or in any way to mislead the subcommittee on the TDRSS. We do have some concerns about it. You have been most cooperative and I want to tell you that we certainly appreciate your openness and candor with the subcommittee. Mr. TRUSZYNSKI. Thank you. Mr. Fuqua. [Witness excused.] Chairman FUQUA. The next witness will be Mr. Arnold Frutkin, Assistant Administrator for International Affairs. You may want to introduce your associate for the record. Mr. FRUTKIN. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I would like to introduce Mr. Lloyd Jones, of my office, who will assist me this morning. Chairman FUQTJA. You may proceed. Mr. FRUTKIN. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I do have a printed statement for the record, which I would like to leave with you with your permission. Chairman FUQUA. We will make it part of the record. Mr. FRUTKIN. Thank you. [The prepared statement of Mr. Frutkin appears in Volume I, Part 3. The biographical sketch of Mr. Frutkin follows:] PAGENO="0645" 643 ARNOLD W. FRUTKIN Arnold W. Frutkin, Assistant Administrator for International Affairs since November 1, 1963, has spent over a decade in international scientific affairs. He has had responsibility for NASA's programs of cooperation with foreign govern- ments and agencies in space science and technology since September 1959, when he was appointed Director of the Office of International Programs. He has served with U.S. Delegations to the U.N. Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and as U.S. Representative to that Committee's Scientific and Technical Subcommittee. In 1969 and 70 he was Adjunct-Professor of Inter- national Studies, Center for Advanced International Studies, University of Miami. Before joining NASA, Mr. Frutkin served with the U.S. National Committee for the International Geophysical Year (1957-1959). Mr. Frutkin did his undergraduate and graduate work at Harvard College and Columbia University, respectively. He is the author of "International Coopera- tion in Space" (1965) and has contributed numerous articles and papers to journals and other publications. Awards include the NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1973), the NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1968), La Medaille de Vermeil du Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales of France (1965), the Cruzerio do Sul Medal of Brazil (1967), and the Order of Merit of the Italian Government (1972). He is a Corresponding Member of the International Academy of Astronautics and an Associate Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. STATEMENT OP ARNOLD W. FRUTKIN, ASSISTANT ADMINISTRA.. TOR FOR INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Mr. FRUTKIN. I would proceed, by advice of your staff, to speak to the few slides I have, reviewing very quickly the background of our international activities, the recent programs conducted and our pros- pects for the future. May I say the international programs we conduct are, as you know, covered by congressional mandate expressed in the National Aero- nautics and Space Act. We have developed a very simple set of policies to implement these programs. Very briefly, we evaluate foreign proposals on the basis of their contribution to our national program.' Our collaborators then im- plement the agreed projects on the basis of paying the costs of their activities while we meet the cost of our own, so we do not export dollars. Their proposals are selected on the merits, and with this very simple set of guidelines, we have had virtually uniform success over a period of some 15 years. I would like now to suggest what this approach has a~hieved in the past years. I would like to have the first slide, if I may (slide 1). PAGENO="0646" 644 SUMMARY OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE PROJ ECTS * FOREIGN CONTRIBUTIONS OF SATELLITES 8 COUNTRIES 29 SPACECRAFT * FOREIGN EXPERIMENTS CONTRIBUTED TO NASA SPACECRAFT 9 COUNTRIES 45 EXPERIMENTS * COOPERATIVE SOUNDING ROCKET PROJECTS \ 25 COUNTRIES f 900 VEHICLES * LUNAR SAMPLE ANALYSES \ 21 COUNTRIES f 250 INVESTIGATIONS * LANDSAT INVESTIGATIONS ~. 55 COUNTRIES * 5 INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 150 INVESTIGATIONS NASA HO 76-2017 (1) 1.23-76 SLTDE1 This represents the major categories of activity that we have carried out. There have been the foreign contributions of satellites that num- ber now some 29 spacecraft that we have launched. According to the guidelines I have just described, those satellites were paid for by `the countries involved. Of course, we paid for the launchings. The same thing is true of individual foreign experiments contrib- uted for flight on our spacecraft. It is true also of the very large foreign participation in sounding rocker projects over the whole Earth, which gives us access to geography of particular interest for researchers. There is a variety of other programs in which scientists abroad have utilized the products of our space programs for researches which contribute to the objectives of the programs involved, as in the lunar sample case, and again in the Earth resources program. Of course, there are other programs of this sort that I have not listed here. These are essentially the principal activities. May I have the next s1ft~e please? (Slide 2.) PAGENO="0647" 645 ESTIMATED COSTS OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE PROJECTS * EXPENDITURES OF ALL PARTICIPANTS IN PAST AND CURRENT PROJECTS c. $1100M* FOREIGN c. $825M NASA c. $275M * BENEFITS FAVORABLE COST SHARING REDUCTION OF NASA COSTS RECIPROCAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR U. S. EXPERIMENTERS (c. 20) EXPORTS OF GOODS AND SERVICES * Excludes ASTP NASA HQ 176-2018 (1) 1-23.76 SLIDE 2 I thought it would be interesting to you to look at the dimensions of this program in money terms. If we compute the expenditures of NASA and our foreign collaborators in programs already carried out, or committed for the future, we come to something above a billion dollars. The foreign eomponent of the total, you can see, is roughly $825 million, whereas NASA's component is considerably less. So the bene- fits of the program in money terms, and apart from the scientific and technical benefits involved, give us quite clearly a very favorable cost sharing ratio. This reflects the fact that satellites which represent the foreign contributions generally cost several times the cost of the launcher, which is normally our contribution. Since these programs are evaluated on the basis of their contri- butions to our national program, they reduce our cost for those national programs. We have increasingly obtained from our foreign collaborators the opportunity to fly experiments of U.S. experimenters on their satellites. This number, as you can see, is about 20, so far. Then, the performance of these cooperative projects by our col- laborators inevitably, involves them in certain purchases of goods and services from the United States. So there is, in effect, a reverse of flow of dollars into the country. Chairman FUQUA. Arnold, is that a cumulative figure? Mr. FRUTKIN. That is a cumulative figure. Chairman FUQUA. For what time frame? PAGENO="0648" 646 Mr FRUTKIN From the effective beginnings of our international activities in the early sixties and continuing through the runout cost of presently committed programs. May I have the next slide, please? (Slide 3) NASA INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM MILESTONES - 1975 * APOLLO SOYUZ TEST PROJECT COMPLETED * FOUR U S BIOLOGICAL. EXPERIMENTS FLOWN ON COSMOS 782 * INDIAN SATELLITE INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION EXPERIMENT (SITE) INAUGURATED * SPACELAB PROJECT WITH EUROPE PROGRESSED ON SCHEDULE * LANDSAT COST SHARING INITIATED * CANADIAN COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE (CTS) LAUNCH READIED * RMS AGREEMENT REACHED * HELlOS GERMAN SOLAR PROBE REACHED PERIrIELION 2nd LAUNCH READIED * ARIES * NEW SAN MARCO PROJECT AGREED * SIX INTERNATIONAL REIMBURSABLE LAUNCHINGS CARRIED OUT NASA HQ 76 2019 (1) 1 23-76 SLIDE ~ We were asked to give you a quick review of the most recent pro- grams. I don't want to take time to cover all of these items, but several of them are worth some mention. I think most of you gentlemen are most familiar with the Apollo Soyuz project I should say only that this worked out with complete success from the point of view of an international cooperative effort Here we were working with a country whose interest in the world doesn't always square with our own, a country which is often not the easiest one to work with, but, nevertheless, very far-reaching com- mitments were made for this project and all were completed satisfactorily There were intangible benefits which I won't attempt to evaluate, but I think it is sufficient to say that the demands of the project brought personnel on both sides together on a very wide scale and produced very favorable treatment for the United States in the Soviet press during the project and in its aftermath I should mention also that we did have a first in 1975 with the flight of four U S biological experiments on Cosmos 782 That flight has been completed Our experimental materials have been returned to us We can say that that has been a most successful relationship PAGENO="0649" 647 Since we do not have biological programs in being, or in early prospect, this represents an opportunity for us that we would not otherwise have. And we expect that we will be following up with some further flights on Soviet spacecraft. Mr. FREY. We saw those out at Ames, I guess, when they were putting them together. They were pretty simple things, just sort of a door opener than, the way you looked at it, to see if it could work. Mr. FRUTKIN. Yes; that's true. One of the reasons for the sim~ plicity of the experiments was that the arrangement was made only very shortly before the flight. There was no time. to do anything very complex. There was some merit in testing the relationship with fairly simple experiments. We now have the opportunity to fly on another Soviet spacecraft. I believe that effort will be more ambitious. Mr. FREY. Thank you. Mr. FRUTKIN. Another landmark in the year was the inauguration of the so-called site experiment in India. You will recall this is the use of ATS-6 for the broadcasting of Indian TV programs to some 5,000 Indian villages. I went out there on August 1 for the inauguration and visited a number of villages to observe the implementation program. It is an extraordinarily successful program with enormous implications of a complex kind. Our early reports of results from this program indicate some quite interesting things. For one thing, attendance in the schools which are served by the receivers in this program has gone up some 30 percent. Second, the enthusiasm with which the villagers received this un- precedented look into the outside world has continued very high. There has been no falling off and no indication that there is a novelty syn- drme here. There have been other social effects which will be reported on fully by teams that are out in the villages. I would like to comment on the fifth item in that `list: The initiation of Landsat cost sharing. We view this as an innovation in our international relationships. As I indicated, we have pursued cooperative programs without ex- change of funds in the past. However, in the case of the Earth resources program, it is apparent that, even during the experimental period, we are conveying benefits of a tangible kind to other countries which have built ground stations for the direct reception of Landsat data. Some six countries have agreed to build such stations. Our original motivation in entering into such agreements was that we were really negotiating insurance for foreign coverage in event our tape recorders failed in the satellites. When we take into consideration the benefits conveyed and the real value represented by them, we felt it appropriate to initiate cost- sharing. We have done that on a token basis. In our agreements we included an option to charge the stations a fee for access to the satellites. Last December we gave formal notice that we were taking up that option and would begin with a token fee of $200,000 per year per station. PAGENO="0650" 648 The reception of that action is one that we will have to observe very carefully. The first payments are due at the end of the third quar- ter of this calendar year. We expect it will go well. A number of the station operators abroad have told us that they regard this action as entirely a fair and proper one The only problem or concern that one should bear in mind is that we are still in an ex- perimental period, and the hard commerical values of the Landsat program are still to be assessed I would like to mention the RMS agreement, which represents the agreement with Canada under which they will provide the remote manipulator system for the Shuttle. That agreement was signed last year and represents upward of $30 million that the Canadians will opend for an RMS system and a ground simulator for the design and sperational traimng for the use of the RMS with the Shuttle The terms are similar to those established for the space lab agree- ment with the European Space Agency Finally, I would mention the Anes program, simply because it is a different type of effort on our part In this case there was an oppor- tunity for us to modify a Minuteman stage, surplus Minuteman stage, for sounding rocket use. The Minuteman offers quite extraordinary sounding rocket cap- abilities, as against the Aerobee, for example. You get nearly double the altitude, and instead of about 4 minutes of observing time, you get 10 minutes of observing time and you can carry a very much larger payload. The funding was simply not available here for this modification We determined there was strong interest in Germany for a rocket with this capability, and the result was a shared funding of the cost of modifying the stage That project is essentially completed and most satisfactorily May I go to the next slide, please? (slide 4) PAGENO="0651" 649 NEXT STEPS IN NASA'S INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM * FUTURE US/USSR COOPERATION * SPACELAB/SHUTTLE USE PLANNING * COOPERATIVE PROJECTS UNDER STUDY * INFRARED ASTRONOMY SATELLITE (NETHERLANDS) * INTERNATIONAL X-RAY EXPLORER (UK) * GAMMA RAY EXPERIMENT (GERMANY) * ACTIVE MAGNETOSPHERE PARTICLE TRACER EXPERIMENT (GERMANY) * SPACE TELESCOPE (ESA) * OUT-OF-THE ECLIPTIC PROBE (ESA) * LANDSAT GROUND STATION NETWORK EMERGING NASA HQ 176-2020 (1) 1-23-76 SLIDE 4 In this slide I have listed those prospects for next steps inter- nationally which have not yet been resolved. I have not given any attention here to those projects which are in train under existing agreements. For example, there is ISEE, the so-called mother-daughter program. which would involve three satellites, one provided by Europe; Tiros- N, in which the French are providing the data collection system and the British a temperature sounding system, not only for the experi- mental program, but for a future operational program. That, too, is a first-in other words, continuing contributions from foreign governments through instrumentation provided for operational systems. Then there is IUE, the ultraviolet explorer. Those are continuing programs which I think you have heard testimony on. I won't repeat anything about more them except there is substantial international participation. - But, turning to the less certain prospects, of course, the future of cooperation with the Soviet Union is very much on our minds. We should have liked to have defined a follow-on project to Apollo- Soyuz before the Apollo-Soyuz program itself was completed. The Soviets looked at it somewhat differently. They wished to complete that project before committing to a follow-on. We did succeed in discussing the matter quite frankly with them in May and did find a strong feeling, sharing ours, that the dynamics of this cooperation should be preserved. PAGENO="0652" 650 There is every reason to believe that what we will do here is build on the capabilities developed in Apollo-Soyuz and look to applying it in future programs involving the Shuttle and the Salyut, or whatever system the Soviets are flying in that time period. We should be having a formal meeting with the Soviets to begin the definition of such a program in a matter of weeks. With regard to the Spacelab, this, of course, is a key element in our international work, representing a $500 million European contribution in current dollars to the Shuttle program. The emphasis for the future is on how we will use Spacelab. Since the Europeans have built it, or are building it, they have considerable interest in its use. We had in Canada yesterday a NASA team which spent a full day before some 60 to 70 Canadian Government officials explaining the operational requirements for use of the Spacela.b and Shuttle as well as our thinking on the terms and conditions of that use. I believe we will be working extensively with Europe in the same way. The idea, of course, is to permit the widest access to Spacelab and Shuttle as in everybody's interest. It is in our interest to attract customers. It is in other countries' interest to be able to use this unique facility. I will mention just a few of the other these cooperative projects under study. I should say they have been defined as a result of our standard announcements of flight opportunities, which we circulate very widely. Some 20 of the responses have been selected for careful study. Some of the leaders in this "competition" are the following. The infrared astronomy satellite would be built on the very considerable expertise the Netherlands developed in connection with the cooperative ANS satellite, successfully launched over a year ago. This satellite would be the first infrared satellite to do a whole sky survey in infra- red from space. I should mention next the space telescope. Here, the Congress itself has urged us formally to develop international contributions to the space telescope program. We have been in discussions with the Euro- pean Space Agency for over 3 years on this subject, and have defined possibilities, not yet committed, according to which ESA would provide detectors for the telescope and a faint object camera. They would also contribute to operations on the ground, the cost of them, and participate in the viewing program. The prospect here is for something upward of 10 percent of the total cost. It would be desirable, of course, to increase that contribution, but we are limited fundamentally by the funding available in Europe. Finally, I *should say another word about the Landsat ground station network. I mentioned that six countries have committed to Landsat ground station for direct reception of data: Canada, Brazil, and Italy are now operating. Iran, Zaire, and Chile have agreed to establish stations in Chile, and are in the process of doing that. Africa, then, would have virtually complete coverage. All of the African countries will be able to receive Landsat data through one or the other of the stations that has been, or will be, established. PAGENO="0653" 6~51 This would bring about a regional character for worldwide participa-. tion in Landsat data use. It has proven very attractive to the Outer Space Committee and the United Nations, which have recognized this program and commended it to the attention of other countries for their participation. Mr. FREY. Could I just stop you for a moment? I have been up to those meetings a few times. And with all due respect, I don't think anyone ever resolves anything. Mr. FRUTKIN. Well, I would be happy to express my view of that situation up there, Mr. Frey. Mr. Fiu~y. Is it better than I think? I hope. Mr. FRUTKIN. I think it's much better than meets the eye. Mr. FREY. That's good. It has to be, actually. Mr. FRUTKIN. I understand the reaction one would get up there. I suppose that is obvious in the actions of others who perform duty up at the U.N. But let me say just a few things that may be helpful. The problem is entirely one that arises from a very few nations' view, that is, less than a handful ~of nations' viewpoint, that the ultimate dissemination of Landsat data of a given country should not be carried on without permission of that country. Although. that issue has continued under discussion for some 10 years, this viewpoint has never succeeded in attracting any substan- tial support. The countries which have been identified with that point of view have turned over rather rapidly, so that the countries which originally expressed it are no longer doing so. They are now partici- pants with us in an open program and have committed to open handling of data in agreements with us. So this means that the ranks of those countries taking that view change as the countries are educated to the realities of the situation. Now, in this last session of the United Nations, there was a unani- mous action by the General Assembly approving a report of the Outer Space Committee that, as I said, recognize the Landsat program, and urges countries to participate in it through direct reception of data. The committee identified three objectives of such a program. One of them was the full and open disclosure of data without discrimina- tion. The interesting thing is that over 40 countries, including all of the countries that had been objecting to the open dissemination of data, cosponsored that resolution. And the resolution was passed without objection in the General Assembly. So you are quite right in thinking it is a. slightly irrational world out there, Mr. Frey. Mr. FREY. They're slower than we are. Mr. FRUTKIN. That's right. Actually the foreign interest in Land- sat exceeds, I think, the domestic interest in Landsat. Now may I go to the next slide, please? PAGENO="0654" 652 CONTRIBUTION OF SPACE ACTIVITIES TO U. S. BALANCE OF PAYMENTS TOTAL ESTIMATE 1968 - 1978 $1,425 MILLION BASED ON - * JAPANESE PURCHASES 250M * BRAZILIAN, BRiTISH, CANADIAN, INDONESIAN, 860M IRANIAN, INTELSAT, AND NATO-RELATED PURCHASES * OTHER REIMBURSABLE LAUNCHINGS 150M EARTH RESOURCES 45M * REVERSE DOLLAR FLOW GENERATED BY COOPERATIVE 120M PROJECTS CURRENT ESTIMATED RATE 175M NASA HQ 76-2094 (1) 1-30-76 SLIDE 5 I thought it might be useful in closing these brief remarks on our activities to note their contribution to the U.S. bala~ice of payments. Here we are not talking about the total that we and our collaborators spend on programs. We are talking about the amount of money that comes into this country, as a consequence of foreign space programs, our own cooperative programs, reimbursable launchings, et cetera. We have identified only those expenditures which we can find. We are not estimating those that we connot identify. So I consider this a rather conservative estimate. It is necess~irily crude but I am confident that it is conservative. In this period 1968-78 we believe the income to the United States is about $1Y2 billion. I have indicated some of the principal sources of that income. The Japanese purchases, for example, represent three programs, three satellite programs, which have been contracted for in this country with American firms, the satellites to be launched on a fully-reimbursable basis by us. And, of course, it includes also the expenditures the Jap- anese are making in this country with American firms assisting them in the development of the Japanese launch vehicles. The second item there represents for the. most part domestic com- munications satellite programs that are being generated throughout the world and supported largely through foreign purchases from this country. I list other reimbursable launchings there. This means reimbursable launchings in addition to those that are incorporated in the two previous items. The total is roughly half a billion dollars in this 1 0-year period, coming into the United States for reimbursable launchings f or foreign account. PAGENO="0655" f~53 Earty resources is a separate item and should have had a "bullet" before it. The Landsat program that I mentioned is generating de- mands for ground station, terminal equipment antenna, processing equipment, and so on. Then, of course, I indicated that the cooperative, programs also generate requirements for purchases for different services in this country. The current estimated rate, we believe, is about $175 million a year coming in. Chairman FUQUA. Arnold have you ever shown that to 0MB? Mr. FRUTKIN. Yes; it has been shown to 0MB. Some interest has also been expressed in the press. Aviation Week and Business Week, for example, covered this picture very, very well, I think. And I do believe that this is appreciated. It is not comparable to the income generated, for example, by military sales. But on the other hand, it is relatively benign and I think positive in every respect. Just a final word on these reimbursable launchings, because they are, I think, an interesting factor. Could I see the last slide, please? INTERNATIONAL REIMBURSABLE LAUNCHES 1965-74 1975 1976 1977 1978-80 INTELSAT 19 3 2 2 O+4 ESA 5. 1 4 0+3* U.K. 5 1 NATO 2 2 1 CANADA 2 1 1 FR/FRG I 1 FRG 1 JAPAN 2 1 INDONESIA 1 1 BRAZIL 2+1* ITALY 1 ARAB TELECOM UNION 0+2* TOTAL 35 6 5 5+10* * TENTATIVE LAUNCHING PLANS NASA HQ 76-2022 (1) 1-23-76 SLIDE 6 We thought you might be interested to see where these reimbursable launchings come from abroad. The last column, of course, is not all committed but is in good prospect. I daresay that there will be more launchings to foreign account in that period. They have simply not materialized yet. 70-079 0 - 76 - 42 PAGENO="0656" 654 Now that benefit is quite a bit broader than simply the dollar inflow. For one thing, the requirement for U.S. launch vehicles is considerably increased by this listing. This means that our own companies have a bigger pipeline and a more consistent and steady pipeline to work with. The result is also to reduce the unit cost for the launchings that we require. So, all in all, it- Mr. FREY. Could I ask you something on that, too? When we get reimbursed on that, we have never put any factor in for R. & D. have we? Mr. FRUTKIN. We never did until the recent upgrading in quality assurance for the Delta program. The cost of that effort is being reflected in the current rate for Delta launchings. Mr. FREY. Are we going to keep the same base for the future now, or is there any different way we are going to handle the reimbursement in the future, any new way of doing it? Mr. FRUTKIN. When we think of the Shuttle, we are thinking of some improvements in the approach. Now those are not finalized yet so they are entirely tentative. But some of the thinking would involve giving greater assurance of the launching. Mr. FREY. A double your money back kind of thing? Mr. FRUTKIN. No, not double your money. Mr. FREY. I know what you mean. Mr. FRUTKIN. Unless the committee wants to authorize- Mr. FREY. The committee will not authorize. Don't worry about that. Mr. FRUTKIN. But there may be an assurance that if you purchase a launch you'll get a launch, and without having to purchase another. In addition, there is thought being given to a firmer price. We have, quite frankly, been embarrassed because of the large escalation in Delta prices during the course of a reimbursable launch agreement. It is clear to our customers that they must pay the full cost of the launching, whatever it turns out to be. But it was not expected, when the contracts were entered into, that cost might escalate over 20 percent. Mr. FREY. In doing these things in the future, too, there would be a factor, whether it's amortization, R. & D. or whatever you would want to call it, there would be an additional factor in the base price. I assume if we are going to guarantee these things and do it, there's got to be some basic return to us for it. Mr. FRUTKIN. Right. Yes, sir. But there are some improvem~thts fundamentally, however. We would be providing launch access on the basis of the President's launch policy 2 years ago and charging the full cost to us. I hope, Mr. Chairman, that this very brief account suggests to you that we are running a very practical and useful program. If you have any questions, I would be happy to try to answer them. Chairman FUQUA. Thank you very much, Arnold. You mentioned in the Landsat that it was cost sharing and there were some six countries, I believe, firmly committed thus far, and that they are paying about $200,000 per station. Mr. FRUTKIN. They will, yes, sir. PAGENO="0657" 6.55 Chairman FUQUA. How was the $200,000 arrived at, rather than some other figure? A 999 figure, or- Mr. FRUTKIN. The figure is an arbitrary figure, as I indicated, a token one. If you take some very crude measures, the cost of the Lanthat space segment is roughly $20 million a year. A measure can be derived for the foreign use of the space segment, and based on the collection of image frames earlier this year, some 40 percent of our take was for the use of foreign interests. Now if you applied that, you might say in some sense that you would look for $8 million from the foreign participants. There are many con- siderations that would work on both sides of that figure. For one thing, these people are beginning a very new effort and their own costing is not clear to them. We felt it was important first to establish the principle of cost sharing. So we wanted to take a figure that could be digested by them in the very early years of their effort. It may cost from $1 to $2 million to run a Landsat ground station. Chairman FUQUA. Per station? Mr. FRUTKIN. Per station, yes, depending on how elaborate the station is. That $200,000 fee would add from 10 to 20 percent of the cost of the activity. We did not want to discourage foreign participa- tion at this point. We get a number of benefits through these stations, such as insurance in the event of tape recorder failure, the assumption by the foreign station of any burden on us for distributing data to our own experimenters in that region, as well as to the public, reducing our cost twofold for that kind of thing. So, balancing all of these considerations, we felt a good first step would be about this sort of magnitude. We hope the program develops in such a way that in time you could contemplate a larger number of ground stations meeting `the full cost of the foreign interest in the Landsat Program. Chairman FUQUA. You mentioned the ATS-6 and your being in India, and the succss of the program: increased school enrollment, village participation. Do you see a follow-on to the ATS-6 program? Do you think that the Indian Government woulcj be willing to buy their own satellite? Mr. FRUTKIN. The Indian Government had planned a follow-on program a number of years ago. My understanding is that their foreign exchange situation, complicated by the fuel crisis situation, has forced them to postpone the follow-on program. The follow-on program at that time contemplated that India would buy the satellites required in this country `to begin with and `purchase the launchings here. They would hope to be working with the American contractors to develop in time a capability to continue the satellite effort in India. That has been postponed. However, the great success of the program in India this year has prompted a revival of that plan. My under- standing is that it again looks like there is a serious intention of the Indian Government to undertake a follow-on program sometime in the next 3 years. ` In the meantime, steps are being taken to use conventional TV broadcasting techniques to continue these programs in at least half of the villages that are now being reached. PAGENO="0658" 656 There is an important recognition there that they have got to con~ tinue that service in some way. Chairman FUQUA. You mentioned the Communications Technol- ogy Satellite that we did with Canada. That was a test pad of NASA development, and so forth. What else did we share, or what else did we share in that project? Did we pay for the launch or did they contribute? Mr. FRUTKIN. We paid for the launch. It was Canada's satellite. We had a conventional cooperative agreement under which Canada pays the cost of the satellite, which is considerably more. Chairman FUQUA. The entire cost of the satellite? Mr. FRTJTKIN. The entire cost of the satellite, exept as you men- tioned, we use the satellite as a test pad for our 200-watt traveling wave tube which we flew on a proprietary basis. We pay for the launch. Then, in addition, we get 50 percent of the time of the satellite for broadcast programs of our own in this country. So we think we have a very good deal there. Chairman FUQUA. And the remote manipulator system is being developed by the Canadians for the Space Shuttle. Did we supply them with any up-to-date technology? Mr. FRUTKIN. The premise for entering into that program, just as the premise for entering into the Spacelab program with Europe, was that the Canadians had the essential technical capability to carry out the program on their own. Chairman FUQUA. Do they plan to hire U.S. companies? Mr. FRUTKIN. They do most of the work themselves. However, for the hardware components, they expect to spend as much as 20 percent of the cost in this country, purchasing elements here. They find it easier to buy some components here than to develop them for themselves. That's a matter of convenience and economy. We are not transferring technology to them. Chairman FUQUA. Where will the general purpose simulator be available? In Canada or the United States? Mr. FRUTKIN. Under agreement with Canada, Canada builds the general purpose simulator at its own expense and locates it in Canada. That simulator will be used first for the design of the remote manipula- tor system, then for operatio~ial testing and training. Our program people felt that the simulator ought to be more readily accessible to us for our own operational training. So we have a provision in the agreement that permits us to purchase elements of the simulator, with the prices to be mutually agreed, for installation here in our own country at one of our centers. The program office has not determined yet how much of that simula- tor we need. That will be determined and we will purchase some ele- ments from Canada. That will be a lot cheaper than developing it all over again down here. Chairman FUQUA. You were present when the previous witness testified and we discussed about the role of NASA in the allocation of international frequencies for satellites. Is your office involved in that, and, if so, how much? Mr. FRUTKIN. We are peripherally involved, Mr. Chairman. For example, where, in an international program there is a frequency issue, we do interest ourselves to make certain that it is resolved equitably and meets both our interests and the foreign interests. PAGENO="0659" 657 For example, in the case of the Indian broadcast program, they are broadcasting at 860 thegacycles This is a frequency which can cause interference in the European theater, so we made it quite clear to begin with that India would have a responsibility for clearing that frequency in her own interests And it was done that way We are involved in this way, but not centrally Chairman FUQUA Mr Winn Mr WINN Thank you, Mr Chairman On the subject matter a moment ago the chairman was talking about, where do the Canadians have the facilities to test a simulator? Mr. FRUTKIN. I don't know whether they will locate the simulator at industrial facilities-the prime contractor there is the Spar Corp - or at the National Aeronautical Laboratory, which is the lead agency on that project in Canada I don't know where they will locate that simulator If you wish, Mr Wmn- Mr WINN I just wonder if they had the facility You are not in doubt about whether they have the facility? Mr FRUTKIN No The Canadian capability was very carefully surveyed twice before we entered into this agreement by teams that included American industrial representation. Mr. WINN. On another subject, you talked briefly about your figures being submitted to 0MB I just wondered what level of inter- action and how frequently do you meet the representatives of the State Department Mr FRUTKIN We have essentially daily interaction with the State Department Many of our communications to our foreign contracts go through the State Department We copy virtually all of our correspondence to the State Depart- ment, so as to obtain a contmurng concurrence in what we are domg internationally Mr. WINN. Your contacts are basically with OES? Mr. FRUTKIN. I'm sorry, I am not familiar with that. Mr WINN They are Oceans in International- Mr FRUTKIN Oh yes, that has been through the years our principal point of contact with the State Department But we also are in direct contact with the Soviet desk, with the Bureau of Economic Affairs on communications matters and aviation matters, and with other bureaus and offices as required Mr. WINN. Have you had detailed discussions with the Office of Science and Technology policy with regard to matters such as the export technology and bilateral science agreements? Mr FRUTKIN The question of policy on export has been a con- tinuing one throughout all my experience m this work with that office and other offices It has generally been conducted on an interagency basis It is, m my view, one of the most difficult questions we deal with in the Govern- ment And I think we have made some contribution to the effective policy being pursued Mr WINN You don't sound very convinced, Arnold Mr FRUTKIN As I say, I think it is a very extremely difficult area Mr WINN I got that PAGENO="0660" 6~58 Mr FRUTKIN I thmk everyone would hope that it were possible to follow a more consistent and simple policy as against a case-by-case policy, but it's never proved possible to my knowledge to rise very far above the case-by-case consideration of difficult export questions in the area of advanced technology Mr WINN Are you saying that you don't really have much to say about policy? Mr FRUTKIN No, I am not saying that Mr WINN I am not reading you somewhere Mr FRUTKIN I'm sorry, I am being obscure You must forgive me I mean that no one seems to have been able to come up with a broad policy guidelme that could be applied easily to all cases of export of advanced technology In the absence of a clear policy that can be easily applied to any case that might come along, we find ourselves m the executive depart- ment looking at difficult cases on a case-by-case basis. So it makes life a great deal more difficult. Mr WINN In other words, it is so broad that it is pretty hard to spell out a specific policy, so you have to take it case by case, break down as it comes along Mr FRUTKIN Yes, it is so complicated I have generalized notions of my own in this area, Mr Wmn If you ever have the patience to hear them, I'd be glad to convey them to you Mr WINN I have the interest, I have the patience, I don't know if I have the time Is OTDA constantly apprised of the diplomatic developments that might affect the operations of network sites in foreign countries? Mr. FRUTKIN. Yes, Mr. Winn, Mr. Truszynski's office and my office work very, very closely We have representatives in his staff meetings and we immediately pass on to his office any information that affects the climate of operations of any of the stations overseas Mr WINN How do you keep track of the constantly changing world in our constantly changing diplomatic negotiations with these countries? Mr FRUTKIN We have, I think, excellent support and service from Department of State We are in the communications channel on politi- cal developments in all of the areas where we have stations, or any other activity, and we receive those through the overseas posts and the appropriate State Department offices. So I think we are very well informed very currently. I think this is one of the things the Department does very, very well. Mr WINN We always hear that scientists and engineers can talk to each other a lot better than politicians can communicate with each other Do you find that true in this instance? Mr FRTJTKIN I think that is possibly a true statement but I don't think it means what most people think it means I think people often assume that this means that scientists could resolve political problems if they addressed themselves to them. Mr. WINN. Maybe they can, but I've never looked at it that way. Mr FRTJTKIN I am sure the politicians and diplomats have much more difficult problems to deal with in the human sphere Certainly, we were able to work very effectively-we have worked very effec- tively with countries at any given moment having some political difficulty with the United States PAGENO="0661" Mr. WINN. Have you noticed any change in the attitude of the Indian Government since their most recent leaning toward Russia and communism, as far as dealing with them on ATS? Mr. FRUTKIN. No, sir, whatever problems may have arisen ln the political sphere have not affected our relationship so far as I can see of this time. In no way. Mr. WINN. How about any access to any information, or scientific meetings that we might attend jointly in their country? Mr. FRUTKIN. We have problems in no way that I know of. In fact, one of the problems we have had for some time seems to have disappeared. India was one of the countries that had some reservation on the open availability of Earth resources data. That reservation has now been removed. India is now sponsoring agreements covering the experimenters that worked with us. And they have established a national Earth-sensing agency, which is seeking to enter into some arrangements with us, comparable to the arrangements with other countries, Mr. WINN. So you don't see any problems at the present time? Mr. FRUTKIN. No, sir. Chairman FUQUA. Mr. Frey had two questions. Mr. FREY. No; I asked mine during his talk, so I yield back my time. Chairman FUQUA. I appreciate it. Thank you very much, Arnold, for your testimony. We appreciate it very much. The subcommittee will adjourn until Tuesday, February 17, in this room. We will hear from Elmer S. Groo. [Whereupon, at 11:57 a.m., the subcommittee adjourned, to be reconvened at 10 a.m., Tuesday, February 17, 1976.] [Questions and answers submitted for the record follow. Also see Volume I, Part 3 for additional questions and answers.] PAGENO="0662" 660 QUESTION NO. 1: In your prepared testimony you discussed the policies * ~ou. .h~iv~ developed for foreign participation and you m~~'iti.bned that foreign proposals for space cooperation will be ju4~ed on their i~terits: Who does this judging and what e tFie~criteria? ANSWER.: (1) Most foreign proposals are in response to NASA "Announcements of Opportunity" which, in addition to domes- tic distribution, are mailed to about 1300 scientists and agencies around ~he world. Foreign' `responses are evaluated in the same manner as those from U.S~ scientists. They are ~Uirst referred to spec~ally constituted ad hoc advisory groups made up of persons of recognized stature in the relevant theoretical, scientific data analysis, instrumenta- *tion, and/or engineering fields. These groups determine whether a proposal is suitable for acceptance or not, and if it is, what its priority should be with respect to other meritorious proposals. A package of such recommendations is then forwarded to the appropriate NASA SQ Steering Committee (Science or Applications). This Committee in turn makes its recommendations to NASA management. (2) Criteria such as the following are used as dis- criminators in evaluating proposals: (a) Relevance to NASA program objectives. (b) Scientific and technological merit. (c) Competence of the investigator and his ability to follow through the investigation to its end. (d) Adequacy of the proposed instrumentation to carry out the investigation. (e) Reputation of proposer's institution and the support it will provide. Cost, which i' a discriminator for domestic proposals, is not considerad because foreign investigations are funded by their own sponsoring agencies. PAGENO="0663" 661 2 (3) Unsolicited foreign proposals, whether *for entire spacecraft~to be undertaken on a cooperative basis, indi- vidual experiments for flight or ground-based application, sounding rocket or balloon flights, or data analysis investi- gations, are evaluated by the appropriate program office with informal advice from the scientific community. Major proposals (entire satellites, large experiments etc.) are also considered by either the Space Science or Space Appli- cations Steering Committee prior to acceptance. In all cases the foreign proposal is given the same evaluation as a domestic one. PAGENO="0664" 662 QUESTION NO. 2: You mentioned the four US biological experiments flown on Cosmos 782: Were these NASA or private experiments? Was the data shared? ANSWER: Three of the US experiments on the Soviet biological satellite (Cosmos 782) were developed by scientists at US universities. A fourth was developed by NASA and university scientists. All of the experiments were funded and managed by NASA. Three of the US experiments involved biological tissues, approximately one-third of which was given to Soviet scientists for analysis. The fourth experiment, involving radiation dosimetry, was conducted in parallel with a similar Soviet experiment, and the results will be compared and jointly reported. In all cases, the results of each side's analyses will be exchanged. In addition, both US government and university scientists are conducting seven investigations with tissues received from Soviet flight and ground-control animals. PAGENO="0665" 663 QUESTION NO 3 You mentioned project SITE which is Satellite Instruc- tional Television Experiments in cooperation with the Indian Space Research Organization What do you see as a follow-~on to this ATS-6 program~ Is there any chance that the Indian government would buy their own satellite? ANSWER The Indian government had planned a follow-on program a number of years ago Our understanding is that their foreign exchange situation, complicated by the fuel crisis, has forced a postponement of the follow-on program The follow-on program at that time contemplated that India would buy the required satellites in this country to begin with and purchase the launchings here India hoped in time to work with the American contractors to develop a capability to continue the satellite effort in India That has been postponed However, the great success of the program in India this year has prompted a revival of that plan Our understanding is that there again looks to be a serious intention of the Indian government to undertake a follow-on program sometime in the next three years In the meantime, steps are being taken to use conven- tional TV broadcasting techniques to continue these programs in at least half of the villages that are now being reached There is an important recognition in India that it is necessary to continue the service in some way PAGENO="0666" 664 1 QUESTION NO. 4: In your discussion you mentioned Landsat cost sharing, you also ~nention foreign countries paying $200,000 per station per year Why $200 000 vs any other figure' Will this money be used to help defray operations costs? Do we have to help process as a result of them paying something ? ANSWER The $200,000 was arrived at as a reasonable figure to help offset operational costs taking into consideration certain gains we would realize in the form of extended data collection in the event of a tape recorder failure and distribution of data to our experimenters and the public in that country We do not process Landsat data for the operational foreign stations However, the orbital elements used for NASA's requirements are made available at no additional costs. PAGENO="0667" 665 QUESTION NO. 5: On the Communications Technology Satellite area you state that it serves as a test bed for NASA development How else does the US share in this project'? Did we pay for the launch? ANSWER NASA did pay for the launch under a conventional cooperative agreement with Canada in which Canada pays the cost of the satellite, which is considerably more In addition, we use the satellite as a test pad for our 200 watt traveling wave tube which we are flying on a proprie- tary basis We also get 50 percent of the time of the satellite for broadcast programs of our own in this country PAGENO="0668" 666 QUESTION NO. 6: The Subcommittee has always taken a special interest in the foreign.agreements with the United States and the exchange of data: Do you see a large flow of high technology being transferred by the US to the foreign countries as ~ result of its cooperative agreements? ANSWER: A fundamental principle which NASA has consistently followed in entering into cooperative agreements with foreign partners for joint projects is that each side is exclusively responsible for its own contribution. Thus the tasks undertaken by foreign cooperative partners are fundamentally those which are within their basic capabil- ities. It frequently turns out that the foreign partner will resort to use of space-tested, high reliability components produced by our industry. In such cases, NASA encourages the export of hardware, rather than know-how. Availability of the necessary end-item from US industry assists successful implementation of a project of mutual interest and benefit. Foreign purchases of US space hardware for use in the foreign segment of a joint project can be significant--up to 20% of total foreign costs in some instances. In the few cases where US know-how, as opposed to hardware, is necessary for the successful completion of a joint project, consideration is given to commerical compe- tition factors and, where appropriate, access is provided but restricted to the specific purpose of the specific cooperative project. PAGENO="0669" 667 QUESTION NO. 7: In your discussion on the remote manipulator system being developed by Canada for use on the Shuttle: Did we supply them with our up-to-date technology? Are any com- panies involved with Canada? Where will the general purpose simulator be available, in Canada or the United States? ANSWER: The premise for entering into the Remote Manipulator System program, just as the premise for entering into the Spacelab program with Europe, was that the Canadians had the essential technical capability to carry out the program on their own. They will do most of the work them- selves. However, for the hardware components, they expect to spend as much as 20 percent of the cost in this country, purchasing elements here. They find it easier to buy some components here than to develop them for themselves. That's a matter of convenience and economy. We are not transferring technology to them. Under the agreement with Canada, Canada builds the general purpose simulator at its own expense and locates it in Canada. That simulator will be used first for the design of the Remote Manipulator System, then for operational testing. Also, by agreement with Canada, the general purpose simulator is to be available in Canada for NASA Space Shuttle Program use at no cost. PAGENO="0670" 668 QUESTION NO. 8: Does your office participate in United Nations meetings on international space law? ANSWER: The Office of International Affairs always participates in the coordination of positions guiding US delegations for UN meetings on space law. Working closely with the General Counsel and the program offices concerned, we serve as the NASA point of contact with the Department of State for clearing position papers and instructions. As a general rule, the Office of the General Counsel provides NASA representation on US delegations to United Nations meetings on international space law. Personnel from the Office of International Affairs serve on these delegations whenever they are in a special position to contribute to the consid- eration of issues with significant implications for NASA programs. PAGENO="0671" 669 QUESTION NO. 9: Characterize the support which the State Department requests from NASA in positions and negotiations leading to the formulation of space treaties. ANSWER: The Department of State always asks NASA to participate in preparing positions leading to the formulation of space law. On some subjects, NASA takes the lead; on others we assist and concur. NASA's responsibilities are directed primarily to technical and programmatic aspects, but our views are offered and considered on broad policy facets as well. From the first UN discussions on international space law, State has asked NASA to assist in staffing US delegations. 70-079 0 - 76 - 43 PAGENO="0672" 670 QUESTION NO. 10: Is your office formulating policy related to domestic versus international interests in commercial activities on Shuttle flights? ANSWER: At present, the President's Launch Policy of October 1972 governs this area. It provides for nondiscriminatory launch service to both foreign and domestic customers (other than US Government agencies.themselves). Thus,... policies prepared for domestic and foreign use of the Shuttle must be coordinated. We are, at present, planning to protect our proprietary interests in US domestic payloads where commercial interests are at stake. PAGENO="0673" 671 QUESTION NO. 11: Does your office identify and pursue potential opportunities for international cooperation or do you simply serve as a service organization to assist in carrying out international cooperative projects? How do you divide your efforts between these two types of activities? ANSWER: The Office of International Affairs carries out both types of activities. The methods by which we identify and pursue potential opportunities for international coopera- tion include (a) informing foreign agencies of opportuni- ties for collaboration which the NASA program affords, (b) encouraging proposals from abroad, (c) seeking coop- eration required by the NASA program--for example, access to special sites and resources and broadly-dispersed ground-based observations, and (d) pressing specific propositions of major potential value--such as European contribution of the Spacelab. This goes hand in hand ~with our continuing activities to assist NASA program offices in carrying out projects already agreed. These activities are so~ closely interrelated that it would be very difficult to say which demands the greater part of our attention. PAGENO="0674" PAGENO="0675" FIELD hEARINGS FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 13, 1976 U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TEChNOLOGY, SUBCOMMITTEE ON SPACE SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala. STATEMENT OF DR. W. R. LUCAS, DIRECTOR, GEORGE C. MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER Dr. LUCAS. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Winn, we are highly pleased and honored you could schedule a visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center today. It will be my privilege to brief ~OU personally on an overview of the center activities and then we have other presentations planned in accordance with the agenda that we provided to you. If you have any comments or suggestions for changes on that, we will be happy to do as you like. If not, we would like to proceed as we have indicated there. Before I begin my briefing, I would like to introduce to you Dick Smith, whom I believe you met as you came in, who is Deputy Director of the Center, and John Potate who is the Associate Director for Management. Other key people are here at the table also and, with your permission, I would like to present them at the time I present the organization chart and give you a better idea of where they fit in the program. I have prepared a statement to submit for the record and, with your permission, I will summarize my statement here this morning in the interest of saving time. Chairman FUQUA. We will make it a part of the record. Do we have a reporter? Dr. LUCAS. Yes, we have a reporter and the proceedings are being recorded. The Marshall Space Flight Center was established officially on July 1, 1960 and last summer we were able to celebrate our 15th anniversary. With the help of outstanding industrial competence and with strong support from the research institutions and the university community, the name of the Marshall Space Flight Center has come to be identified with large launch vehicles, but also importantly with the development of significant payloads. While the dominant role in the early sixties was the development of launch vehicles, at the same time there were important payloads assignments, including the Explorer and Pioneer satellites, the Pegasus meteoroid detection satellite and, later in the decade, the development of the Lunar Rover Vehicle and the beginning of Skylab. (673) PAGENO="0676" 674 During these first 15 busy years, the Marshall team including, of course, the contractors, produced the Saturn family of launch vehicles-the Saturn I, the Saturn TB and the Saturn V-which were used in launching the missions to the Moon and also the Skylab and the Skylab crew. On last July 15, probably the last Saturn launch occurred when we launched the 32d consecutive vehicle successfully, the 32d one since October 27, 1961. Flight data revealed that that vehicle performed with great precision as had been the case of all its 31 predecessors. Our primary contributions to the skylab program, completed in 1974, were the orbital workshop, the multiple docking adapter and the airlock, constituting the laboratory and the habitat; that Apollo telescope mount, which made important contributions to the areas of solar astronomy; the materials processing facilities and other corollary experiments and, of course, important data analysis. The importance of this program continues to grow with the continuing evaluation of the data. The early launch vehicle and spacecraft experience and accomplish- ments have placed this center in a position of confidence with regard to the seventies and beyond in providing transportation systems and meaningful payloads. Particularly important from that era came the experience of integrating a large number of diverse experiments in a single space station. As a matter of interest, the Laser Geodynamic Satellite, so-called Lageos, and the Gravitational Redshift Space Probe, GP-A, two projects assigned to this center, are the only fully NASA-funded spacecraft to be launched this year on a Scout or larger rocket. The Marshall Space Flight Center conducts its operations at three locations. The primary element of the Center, of course, is located here in Huntsville. (Figure 1.) You have visited the Center before FIGURE 1 PAGENO="0677" and therefore I will use the next few charts prim~ memories. We occupy about 1,840 his spo Arsenal. We utilize some faci1itie~ iamon wit Arsenal-the ~L and the R tion Center, for favor the Tennessee Th -~iart will FIGURE 2 PAGENO="0678" 676 In addition to the facilities 1~ere in Huntsville, we are responsible for the Michoud Assembly Facility outlined here. (Fig. 3.) You will visit this facility tomorrow and I will not dwell more on that. It is located, as you know, in the area of New Orleans. A third location is the Slidell Computer Complex located northeast of New Orleans, about 20 miles away from Michoud, and this is an overview of that facility. (Fig. 4.) This facility provides computer support for the Michoud Facility, for the National Space Technology Laboratories, for other government agencies in that area, for our contractors and also provides computer support to the Marshall Center in Huntsville. FIGURE 3 PAGENO="0679" 677 Chairman FUQUA. Are all of your computers located in* Slidell? Dr. LUCAS. No, we have other computers here in Huntsville. The Slidell facility takes some of our overload but we have significant computer capability here at the Center. FIGURE 4 PAGENO="0680" 678 MSFC MAJOR CONTRACT AND RESIDENT OFFICE LOCATIONS L~DROCKETMOTOR 1 I~~?Et~ELi [ NEThERLANDS j N~/ ~ NM UPPER STAGE cAMNMDGE.MAEcI MSFC L~DONEA~J~ __ NGCKETDVNE KENNEDY ~M 1 ___ EXTERNAL TANK GAINCNVILLE 30N-76 FIGURE 5 In addition to these locations, we have resident offices scattered around the country where our programs are in progress. (Fig. 5.) Most of the resident offices that you see located around the country are associated with our shuttle activity and the high energy astron- omy Observatory at TRW and also at the American Science and Engineering Center in Massachusetts. I have also indicated that we have a resident office at Noordwijk, the Netherlands, in conjunction with our Spacelab activity at the European Space Technology Center which is located at that place. PAGENO="0681" NATIONAL AERONAUTiCS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GEORGE C. MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER DIRECTOR DEPUTY DIRECTOR ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR (MANAGEMENT) FIGURE 6 Turning now to the organization. The Marshall organization is essentially the same as was shown to you in 1975. (Fig. 6.) What you saw at that time followed a major reorganization of the Center in 1974. Small changes have been made during the last year. With the completion of the Skylab program and the Saturn program, these offices have been abolished and the people have been transferred into other activities within the Center. DATE: A.'4 11~, `q~r PAGENO="0682" 6~SO NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GEORGE C. MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER We have recently added two offices. (Fig. 7.) With the assignment of the mission management. role for Spacelab 1 and 2 missions, that assignment having come from the Office of Space Science, we have established a Spacelab Payload Project Office to manage that activity. Heading this office will be 0. C. Jean, whom you met as you came into the room. 0. C. was formerly the Deputy Director of the Program Development Directorate and he has been a key individual in laying out the plans for this activity. We have also established a Special Projects Office to provide a focal point for the management of several of the smaller projects such as Lageos and the solar heating and cooling activity. Lowell Zoller, who was formerly the Deputy Director of the External Tank Project of the Shuttle Projects Office and more recently an Assistant to the Center Director, is the head of that Office. Those are the significant changes. I might use this occasion to introduce the other people around the table. The Director of Program Development is Jim Murphy, who has been here on your previous visits. The Director of Science and Engineering is Jim Kingsbury, who has been appointed to that office within the last year. Unfortunately Jim had to be out of town today on another assignment and he is represented by Leland Belew, who is the Deputy Director. Leland moved up recently to become Deputy Director of Science and En- gineering from his former assignment as Deputy for Operations, and prior to that time he managed our very successful Skylab Program Office. The Director of Administration and Program Support is Jim Shepherd, whom you've met on previous occasions. The other person in the room who will not be presenting is Joe Jones, our Director of APPROVE~F~.7~ ICLA4r DATE: 8 c1~~~' FIGURE 7 PAGENO="0683" 681 Public Affairs. We have a new Director of our Safety Office, Bob Smith, who also had to be out of town today on a special assignment. He and Jim Kingsbury regret that they were unable to be here for your visit. Now, I will turn to the program and project assignments for the Center. The program and project assignments for the Marshall Space Flight Center encompass a very diverse field, ranging across practically all of the major program offices of NASA. For the Office of Space Flight, as I have just mentioned, we have completed in the last year the Skylab program and the ASTP project; however, there are continuing activities in both of these areas in data analysis. The active programs that we have underway for the Office of Space Flight include elements of the Space Shuttle, the Spacelab, the In- terim Upper Stage (IUS), and certain selected advanced planning activities. Our involvement in the Space Shuttle activity is shown on this chart in blue. (Figure 8.) You probably have seen this chart before. The hardware elements of the Space Shuttle for which we are responsible are the Shuttle Main Engine, the External Tank and the Solid Rocket Booster. These will be discussed in more detail later in our presenta.- tions today. In addition to these hardware elements, we also have a heavy responsibility in the area of testing. We are responsible for the system testing and the static firing testing of the main propulsion system, which will be conducted at the NSTL. We are responsible for the mated vertical ground vibration testing of the total Shuttle vehicle, which FIGURE 8 PAGENO="0684" 682 will be conducted at a facility here at the Center, and we are respon- sible for the testing of the External Tank and the Solid Rocket Booster here at the Center also. This testing is being accomplished in facili1~ies that are residual to the Apollo program, which are being modified at a fraction of the cost for new facilities. In addition to these hardware elements and test, we also have a role of supporting the Johnson Space Center in systems assessment and integration activity for the total vehicle. The Spacelab program continues to be a key assignment of the Marshall Center. (Figure 9.) This cooperative venture between NASA and the European Space Agency will provide manned laboratory modules and unpressurized instrument areas, or pallets as we call them, as shown in the viewgraph. In addition to our responsibility of representing NASA for the hardware development, we have the responsibility for developing the initial operational capability, for performing the engineering analysis and software development required to integrate experiments for the early missions, as well as the initial procurement of flight hardware, the initial logistics planning and certain selected sustaining engineering. FIGURE 9 PAGENO="0685" 683 We are the lead center, as I have mentioned previously, to represent the interest of NASA in the development of the Interim Upper Stage (IUS) (Figure 10), a development that is being done by the Department of Defense. This is important to us because approximately one-third of the NASA Shuttle missions in the 1980's will require the use of an upper stage along with the Shuttle. FIGuRE 10 PAGENO="0686" 684 For the Office of Space Science, our primary efforts are the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) and the Space Telescope. We have the total management responsibility for the scientific pro~ gram known as HEAO. (Figure 11.) This includes the development of the spacecraft and also the management of the great diversity of experiments that will be flown on the three spacecraft. This is a peak year for HEAO inasmuch as we are preparing for the first launch in 1977. Concurrently, we are also conducting studies for a Block II HEAO program that may materialize at some later time. FIGURE 11 PAGENO="0687" 685 We have been designated as the lead center for the management of the Shuttle-launched optical telescope, called Space Telescope. (Figure 12.) This will be an observatory appropriate for international use-a very exciting program which we believe affords the possibilities of extending man's knowledge of the universe. Definition studies are continuing on this program, hopefully toward a development start in 1978. We will be discussing more details of that later in the morning. In addition to these hardware assignments for the Office of Space Science, we have, as I have mentioned previously, been given the role of managing Spacelab missions 1 and 2. This will include that cc~ordination activity attendant to implementing the science payloads and assuring that the total mission goes well. In support of the Office of Applications, Marshall has been assigned the discipline base responsibility for space processing and for data management; for the development of the laser geodynamic satellite which will be launched later this year; and for project definition responsibility in the atmospheric cloud physics laboratory. We consider the space processing applications activity to be very important. It is an extension of the kind of work that has been done on a very preliminary basis on Apollo, on Skylab and on the ASTP programs~ We are presently involved in a sounding rocket program to fill the gap between the end of ASTP and the beginning of Shuttle, and our preliminary experiments have been most encouraging. I believe that space processing will be one of the next highly visible. contributions of the space program that are understandable to the FIrnRi~ 12 70-079 0 - 76 - 44 PAGENO="0688" 686 average citizen, and I think it may rank along with communicat:ions and meteorology in that regard. I don't propose to discuss details now, because we have a presentation later and we have a demonstra- tion downstairs, but we have been particularly encouraged in the area of biological separations by the process known as electrophoresis, by certain crystallization of special compounds that are suitable for semiconductors important to the computer industry and for super- conductors, and also we believe there is great potential in the area of producing very pure glasses. The atmospheric cloud physics laboratory will be used to further the basic understanding of atmospheric microphysical phenomena, which, of course, could lead to improved understanding and perhaps modification of certain weather phenomena such as hailstorms. For the NASA Office of Energy Programs, we have what appears to be an expanding role. For example, we are working presently to improve coal mining techniques for the Department of the Interior. We are also supporting the J~nergy Research and Development Agency in developing solar heating and cooling systems for residences and more recently we have begun supporting ERDA in the demonstration of solar heating and cooling equipment for commercial applications. All of these activities in support of other Government agencies are being conducted on a fully reimbursable basis to NASA. As a matter of interest, we are aware that a forceful community effort is underway to locate the proposed Solar Energy Research Institute in Huntsville. In the area of research and technology the Center will be active in the fields of advanced propulsion systems, space materials and structures, space processing, data management, space guidance and control technology and fundamental electronics. We are deeply involved with several of the program offices in advanced planning. Marshall has long been recognized as having a total systems capability, for the ability to conceive and to define and to develop total systems. One important facet of our planning activity is in support of the Shuttle utilization planning-the focal point for developing the mis- sion model and doing that preliminary work necessary to identify the most productive early missions to be flown on the Shuttle. Currently, we, along with the Johnson Space Center, are entering into a study contract for a future space station. We hope this study will provide a total systems view of the space station and will be the basis for later decisions on developing an operational base in space. In the important area of power, the Center has a satellite power system under study, a system which would utilize solar energy to generate power in space for transmittal to the ground. Other ad- vanced studies now underway, and which we hope to inform you of later in the morning, is a heavy lift capability launch vehicle and a solar electric propulsion system. This statement, admittedly very hurried and brief, was to give you an impression of the diversified programs and studies that we do across the agency. More compre- hensive discussion of certain of these areas will follow. PAGENO="0689" 687 MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER CIVIL SERVICE AND SUPPORT CONTRACTOR MANPOWER FIGURE 13 And now I would like to turn to the area of personnel. At this time, the Marshall Space Flight Center has 4,090 permanent civil service employees. (Figure 13.) The civil service employment ceiling is 4,113 for the end of fiscal year 1976 as you can see on the chart. At the time of our last statement to the subcommittee, a reduction in force was in process to bring us down to that ceiling of 4,113. That action was completed last March. The total Marshall reduction in civil service personnel from the peak of 7,327 in 1965 has been 3,214 or about 44 percent. The Center has been assigned a new ceiling to be effective at the end of fiscal year 1977 of 3,925. So, this means that over the next 20 months approximately, we will have to reduce by another 188. We do not at this time anticipate a centerwide reduction in force because we believe we can reach this ceiling by normal attrition; however, with the large number of reductions in force that we have experienced since 1968, it is extremely difficult to maintain and develop -the proportionate balance of skill mixes (figure 14) required to do our diversified missions and, thus, we will have to fill some vacant spaces as they occur in order to obtain the appropriate skill mix. 2 ~llDllllll 3994 3410 .:.:.:.:~ll.:~:llfl:.:. ~ ~:5377 5114 FY-72 FY.73 FV-74 FY.75 FY76 FY-77 PROJECTED PAGENO="0690" 688 MSFC MANPOWER RESOURCES CIVIL SERVICE DISTRIBUTION The support contractor workforce will be reduced from the fiscal year 1976 level of about 2,100 as you can see on the chart (figure 13), by more than 500 man-years. Only about 360 of these technical support contractors will be available for direct support of Center programs and projects. The reduction in support contractors will be effected over the next 21 months as the current tasks and requirements are completed. The overall reduction in support contractor employ- ment level is from a peak of about 8,000 during the Apollo program for a net reduction of over 6,400, or about 80 percent~ 1305-75 FIGURE 14 PAGENO="0691" 689 MSFC EDUCATION LEVELS (as of 12/27/75) o DEGREE LEVEL 2440 - DOCTORATE 91 - MASTERS 413 - BACCALAUREATE 1936 o NON-DEGREES 1656 - TECHNICIANS 642 - CLERICAL 632 - ADM SPECIALISTS & 356 NON- DEGREE ENGINEER - WAGE BOARD 26 AM31 1/15/76 FIGURE 15 The'Marshall Center ranks high among the 10 NASA centers and the headquarters in the number of civil servants who have professional degrees (figure 15). There are 2,440 degree-holding civil servants in the Center. Of this total, about 2 percent have doctorates, about 10 percent have masters degrees and over 47 percent have degrees at the baccalaureate level. Of the 413 people with masters degrees, 26 of these have 2 masters degrees and of the 1,936 at the baccalaureate level, 60 of the these have at least 2 bachelors degrees and 1, I find, has 3 B.S. degrees. During 1975 Marshall continued to make significant gains in the equal employment opportunity area. The number of minority and women employees increased while the Center's overall strength decreased. Considerable progress was also made in the promotion of minorities and women. Minorities and women are well represented in programs such as the worker trainee program that we have and the upward mobility program. The Center has also made excellent progress in the minority business enterprise program, exceeding our fiscal year 1975 goal of $2.5 million by approximately $0.2 million. Additional statistics on our equal opportunity programs will be included in the prepared statement. PAGENO="0692" 690 MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER FUNDING LEVELS BY APPROPRIATION 1000 900 600 700 8600 0 400 300 200 100 FIGURE 16 The fiscal year 1977 budget proposed for the Marshall Center is $604.8 million (figure 16), an increase of just over $35 million beyond the fiscal year 1976 figure of $551 million, but this is accounted for almost entirely by the research and development appropriation due to increasing progress and maturity in the Shuttle and the Spacelab areas and offset to a small extent by decreasing requirements from the HEAO program which is approaching a launch in 1977. During fiscal year 1977 we will continue to give attention to facility utilization. We have consolidated and incurred considerable savings in the utilization of our facilities. Energy conservation will also continue to be a matter of great attention by us. It is very difficult to keep abreast of the increasing cost of energy by reducing requirements. Over the years, Marshall has demonstrated, I believe, the ability to implement difficult technical programs and technical management assignments encompassing an agency wide interface and involving several other centers. Also, a high degree of flexibility in adjusting to the diversified requirements of the space program has been evident. The effectiveness of the Center in achieving its missions is due in part, I believe, to its ability to adapt to and to focus its engineering and program expertise on the major tasks at hand. Mr. Chairman, the Center is dedicated to a continuation of the technical excellence which I believe has characterized our past. This concludes the overview, and now we are prepared to present more details on our other programs unless you have questions at this time. R&D * * C OF F (ESTIMATED) *PRESIDENTS PROPOSED BUDGET FY-73 FY-74 FV-75 FV-76 TRANSITION QUARTER FV77~ PAGENO="0693" 69:1 Chairman FUQUA. Bill, 1 have a couple of questions, and Mr. Winn may have some. You mentioned briefly the ongoing programs that you have for NASA here, and we will get into that later. What do you see as the future role of Marshall. What's ahead? You mentioned the space station and the solar power satellites and large boosters. Could you elaborate on that? Dr. LUCAS. Yes; I would be happy to do that. We have a very full complement of programs in this year and the immediate future; however, we will have significant numbers of people becoming available for new programs near the end of this decade and it would appear to me that the space station would fit excellently into the background of the Marshall Space } light Center, based upon our experience in Skylab and other programs of that nature. We are entering into a study and, of course, we are most hopeful that we will be assigned a key role in that area. In addition to that, I believe that if we move into the area of space based solar power, we have the background for that area also. The utilization of space for the generation of power, in my opinion, will require a space station. It will probably also require a heavy lift launch vehicle capability which we would be able to develop. So, I see these three important activities in the future as being very attractive assignments for the Marshall Space Flight Center. Chairman FUQUA. Another question. You mentioned facilities. Are you utilizing all of the facilities to the maximum? Don't you have some buildings that you closed? We were here, I think, 2 years ago and you had closed one facility. Dr. LUCAS. Yes; that is correct. We have closed certain substandard facilities which are not being used at the moment. We have put in a standby condition building 4755, which I believe, is the large hangar.- type building to which we referred on your previous visit, and we expect to use that for preparing the orbiter for the mated ground vibration test. We have some other facilities that are in standby condition and some facilities, frankly, that are not utilized to their maximum. Chairman FUQUA. ;Do you have room that you could store some of the lunar samples here with some modification-that they could be stored in a more-not in an active capacity until after use of the samples, but that they can be stored similar to what we are doing at Brooks? Dr. LUCAS. Yes, sir, we do have facilities that might be modified for that. We had one blockhouse-type facility that was~ surveyed as a potential site for storing certain of the lunar samples, and I believe it could be modified to make it suitable for that activity; however, I don't know how it would compare with other available facilities. Chairman FUQUA. What's the sea level here? Dr. LUCAS. It's about 600 or 700 feet. I think about 700 feet. (Note: For record purposes, the elevation at the Redstone Airstrip is 685 feet above sea level.) Chairman FUQUA. Would it take a major modification of the block- house? Dr. LUCAS. I am afraid that I can't give you a good answer on that because I am not acquainted with all the reouirements that one would have for protecting the lunar samples. I will try to get an answer PAGENO="0694" 692 on that for the record if you would like, sir, based upon a better understanding of the requirements. (Note: For the record, the modifications that would be required for the blockhouse under discussion would be considered as minor.) Chairman FUQUA. If you would, Colonel Gould, I think maybe you had better take a look at that as an alternative. The other question. What is your projected utilization of the large buoyancy tank? Dr. LUCAS. We are presently using the tank to a small extent in developing space hardware concepts.. We will be using it in train- ing payload specialists for activity in the Spacelab. I believe that it would be incorrect to say that we would have 100-percent utilization of that facility. Chairman FUQUA. About what percent utilization would you have? Dr. LUCAS. Let me ask Leland Belew to help me on that. Do you know about what that percent would be? We've made a study of that and that information is available. If we can't give it to you immedi- ately, we'll supply it for the record. Leland, do you know? Mr. BELEw. It would be less than 50 percent, Bill. Dr. LUCAS. If I might, Mr. Chairman, I would like to check that figure and submit for the record an accurate figure. (Note: The following information on the anticipated utilization of the neutral buoyancy simulator is furnished for the record. Based upon Skylab experience, the neutral buoyance simulator would support a range of approximately 470 to 660 productive/beneficial testing and training hours per year on a single-shift basis. The range depends on whether the activity is for development or training pur- poses.) Increasing to multishift operations would entail a loss of 10 to 15 percent per added shift from the single-shift capability. Proj ected utilization for MSFC over the next 5 years shows that it peaks at less than 50 percent of a one-shift operation. By fiscal year 1981, the requirement would .be more on the order of 30 percent of a one-shift developmental operation.) Chairman FUQUA. Colonel Gould would also be interested. In taking your share of these personnel cuts for fiscal year 1977, axid you have been able to increase the total number of direct positions by probably absorbing a larger cut in indirect positions, what kind of economy measures did you take to do this? Dr. LUCAS. Do you mean over the last several years or- Chairman FUQUA. Yes. Yes. Dr. LUCAS. Well, we have consolidated our activity into fewer facilities. We formerly had pepple offsite and we have all of our people onsite now. We have reduced in every area of indirect that we can. One of the things that has concerned us is that we have reduced maintenance of our buildings and our facilities to a very significant degree. We have stretched out our painting schedules, for example, and we have delayed other needed maintenance. We have made cut- backs on local transportation, telephones, custodial services, and things of that nature. Chairman FUQUA. Has any of the Privacy and Freedom of Informa- tion Act caused you any administrative problems? Dr. LUCAS. Well, responding to the requests does add an additional administrative burden. That is correct. The Freedom of Information Act is what I refer to. I am not aware that the Privacy Act has caused us great strain. John Potate, can you comment on that? PAGENO="0695" 6i93 Mr. POTATE. That's true, Bill. I think in the Privacy Act we have had very few inquiries, but in the Freedom of Information Act we have had a lot of activity in that area and we are keeping accurate records on the amount of time that we've spe~it on it and we are spending a considerable amount of time on research and providing some of the data. Representative WINN. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Are we going to hear later, Bill, about the power station? Dr. LUCAS. Yes sir, we plan to cover that under the topic of "Ad- vanced planning" later in the morning. Representative WINN. OK., well, I'll save my question for that subject matter till later. On the field of energy research and develop- ment, what is the status of NASA's proposed program for Marshall in the coal mining technology field? Dr. LUCAS. We are doing two things in the area of coal mining. We are making some contribution to the automation of what they call the long wall shearer. In the mining of coal, as I understand it, they mine automatically with large cutters mounted on rotating drums. There is a problem of detecting the interface between the coal and the rock overburden. As this cutter hits the rock, it wears it away very quickly. This then forces the industry to leave a substantial amount of coal in the seam rather than run the risk of encountering this inter- face. We are developing for the Department of Interior a detector which will allow one to control the cutter and get very near to that in- terface. In addition to that, there is a problem in cutting a coal seam with this automatic shearer of keeping perpendicularity of the seam from top to bottom and also from one side to the other. There is a ten- dency for it to become concave in both directions. We are trying to apply some of the simple techniques of navigation such as used on the lunar rover to enable the shearers to cut a straight seam for some several hundred feet and also to have it entirely straight up and down. Representative WINN. You don't have any money in the budget for 1977 on that, do you? Dr. LUCAS. We don't have any NASA money. This is being supplied to us on a reimbursable basis from the Bureau of Mines. Representative WINN. All the way? Dr. LUCAS. Right, sir. Chairman FUQUA. AbQut how much is it running, Bill? Dr. LUCAS. I think it is probably on the order of $300,000 or $400,- 000, isn't it, Jim? Mr. MURPHY. That is correct. About $400,000 this year, fiscal year 1977. Representative WINN. :Do you have any research and development money in ACPL for fiscal year 1977? Dr. LUCAS. Yes, sir, we have some definition money for the atmos- pheric cloud physics laboratory to define that project further. It's not a new start program. It's the SRT type of funds. Representative WINN. You mentioned the vocational cooperative training program a little earlier. What's been your experience with that? You touched on it very lightly. Dr. LUCAS. We have found the experience to be very good. We have some vocational schools here in the general area from which we have gotten some people who are willing to train in this area and they have been most responsive to the training offered and I think PAGENO="0696" 694 it would be declared a successful program. The problem that we have, of course, is that with changing roles and missions, we don't need a great number of that type of individual any more. Representative WINN. Is it a good source of new employees? Dr. LUCAS. It is a good source for new employees and for training workers to enhance their skills for the technician level. Representative WINN. If your assignments were more consistent, would you suggest it would be expanded? Dr. LUCAS. Indeed. I recommend the program as being most fruit- ful. I think this is a contribution that can be made in working with people to enable them to advance themselves and prepare themselves for better work. Representative WINN. I just have one more question. What is the average age of the civil service personnel that you referred to on the chart there? Dr. LUCAS. I think we are competing for the highest average age in the agency. I believe it is about 45. Chairman FUQUA. It's not 39? Dr. LUCAS. Our technician work force is considerably higher, about 50. Chairman FUQUA. And going up every year? Dr. LUCAS. It's going up about a year per year. Representative WINN. What is the average grade of the civil service complement? Mr. POTATE. It's GS-ll. ANSWERS FOR THE RECORD TO THE ABOVE QUESTIONS (a) Average age of all Center employees: 44.7 years. (b) Average age of technicians: 50 years. (c) Average grade of all Center employees: 10.9995. (d) Average grade of technicians: 9.9466. (e) The average age for the technician work force has increased by 1.2 years from June 30, 1974, to February 13, 1976. The average age for the total Center work force has increased by .6 years during the same period of time. Representative WINN. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Chairman FUQUA. Thank you, Bill. Dr. LUCAS. All right, sir. If there are no more questions, then we would like to proceed to a discussion of our Space Shuttle activity, and I would like to introduce to you Bob Lindstrom, who is the manager of our Space Shuttle Projects.Office. He, in turn will introduce his associates. Bob. STATEMENT OP JAMES A. DOWNEY III, MANAGER, SPACE TELP~- SCOPE TASK TEAM, GEORGE C. MARSEALL SPACE PLIGHT CENTER Dr. LUCAS. I would like to present Jim Downey, who is our task team manager for the space telescope. PAGENO="0697" 695 SPACE TELESCOPE PROGRAM MSFC PRESENTATION TO HOUSE AUTHORIZATION SUBCOMMITTEE FEBRUARY 13, 1976 FIGUR1~ 1 Mr. DOWNEY. Thank you. (fig. 1) My subject is the space telescope program and in starting I would like to introduce Mr. Jean Olivier, chief engineer of the program. FIGUBE 2 PAGENO="0698" 696 This (fig. 2) is an artist's concept of the current configuration of the space telescope. I will discuss some of the principal design features of this system in a moment. Basically, as you are aware, the purpose of the space telescope is to provide an orbiting astronomical observa.. tory capability in earth orbit above the obscuring effects of the Earth's atmosphere, a long-term capability for the use by the international science community. You have had recent testimony from Dr. Noel Hinners of NASA headquarters, and in that testimony he discussed the science objectives of the LST. Also, I refer to my statement to this subcommittee last year. I don't propose to go over the scientific objectives at this time. I would like to draw your attention to a book that is just coming :off the press, Eyes on the Universe, by Isaac Asimov. Asimov is a very interesting and prolific science writer. In this book he traces the history of the telescope from the earliest days, from the time of Galileo, up to the present and into the future to the space telescope. A key theme of this book is that with each significant step forward in the evolution and technology of the telescope, new knowledge and insights have been derived, most of which were unexpected. Asimov also makes the point that present groundbased telescopes have reached a maximum practical upper limit in size, with our 200-inch Hale telescope on Mt. Palomar and the gigantic 236-inch telescope which the Russians are attempting to get into operation at this time. Asimov concludes the book with the point that the space telescope is obviously the next significant step in optical astronomy. Of course, this sibep is made possible through the tecl~nology of the space program. Chairman FUQUA. I received a very interesting letter the other day from the president of Johns Hopkins University. The significant thing that he said was this same viewpoint, and that the whole world is looking to us to develop it. Without destroying your presentation, somewhere we will want to talk to you about a little money for it. Mr. D0wNEY. Yes, sir, I think when we get into the schedule of events, that would be appropriate. PAGENO="0699" ~6O7 SPACE TELESCOPE PROGRAM PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SYSTEM PRIMARY MIRROR DIAMETER 2 4m (8 Fr) MASS 8600 kg (19, 000 LBS) LENGTH 13m (43 Fr) DIAMETER (MAX ) 4 3m (14 FE) POWER 2000 WATTS WAVELENGTH COVERAGE ULTRA-VIOLET VISIBLE AND I NFRA-RED SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENT POSITIONS 5 LAUNCH VEHICLE SPACE SHUTILE OPERATING MODE UNMANNED DATA RETURN TELEMETRY VIA 1RACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM RETRIEVAL VEHICLE SPACE SHUTTLE FIGURE 3 Regarding these characteristics of the system (Figure 3), you probably recall that our early studies were based on a primary mirror aperture of 3 m (10 ft) However, as a result of further definition actnitv, both in-house and from our contractors, we determined that the best balance between development complexity, or cost, and science performance was the 2 4 m system So this aperture size has been selected Chairman FUQUA The Air Force didn't have anything to do with that? Mr DOwNEY No, sir No, it was strictly a NASA selection, I strongly endorse that selection The mass of the system, 19,000 pounds is comfortably with in the capability of the Space Shuttle system We have a lot of weight margin available The overall length is 43 ft, maximum diameter 14 ft Solar arrays produce up to 2,000 watts of electrical power As far as wavelength coverage is concerned, we will view celestial objects not only in the visible region of spectrum, but also in ultraviolet and infrared The ultraviolet and infrared are largely inaccessible to ground-based astronomers At the focal plane of the telescope we have positions for five instru- ments-cameras, spectrographs, et cetera-the type of conventional instruments you would see in any astronomical observatory With our concept we would have the opportunity of interchanging these instruments or updating them throughout the long operational lifetime of the space telescope As mentioned, the launch vehicle is the Space Shuttle It will deploy space telescope to a 500 km altitude PAGENO="0700" 698 orbit, and after deployment the space telescope will operate in an `unmanned mode, an automated mode, sending the data to Earth via telemetry using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. If the space telescope should become incapacitated on orbit, it could be retrieved by Space Shuttle. Repairs would either be made on orbit by the astronauts, or for major repairs, the system returned to earth for refurbishment and relaunch by the Shuttle. SPACE TELESCOPE PROGRAM MAJOR MILES TONES COMPLETED FEASIBILITY STUDIES DEC. 1972 SELECTED SCIENCE TEAMS FOR DEFiNITION PHASE JUNE 1973 AWARDED CONTRACTS FOR DEFINING TELESCOPE ` AUG. 1973 AND INSTRUMENTS (ITEK CORP. & PERKIN-ELMER CORP. AWARDED CONTRACTS FOR DEFINING SPACECRAFT DEC. 1974 (BOEING, LOCKHEED AND MAR11 N}) S ELECTED TELESCOPE APERTURE SIZE MAY 1975 COMPLETE DEFINITION CONTRACTS MAR. 1976 INITIATE DEVELOPMENT PHASE . FY-78 LAUNCH 1983 FIGURE 4 This chart (fig. 4) indicates some key milestones in the program. We completed our phase A work, the feasibility studies in 1972. We began definition early in 1973. The science teams for the definition phase were selected in June 1973. I might add the scientists have played a very active role and participated with us in defining the program. We awarded phase B contracts for defining the telescope and the instruments to Itek and Perkin-Elmer Corporations in August 1973. The initial definition work on the Spacecraft to accommodate the telescope and instruments was done in-house at MSFC. This in-house work was then followed by a subsequent contractual phase where we awarded phase B definition contracts to Boeing, Lockheed, and Martin-Marietta in December 1974. I mentioned the selection of the 2.4 m aperture size which was made in May 1975. We will be. completing these five definition contracts and getting final results from the contractor teams in March of this year. PAGENO="0701" 699 Of course, we have aimed and hoped for and planned for a fiscal year 1977 new start. We are regrouping and targeting to initiate the development phase in fiscal year 1978. We are replanning our schedules. We will hope that we can have a launch approximately in late 1983 based on a fiscal year 1978 start. SPACETELESCOPE PROGRAM EXAMPLE OF ADVANCED TECHN I CAL DEVELOPMENT WORK ACCOMPLISHED IN DEFINITION PHASE o MIRROR SURFACEFINISH - IMPERFECTIONS IN.MIRROR SURFACEMUSTNOTAVERAGE MORE THAN ONE-HALF MILLIONTH OFAN INCH. - l.8m MIRROR, MEETING SPACE TELESCOPE SURFACE FINISH REQU I REMENTS, HAS BEEN COMPLETED BY I TEK CORPORATI ON, LEXINGTON, MASSACHUSETTS. FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PAGENO="0702" 700 In addition to our definition studies that I mentioned, we have accomplished advanced development work during the definition phase, that is, proof of concept type efforts (fIgs. 5 and 6). Let me preface this by saying I am going to give you two examples of advance development work that give us high confidence the major technical problems have been solved. We are convinced space telescope is a practical and feasible program. Space telescope, in order to take full advantage of the unob~cured viewing capabilities in Earth orbit, has to have a very high quality optical system. The Earth-based telescope designs are not so demand- ing because the atmosphere is the limiting factor. For example, for the primary mirror of space telescope the average imperfections in the mirror surface relative to a theoretically perfect curve, must not average more than one-half-millionth of an inch-a very demanding specification. However, the Itek Corp. has successfully completed the polishing and grinding and testing of the mirror that indeed not only meets the space telescope specifications but exceeds them. Admittedly the 1.8-meter mirror Itek completed is somewhat smaller in diameter than the 2.4-meter system planned for the space telescope, but both of these are large mirrors, and are in the same "ball park" from a standpoint of size. We have very high confidence that there will be no problem in grinding and polishing the 2.4-meter primary mirror to the accuracy requirements of space telescope. SPACE TELESCOPE PROGRAM EXAMPLE OF ADVANCED TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT WORK ACCOMPLISHED IN DEFINITION PHASE o MIRROR ALIGNMENT UNDER VARYING TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS - TO PROVIDE SHARPLY FOCUSED PICTURES, THE PRIMARY MIRROR AND SECONDARY MIRROR OF THE TELESCOPE MUST BE ALIGNED TO LESS THAN ONE MILLIONTH OFAN INCH. - THIS ALIGNMENT MUST BE MAINTAINED THROUGHOUT VARYING TEMPERA1IJRE CONDITIONS, e.g., DIRECTSUNLIGHTAND IN EARTH'S SHADOW. - GRAPH I TE-EPOXY MATER IAL HAS BEEN DEVELOPEd THAT HAS VERY LOW EXPANSION OR CONTRACTION WITH TEMPERATURE. - BOEING AEROSPACE COMPANY, KENT, WASH ING~ON, HAS MANUFACTURED A FULL SCALE SPACE TELESCOPE TRUSS OF GRAPHITE-EPOXY, MEASURED THE DIMENSIONS WITH VARIATIONS IN TEMPERATURE AND CONFIRMED IHAT THEY ARE WITHIN ACCEPTABLE LIMITS FOR SPACE TELESCOPE. FIOtRE 7 PAGENO="0703" 701 Another example (figs. 7 and 8) of some of the proof of concept testing that has been accomplished relates to this structure, the basic telescope structure. The primary mirror will be at the bottom, the small secondary mirror at the top. It is necessary, in order to obtain proper focus, that the primary mirror and secondary mirror be main.. tamed within alinement to less than i~iOOOth of an inch, while science observations are being made on orbit. And this alinement, I might add FIGURE 8 70-079 0 - 76 - 45 PAGENO="0704" 702 must be maintained while the spacecraft is subjected to a variation in thermal environment as it goes in and out of the Earth's shadow. Now, fortunately, for this application, the technology of graphite epoxy materials has evolved very rapidly in recent years. The principal feature of graphite epoxy that is of interest to the space telescope program is that it can be made to have very low expansion or con- traction with changes in temperature. And indeed this full-scale truss we see here, almost 200 inches in length, which was manufactured by Boeing, has been tested dimensionally with variations in temperature. It Was confirmed that the truss' dimensions remained in acceptable limits for the space telescope program requirements. In the time available I was able to provide only two examples of technological areas that gave us concern when we entered the program. I thrnk we have put these "to bed" now, so to speak, along with other areas of concern investigated during the definition phase. SPACE TELESCOPE PROGRAM NEAR TERM ACTIVITIES o BASED ON RESULTS OF PHASE B STUDIES, SPECIFICATIONS FOR SPACE TELESCOPE WILL BE PREPARED. o PROGRAM IS BEING REPLANNED AND VARIOUS SCHEDULE OPTIONS ARE BEING CONSIDERED FOR FY-78 START. FIGURE 9 Now here (fig. 9) is where I think we may want to dwell on where we are and where we are going. Of course, as I mentioned, we are receiving the final reports on our phase B studies from our five principal industrial contractor teams in March. Using this material we will be preparing our final specifications and requirements, refining our development cost estimates, and preparing to initiate the design and development phase. So, between the time of March and this summer, we will be reviewing all of the material submitted by the contractor teams, updating our cost estimates, and preparing specifications and requirements for the design and development phase. At the moment we are in the midst and throes of replanning things, working with NASA Headquarters in proposing various schedule options, and how we would initiate the fiscal year 1978 start. So that is where we are at the moment-replanning based on a later start of development. PAGENO="0705" 703 Chairman FUQUA. I have talked with Noel Hinners about the possibility of going ahead and completing phase B, concluding the contracts. I think that all contractors want to do that. I think it is in the best interests of NASA to do that, and it will certainly save money. Dr. LUCAS. If you refer to the phase B contracts, they will be concluded about March. Chairman FUQUA. Now, what if you had, this is all contingent on a lot of "if's," but if you had $2 to $3 million left in this year, what could you do with it? What I am getting at is, one of the problems we are having is not the $12 million you asked for for this year, but what you are asking for in 1978 and 1979. Now, if you go ahead and select contractors, what could you do with $2 or $3 million this year and limited funding next year? What we are trying to do relates to the Shuttle funding curve; fiscal year 1977 is a peak year and 1978 is going to be a heavy year and then it will start coming down. I believe you should plan your major buildup for the telescope after fiscal year 1978, probably in fiscal year 1979, not a large buildup but a gradual buildup starting at $2 to $3 million this year and then $9 million or something like that next year, of that order. What could you do with that? Mr. DOWNEY. In my view the $2 to $3 million certainly would not cover the complement of the industrial teams that would have pro~ posed. They would have high manpower buildup for the proposal and then the level of $2 to $3 million would not sustain that level of manpower. At that level one would have to, after they render their proposals, cut back to some smaller scale, low level of activity until the full start was authorized. Chairman FUQUA. You could go ahead and get your optics and things of that type; could you not? Mr. DOWNEY. It is possible we could go out on some long leadtime items. We have thought about that. But the problem there is that the buy on the primary mirror blank would be in excess of $1 million itself. When an order is put in to Corning for the mirror blank material, that would take a large fraction of a $2 million budget to cover the order of the blank. Unfortunately that is a long leadtime item in the program, the primary mirror is. I frankly, at this point, would not recommend placing the order for that mirror on circumstances of only $2 million availability. Chairman FUQUA. How about $3 million? What is the minimum amount you could use? Mr. DOwNEY. Well, there are a lot of variables here. One plan would be if we went out on the RFP's this summer and awarded contracts in January, and that was our plan for the fiscal year 1977 start, and I have been addressing your questions based on that consideration. If, however, we delayed the RFP's, say until fall and then awarded the contracts later, with the resulting slippage in award of contracts from early next year to the middle of next year, then, of course, a lower budget level could be utilized and a larger team sustained in industry. What I think would be unwise really is if we went out on RFP's and required industry to build up a big manpower loading to respond to our REP's, and then they had to back off again and do some other things, and then come back on loading the program again with people. PAGENO="0706" 704 Chairman FUQUA. Can you get by without that big increase and drop down? We are not asking for that. We are trying to really keep it alive but within that curve when the curve starts coming down on shuttle. Then we could start building up, but prior to that time have it gradual. Mr. DOWNEY. In my personal opinion I think it is possible to provide the architecture of a program that would accomplish that feature. Dr. LUCAS. I think what you are saying is that you have several contractors, or some contractors working on each item and spending money. Now, you could make a selection, narrow that down, and let them move off slower and hold the money down below the $12 million. I think you can make meaningful steps in that direction without the big buildup that you are talking about. I think you could achieve that by delaying the release of the RFP's a few months, as Jim Downey mentioned. Chairman FUQUA. I realize that the previous plan is probably the optimum thing and I know that you have pulled it back to the bones, but when you can't get the funds, what could you do to get the pro- gram going? To let the world know that we are committed to it and to keeping some of the team together that has been working on this by whomever is the successful contractor. Start at a gradual pitch and gradually build up, then after shuttle comes off the curve, you can build back up all the way and still probably recoup the schedule you have lost. At least keep some effort going on the program. Mr. DOWNEY. I think there is a viable approach along those l:ines and certainly we can make that kind of planning for the program. The additional time does not cost money as long as we plan that buildup and don't stretch the program after it is started. Chairman FUQUA. I'm talking about not going up because, see, they are talking about $12 million this year and then $30-$40 million or so next fiscal year and that is what has everybody scared-not the $12 million this year, but what you've indicated in 1978. So we should avoid that and start at a minimal effort this year, and a marginal effort in 1978, and then in fiscal year 1979 get into "full production." I wish that you would get us some information and some options on what you could do on varying levels this year, particularly, try to keep it at a minimum, and I think the committee would consider it. We could have some problems with Appropriations Committee as we did last year, but I think even with the tight budget, maybe we can find some money for a minimum start-$2-$3 million-somewhere in that neighborhood. Noel Hinners indicated that he could start a program with maybe $2-$3 million as an absolute "barebones," and we are hoping also that we can think of some kind of language in the bill and indicate an authorization for it, maybe no money, but something that should at least give you a ray of hope. Mr. DOWNEY. Yes, sir, I think it would be a very important step that would give industry confidence to respond to an RFP. Chairman FUQUA. I think that there is enough interest for it. I think, I don't know, I only speak for myself, the committee would be sympathetic to something along those lines. But we do have to worry about the level of fund.ing now. We are also worried about 1978. Mr. DOwNEY. Yes, sir, certainly we will be working those options with plans that do not involve rapid buildup and phaseout. PAGENO="0707" 705 Chairman FUQUA And we are probably going to need something soon Apparently you have done some work along those lines We are going to need something for markup on the 25th of February, and we need it sooner than that Dr LUCAS Dr Hinners has actions on us to identify various plans and options We can work with Noel and get a plan to you through NASA headquarters Chairman FUQUA Thank you STATEMENT OP ROBERT E LINDSTROM, MANAGER, SPACE SHUT TLE PROIECTS OFFICE, GEORGE C MARSHALL SPACE PLIGHT CENTER Mr LINDSTROM Mr Chairman, Mr Winn-I will present to you the Space Shuttle in a series of four briefings We will brief you on the three primary projects at the center and I'll introduce these people as they come up A briefing on the Shuttle facility projects will be given by Colonel Wessels Our briefing on the external tank will be rather short We expect that you will get a full briefing from the Martin Co on your visit to Michoud tomorrow In my overview, I will touch on other Shuttle efforts that Marshall is conducting that perhaps is not as well known Dr Lucas has men- tioned that we have three primary responsibilities The development of the Space Shuttle main engine, the external tank, and the solid rocket booster Not quite as well known is the fact that we are par- ticipating rather heavily in the overall Shuttle system activity, es- pecially in the area of system level engineering analysis and integra- tion I would like to show you on this chart (fig 1) a listing of the types of activities or analytical work we are doing in support of JSC in the overall systems effort I think as you view these activities, you will see that they reflect basically the booster launch performance and dynamics activity. It reflects our experience from Saturn and Skylab; Johnson Space Center and NASA are making use of this MSFC capa- bility PAGENO="0708" 706 SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ANALYSIS AND INTEGRATION TASKS * ASCENT PERFORMANCE * AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND TE STING * UNSTEADY AERODYNAMICS ANALYSIS AND TESTING * AEROTHERMODYNAMICS ANALYSIS AND TESTING * STRUCTURAL DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS, LOADS AND INDUCED ENVIRONMENTS * POGO SYSTEM STUDIES * ASCENT CONTROL AND SEPARATION FIGURE 1 Chairman FUQUA. How are your POGO systems studies coming? Mr. LINDSTROM. I think that they are coming along quite well. Our progress to date indicates that we are not too sensitive to P0 GO. We have a good analytical and test program and we have an accumulator on the engine; Mr. Thompson will cover that development. We have been conducting these tasks, or tasks such as these, for the last 1~ years. Just recently we have increased our effort in the systems area. We have taken a step in connection with JSC and head- quarters to focus some of our strength and capabilities and have formed an ascent flight systems integration working group. This was done jointly with the Johnson Center; it is chaired jointly by the two. If you will recall in the overall management presentation from JSC in the systems area, there are four technical areas. It is the purpose of this group to integrate these and to see that they are working together. The groups are flight performance, loads and structural dynamics, guidance, navigation and control, and integrated propulsion and fluids. Each of the areas is headed by a JSC man as technical manager. Another step we have taken is to form a propulsion systems office. This is not a new organizational element but an office within the as- PAGENO="0709" 707 sociate director for engineering of S. & E. Again we are expanding our responsibilities to overview the total Shuttle main propulsion system. The main propulsion system consists of the external tank, the orbiter engine, plus the associated ground equipment. We are conducting an overview of this total system, looking at its capability, and we are doing some independent analysis. Here again the Shuttle program is taking advantage of the capabilities at Marshall. I believe you are aware that all space flight centers are forming a program assessment group. I would like to discuss the major test activities that Dr. Lucas mentioned. I believe Mr. Yardley also presented this in his testimony. I would like to point out again that Marshall is responsible for the management and direction of main propulsion testing at NSTL including facility and all support equipment development. We are providing and installing all of the special test equipment and we are responsible for the conduct of the test operations. The primary con-. tractors involved are Rockwell International/Space Division and, of course, Martin, and Rocketdyne. I think that it. is of interest that we are managing a Space Division effort under a JSC contract. This is working quite well. Based on our propulsion test and propulsion systems capability, we were asked to take over this main propulsion test program. Again we are responsible for the management and direction, development of the test facility and support equipment requirements, and direction of the integration contractor. Now, unlike the mated vertical ground vibra- tion test where we are doing more direct effort in the test program, the primary effort being done at NSTL is by Rockwell, and again we are managing this effort. You may note that in recent budget submissions, we have transferred the dollars for this Rockwell effort from the JSO budget into our budget and the increase in systems support budget at Marshall is attributed to this. PAGENO="0710" 708 MSFC MANPOWER CATEGORIES OF EFFORT * PROGRAM MANAGEMENT * ENGINEERING TECHNICAL DIRECTION AND CONTROL * BACKUP DEVELOPMENT EFFORT - HIGH RISK AREAS * DIRECT INLINE PROJECT EFFORT * INTEGRATION * TESTING * ENGINEERING AND ANALYSIS * FACILITY OPERATION AT MSFC PERSONNEL, DOLLARS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT ARE PLANNED, APPROVED, AND CONTROLLED FOR EACH OF THESE CATEGORIES, AND AT A TASK LEVEL WITHIN EACH FIGURE 2 I would like to take just a minute to talk about how we use our people on the Shuttle program The chart on your left (figure 2) lists four primary categories of effort. Of course, you are well aware that we manage the program and that we use engineering for technical support and direction of our contractors We at this Center, as well as other centers, conduct a small amount of backup development effort in our laboratories, and we as well as other centers, contribute directly to the proj ects-not as an overview or management assessment, but we make a direct work contribution As of today, more than 50 percent of our manpower is dedicated to this direct project work I would like to discuss just briefly what we in Shuttle and Marshall consider as principles in program management, and those that we believe we are eff~ctively using in the Shuttle We believe that we must approach the job `with contractors as a partner. We feel that the management program must have a balance of management, technical, procurement, and other skills The point I would like to make is we feel very sti ongly from a project view that engineering people must be in a "doing" function or a "dirty hands" or working function in order to really have the skills to manage a program In summary, I would like to give you just briefly my assessment of our accomplishments in the last year I think that we had a very good year, and I would like to point out a few things that I feel highlight that. We are very pleased that our cost and schedule projections have held rather constant over the last 18 months I think that we are reaching a stable point in our program We are making some adjust- PAGENO="0711" 709 ments of milestones and we are making some cost adjustments, but by and large, we are becoming very stable. We are very pleased with Rocketdyne's performance in the engine in the last year and I think you will see this when Mr. Thompson briefs you. Chairman FUQUA. Is that it? Can you catch up any slack in the schedule that you lost by the test stand out at Santa Susana and some of the problems that they originally had? Mr. LINDSTROM. I think we have caught up the slack that occurred in the facility problem 1~ years ago. We had an accident out there last Thursday night which is going to cause us some difficulties. Mr. Thompson in his briefing will discuss that particular incident with you; but I think we have the engine back on schedule. We have started testing at NSTL and we are due to deliver late next spring the engines for the main propulsion test and I believe that we will do so. We are very pleased with Martin's performance which you will see tomorrow. Martin has done a very good job in design and we had a very fine CDR (critical design review) in November. Martin has done a very effective job in procurement. They have placed a great number of their subcontracts on a fixed price basis. They seem to get very competitive pricing and they manage their procurements quite well and we are very happy with Martin's approach. You will see one large tool down there tomorrow built by LTV, which I think a great job in completing was done in less than a year. Thiokol has done a good job and of course they are just getting started in terms of facilities and early design. As you know, in-house we have the overall integration effort on the solid rocket booster. We are taking the motor and adding structures and other systems. Mr. Hardy will show this implementation, and we are right on schedule in this job. We are very pleased and I think that all in all we have had a good year. This concludes my introduction; do you have any questions Mr. Chairman? Chairman FUQUA. Yes, Mr. Lindstrom, I just wondered what will the new Program Assessment Office do for the Shuttle and is this program assessment program similar to the old Boeing systems inte- gration effort that was done on the Apollo, I am a little vague on it? Mr. LINDSTROM. I prefer that Dr. Lucas comment on the systems integration effort. The Program Assessment Office will give center management, program management, and NASA an overview function over the projects, and I believe that it will help. They have some very good people that can probe into any area of the Shuttle and raise issues and questions and I think that in time it will be advantageous to the program. Dr. Lucas would you like to comment? Dr. LUCAS. Yes; let me comment. It is not nearly as extensive as the Boeing systems integration effort. Chairman FUQUA. Yes; but I was wondering. Dr. LUCAS. This is our own people primarily. For example, we will have a small number of people who are independent of the program offices and who can overview what is going on and advise me. The centers have similar activities, and the three work together with John Yardley. It is sort of an internal audit, rather than like the Boeing contract. Mr. LINDSTROM. Thank you, sir. Now I would like to introduce Mr. Bob Thompson, the project manager of the SSME. PAGENO="0712" 710 STATEMENT OP NAMES R. THOMPSON, ER., MANAGER, SPACE SHUT- TLE MAIN ENGINE, GEORGE C. MARSHALL SPACE PLIGHT CENTER Mr. LINDSTROM. I would like to now introduce Mr. Bob Thompson, MSFC manager of the SSME. Mr. THOMPSON. Mr. Chairman, as Bob indicated, I am the man- ager of the Shuttle engine project at Marshall. AGENDA * PROJECT OVERVIEW * RECENT ACCOMPLISHMENTS o TECHNICAL STATUS/SCHEDULE O COST/CONTRACT STATUS * MAJOR ISSUES AND CONCERNS FIGuRE 1 This is the agenda (fig. 1) that I will be following, although I would like to add one item. Bob indicated that we had an incidentup at the Cocoa test site last Wednesday, February 4. At the conclusion of my briefing, I would like to give you a very brief summary of what hap- pened and what our findings are to date. PAGENO="0713" 711 F~I~~HTST M~LRT~?~R SPACE SHUTTLE PROGRAM S~ I ~ -~-I SPACE SHUTTLE MAIN ENGINE PROJECT SCHEDULE 1.5-75-02-01 I T1~F~4 lJVJ~ I 1 ~ I~Y7~ ~ PROGRAM MILESTONES I s. %.OS d~ ~OREE I ~ ~ PROJECT ATP~ POE CDR PFCJ' I PRERURNER AND START CO SJE CON 8 AT F L I AUGMENTED SPARK M_~~Q~PLI.YY POEPUHNRRI YFOE~~ ON AT S IGNITER ASI) TEST COCA 4A THRUST CHAMBER TEST COCA 48 TURBOPUMP TEST - - ~ - ~ - ST 055 PREHURI ` START CONSTE ~L `~ - I ~ ~ 1 I CONSTE CORPS FIRST SIl~ 1 CORPS THRUSTCHAMRER J ~ V COMPLETE 1ST ~TT] 1 I LCQR5RJJ~ EST I ROPOWEELES rr ] ri~ 1 L5O55555jF !5T10fMMf~ LEL__ HPRESSUREI TEEN TURROP ~iPL1 - cQ~p~[5~ ST 1 FIRST T~HBOPLIMP j~jQpPLy ~ ~Q~f555jJ )MPUST~ST ENGINE TESTING NSTL A-S STAND - COMPLY ~4 ~~V~OPA RTRPLIOO1DI S5~55DSQL 1.~ I - - - .._.~.. f~5~5~ THEOTTUNG TOVEREEOUI SRANGRFRC IPL TORPLI ENGINE TESTING-NSTL A-2 STAND ~S~VT ~ .J_L - CONSTE ~L~ 2iSUSSL~ ~T START ISTP!~T ~5f54~j1 rSTtUP1PRI ICTION ~j W ITIATI FUG~T APE ~ - MAIN PROPULSION TEST ARTICLES MPTA FLIGHT ENGINES 211 OPERATIONALAPLIGHT SUPPORT ACTIVITY &J I 0~P~R7 OSIPREY 1 ~ C ~4' T~ ,, LLY~.. ~1_ ~IYXET L~__ ~ H0NEYI~ELL ~j~55f5E ~I4 I ~ ~T `Ii ~ ~ DEUVI 0 NSTL rr-r - ~AB~ FIRST SET OF ~ ~RH GSR-CDR C~4P~ETE I I~ ~ IL?7 4f ~ ~P A2~ 5~RACI ~ ~TT EPOSESSNLYc 2ND SE 13 ~ L4AS_E&SHT ~ FIGu1~ 2 This is an overview of our project schedules (JIg. 2), just to high- light several of our major milestones. We've scheduled a critical de- sign review in September of this year (1976), the preliminary flight certification is in November of 1978 and we have our final flight certi- fication out in April of 1980. Bob indicated that we would be delivering the main propulsion test article engines in the spring of next year. We are on schedule for that delivery and we are to deliver our first flight engines to KSC in August of 1978. I feel that we can meet those major dates. You can see from the chart some of the major test activity that I will be going into a little later concerning some of our component development testing at four of our Cocoa test positions, as well as NSTL. We have one test stand operational at NSTL now, and have been in test for about 8 months. Within the next month, we will be initiating testing on the second test position down there (the A-2 test position). I will cover later the status of our four major test positions at Cocoa. They have been active for some time and we are quite well along in our testing. PAGENO="0714" 712 SSME PROJECT SUMMARY OVERVIEW * GOOD PROGRESS ACROSS PROJECT DURING PAST YEAR PARTICULARLY DURING LAST SIX MONTHS * SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENT IN COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT TESTING AT SANTA SUSANA * SOME PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN ENGINE TRANSIENT DEVELOPMENT RECENT RESULTS ENCOURAGING * NSTL A 2 TEST POSITION ACTIVATION WELL ALONG TARGETING FOR LATE FEBRUARY FIRING * ENGINE 0002 COMPLETED ASSEMBLY AND CHECKOUT. INSTALLED IN A-2 TEST POSITION UNDERGOING ENGINE/FACILITY CHECKOUT. * ENGINE 0003 PROJECTED COMPLETE IN APRIL. * CONTROLLER ENVIRONMENTAL TEST RESULTS ENCOURAGING. PP-3 UNIT INSTALLED ON ENGINE 0002 * 42K COMBUSTION CHAMBER 100 CYCLE PROGRAM COMPLETE GOOD RESULTS LIMITED ADDITIONAL TESTING PLANNED TO EVALUATE HEATING RATES. * MAJOR LEVEL I MILESTONES COMING UP: * FEBRUARY - 60 SECOND DURATION ENGINE FIRING AT RATED POWER LEVEL. * MARCH DEMONSTRATE THROTTLING CAPABILITY OVER RANGE FROM MINIMUM TO RATED POWER LEVELS * OVERALL PROJECT SCHEDULE TIGHT BUT ACHIEVABLE FIGURE 3 In summary (fig 3), to give you an overview of the project, I think that we have made substantial progress during the past year in all phases of our activity, and I think you will see from some of the subse- quent charts that the rate of progress in the project across the board has been very good, particularly during the last 6 months This, of course, is because we are getting into the real "meat" of our test pro- gram, both at the component level, and at the engine level The major focus of our test activity during this period of time has been at Santa Susana, where we are testing the components I would like to give you a quick update-I know Jim Wilson and some of your staff were down here in September of this past year PAGENO="0715" 713 COJ~4P0NENT AND ENGINE THRUST LEVEL ACHIEVED 110 100- ~ACHIEVED SINCE SEPTEMBER, 1975 ---------~-ji-1~ HIGH 1100 1/2 OXID 1/2 FUEL FUEL OXIDIZER FLIGHT 0001 COMB INJECTOR PRESSURE PRESSURE PRESSURE PRESSURE POWER POWER POE. POE- NOZZLE (ISTB) CHAMBER OXIDIZER FUEL OXIDIZER FUEL HEAD HEAD BURNER BURNER 77.5:1 TURBO TURBO TURBO TURBO PUMp PUMP PUMP PUMP A A A MAJOR AREASOF CURRENTEMPHASIS FIGuRE 4 I've cross hatched on this chart (fig 4) with single lines exactly where we were at that time on all the major components In the left hand column, I've identified the accomplishment in terms of thrust level achievements as a percent of full power level operation, the full power level (FPL) which you see at the top, RPL (rated power level), which is 100 percent of thrust, and the minimum power level (MPL) which is at 50 percent of thrust What you see in the single cross hatch is where we were in the September time frame for each of the major components The double cross hatch indicates the pro- gress we have made subsequent to that point in time You can tell that up until 6 to 8 months ago, about the only components on the engine that we had exposed to any significant power level, were our preburners. Now, in general, we've tested all components above the MPL operating point The combustion devices, with the main com- bustion chamber, the injector, and the development nozzle, have all been exposed to the full power level operating condition Next I'll indicate progress on the turbomachinery On the oxidizer side the low pressure pump has been to the FPL condition, the low pressure pump on the fuel side has been to the full power level The oxidizer high pressure pump has been to the rated power level condition and the high pressure fuel pump has been somewhat over the minimum power level condition to date I will summarize a little later the status of the engine program, but 2 weeks ago we achieved our first test where we tested the engine up to the minimum power level conditions, and to main stage The one blank you see here is due to the fact that PAGENO="0716" 714 we have not accomplished any testing yet on our large 77-to-i area ratio nozzle. The testing I indicated earlier on the nozzle was with the development unit, the area ratio there is 35-to-i. We have had some manufacturing problems with this piece of hardware. We feel that we have that behind us now and we will complete the first unit in early March and we will go right into the test at that point. This is just one way to look at what we've accomplished in our test program. SSME TEST ACTIVITY ACTUAL VS. PLANNED OXIDIZER TURBOPUMP TESTS FUEL TURBOPUMP TESTS COCA 1A STAND COCA lB STAND - 1B7SCV I 1979CY - 1975CY I~ i~7~CY 1121314111 Is ~t1 21314 1121 2~......j ~PLANNED v CDR 146 ......PLANNED VCDR go ACTUAL -ACTUAL 8 SI 2 71 ci 12 56 _____-~ 046,' - THRUST CHAMBER TESTS ENGINE HOT FIRE TESTS COCA 48 STAND AT NSTL - 1975CV I !97~ CV - 1975 CV 1976 CV - 1121314111213 ~.j... 1121314 1121 146 PLANNED VCDR 100 ___PLANNED A-i & A-2" CDR - ACTUAL -ACTUAL STANDS A-i STAND-+4-ACTIVE,' - go ACTIVE ~5() -, ~6S ~ 40 NOTE: 5TEST RUN ..` 0 ~ IN 1974 -- // - 3>" - FIGURE 5 You see here (fig. 5) with the dotted line the planned or forecast cumulative tests for our oxidizer turbopump position, our fuel turbo- pump position, our combustion devices (which we collect as a group in test.ing the injector, the combustion chamber, and nozzle on our Cocoa 4-B test stand), and our testing at NSTL. I show you the actuals to date. Both chart.s together measure our progress. We feel that we are in very good shape, as I indicated earlier, in the combustion devices area. I have indicated also the thrust levels that we have achieved. If you look at the performance, because certainly this PAGENO="0717" `715 extrapolates into the specific impusle that we are all counting on getting out of the main engine, the data to date has been very good. It has been very close to specification and from the limited data we have from the component stands, it looks like it might be a little on the high side. Our biggest behind schedule position, if that is the way to state it, has been NSTL. You can see here our actuals versus what we had planned. To date, we've been active on the A-i position only. We have accelerated planned testing now on the A-2 test stand and brought it forward approximately 6 months. Of course, we are targeting to get all of these tests off by the critical design review. Considering the results of engine testing, I think we have had very good success down at NSTL. The type problems that we have encountered have been very typical of our LOX/hydrogen engine development experience on the J-2's and the RL-iO's. The problems predominantly focus on the start sequence and the cutoff sequence. The NSTL A-2 test position activation is almost complete now, and we will be starting testing within the month. Engine 0002, the second engine, is now installed in that test position. FIGURE 6 PAGENO="0718" FIGTJRE 7 You can see here (fig 6) a picture of engine 0002 which was com- pleted by the end of 1975 and delivered to NSTL during the first week of January. You can see the engine installed (fig 8) in the canted position on the A-2 test stand It is canted about 18 to simulate the orientation as it will be in the aft end of the orbiter. This engine is now installed in the stand and we are in the process of checking it out. Earlier in the program the controller was a problem area We feel now that we have overcome almost all of our earlier problems Cer-. tainly there are two parts to the controller system, the software as well as the hardware. All of our testing at NSTL has been accomplished 716 PAGENO="0719" 717 driven by a rack-mounted controller and using the current flight sof t- ware as we know it today. That part of the controller subsystem has worked very well. I think we have the major hardware problems behind us. FIGURE 8 We have accomplished, over the past 3 months, very extensive environmental testing of this controller. We have tested to both the high and low temperature cycles. We've had good results there. The other aspect of it would be the vibration environment that we see on the engine, where right now we would estimate that it would be about 22~ g's. Up to 4 to 5 months ago, we had the controller hard mounted to the engine. With some of our earlier problems being vibration initiated, we went to a soft-mount configuration where we have the equivalent of four attach points and use spool-type isolators about the size of your fist. You can see here (figure 7) the PP-3 controller (PP represent prototype) that is now installed on the engine at NSTL- engine 0002. This controller was used very successfully in the checkout of this engine at the Canoga Park plant. The results that we have to date on this unit are very encouraging. When we designed to the isola- tors, late last fall, we obtained only very limited life from the units. They were good for about 20 minutes, but can be changed out on the engine. We have made a very recent design modification to that configuration and we are right in the process now of verifying th~at mod. As of early this morning, we have in excess of 4 hours on those mounts and they look very good. We feel that we have made an awful lot of progress in this area and Honeywell has done a very fine job for us. 7O-Ofl~ 0 - 76 - 46 PAGENO="0720" 718 I have summarized some of the test activity that we have accom- plished. I would also like to talk for a just a minute about where we stand in manufacturing, and how far along some of the major com- ponents are relative to being made available for test. CRITICAL HARDWARE STATUS COMPLETE AS COMPLETE AS CURRENTLY MAJOR HARDWARE ITEMS OF SEPT, 1975 OF FEB. 1976 IN WORK FUEL PREBURNER CHAMBER ASSEMBLIES 5 9 7 OXIDIZER PREBURNER CHAMBER ASSEMBLIES 7 9 7 MAIN COMBUSTION CHAMBERS 2 3 10 MAIN INJECTORS 2 4 7 NOZZLES 2 3 6 HOT GAS MANIFOLDS 3 6 4 POWERHEADS 2 4 2 LOW PRESSURE OXIDIZER TURBOPUMPS 2 - 4 8 LOW PRESSURE FUEL TURBOPUMPS 2 4 6 HIGH PRESSURE OXIDIZER TURBOPUMPS 2 4 7 HIGH PRESSURE FUEL TURBOPUMPS 2 4 8 CONTROLLER ASSEMBLIES * 1 3 3 ENGINES 1 2 4 FIGURE 9 I have listed here (fig. 9) all of the major hardware items on the engine; certainly, there are others, but these are the major assemblies. To give you a feel for where we stand, and the rate of our progress- in the left column I have given you a status `report of where we stood last September when some of your staff visited us. These-next column-are the equivalent number of units complete in early Febru- ary and these-last column-are the units that we have in work. So, you can see over the last 5 to 6 months, in general, we have essentially doubled the hardware in the program available for test; and, of course, we have quite a number of units in work. The MPTA units were placed in work in May of last year. I understand that you saw a very brief progress film at headquarters quite recently. I would like to show you more of that film. I think it is very good, and gives you a good feel for some of the type activities we have been doing, not only on major testing, but also in some of our laboratory design verification testing. (Film): I would like to start with the testing at NSTL. As you recall, we delivered the ISTB engine in March of last year. We initiated our testing in early May, and by June we had achieved one of our major project milestones with the ignition of the main combustion chamber. During the subsequent 2 or 3 months, we were focusing on working out the start transition problems that we were encountering. I think that we pretty well worked the sequence out and we achieved chamber PAGENO="0721" 719 pressure levels of up to about 1,100 psi The rated condition for reference is about 3,000 psi We tested up to about 30 percent of the rated thrust condition. The duration of those tests were very short, but we did achieve conditions where the engine control system was closed loop and with another second duration would be steady state. In November, we curtailed testing for a scheduled overhaul; we com- pletely disassembled the engine for inspection and for modification of some of the components to incorporate some of the more recent design changes All of this work was accomplished at NSTL From the time that the engine came out of the test stand until the time it went back in, and was checked out, was 29 days Approximately 25 of those days were actually used for the refurbishment and the total man-hours expended during refurbishment were about 1,496 man-hours. We had an eight-man team during that overhaul, and as I indicated we got back into test about 29 days later. I had mentioned earlier that one of the problems that we have encountered was associated with the transition testing and it actually involved the sequencing of our control valves We were getting exces- sive internal leakage during cutoff and some of our oxidizer valves were refurbished to correct this condition-you see some of that activity here Our turbopump assembly room back at Canoga has been a very active area over the last 3 months As a matter of fact, during those 3 months, we have assembled and disassembled 12 complete turbo- pumps. You can see some of the activity going on here. This is a balancing operation of our high pressure fuel turbopump rotor This is accomplished in an area immediately outside the turbopump assembly room. Here you see the high pressure fuel turbopumps undergoing assembly. Normally, that assembly time takes us about 15 days on both high pressure pumps. Low pressure pump assembly can be any- where from 1 to 4 days. They go together very quickly. We have tooling capability in that room for two complete sets of turbopumps, both high and low pressure at any one time You can see here some of the very recent design modifications that we have made on the impeller of the high pressure LOX pump to improve the performance The next series of shots is up in the Coca Test Area where we do all of our major component testing You see here a test of our combined low- and high-pressure oxidizer turbopumps They are driven by pre- burner exhaust gas. This is one of the tests we conducted on our low- pressure fuel turbopump which can be tested independently To date, we've accumulated, over the last 4 months, 30 tests each on the high- and low-pressure turbopump systems, both the fuel and the oxidizer You see here one of the recent design mods we made because of a design problem that we uncovered In the main combustion chamber we had a weak section in a longitudinal weld seam We have now in- stalled a girdle for strength on our first two units We have this girdle on the ISTB engine and on our first component unit We have com- pleted both mods and again, as I indicated, have tested that chamber up to full power level operating condition. Here you see a very major test position, Coca 4B, where we do our testing of almost all of our combustion devices We have the dual preburners exhausting into a solid wall hot gas manifold through the flight-type injector, the flight- type chamber, and, of course, the 35 1 development nozzle Here you see a film sequence of the RPL test Next the test we completed in late December of this last year where we achieved the full power level PAGENO="0722" 720 opei atrng condition The maximum test time on these stands is about 8 seconds on the combustion devices and we get up to about 50 to 60 seconds on the turbopump side This is a view looking up the nozzle during the full power level test If you look very carefully in these films you can see the mach diamonds Another very important aspect of our program, to evaluate the life we have on this combustion chamber, was the 42K subscale testing at Marshall That program is now complete We have successfully con- ducted over 100 cycles on that unit We also test up at Coca on our Coca 4A stand augmented spark igniters We have tested the ASI's, the augmented spark igniters, for the preburners, as well as the main chamber now for a duration of, in excess of that we have in flight, which is over 10 minutes I talked about the major components we test in the program To augment this, we certainly conduct very extensive testing in the labor- atories The earlier frames were of some seal tests that we are conduct- ing on our high-pressure LOX turbopump Here you see some struc- tural tests on the blades of our high-pressure fuel turbopump The yellow you see there is the stress coat that we use for analysis We also conduct component proof tests on all structural items Here you see the low-pressure LOX pump with strain guages applied This is a spin test, again in the lab, of fuel turbopump under cryogenic conditions All of our valves are tested very extensively in the lab. This is a vibra- tion test under cryogenic conditions of our main oxidizer valve As Bob indicated earlier, we are quite well along, not only our POGO design, but actually in testing up at Santa Susana The picture you saw there was the accumulator that is located between the two oxidizer turbopumps on the engine I indicated a little earlier that we have had a significant fabrication problem with our 77 1 nozzle We think that is behind us now. We have very recently completed the first braze cycle of our 1062 tubes inside that nozzle That braze cycle went very well There is a very extensive amount of tooling involved here. You see the pressure bag that's located down inside the nozzle to assure we keep all the tubes under the right pressure and in the correct position during the braze cycle We have a thermal jack that is installed, and you see here the installation of the retort over the nozzle and then finally closing the door on the furnace The first braze cycle was extremely successful As a matter of fact, it was more so than the braze cycles we accomplished earlier on the 35 1 nozzle We did have some between tube leakage and had to go back into several subsequent braze cycles We are through that now and that unit is in good shape This is the assembly sequence of engine 0002 I think that we were all quite surprised during the ISTB engine assembly, that whole assembly operation went together in 21 days from start to finish We didn't know whether we would be able to repeat that with sub- sequent engines Engine 0002 went together in a little more than half the time It was about 14 days from start to finish Assembly went very well The ease of assembly is again further substantiated by the time required for total disassembly and reassembly of the ISTB engine during refurbishment at NSTL These are some shots of some of our controller work up at Min- neapolis Honeywell. I indicated earlier a very important part of this program was the vibration testing. Those results have been very PAGENO="0723" 721 successful. We did deliver the controller to Canoga Park for engine checkout. We do use the NASA aircraft for transportation. Not only for the controller, which certainly is a very key part of the program, but also for any turbopump rework. We always send turbopumps back to Canoga for refurbishment and we do use NASA 10 for that activity. These are some shots of some of the software work that takes place during checkout. We use a flight type tape, the same checkout we will be using at the Cape for flight. That is a close-up shot of the isolators mounted on the engine during assembly at the Conoga plant. We did ship engine 0002 to NSTL via the same mode of transportation we use on the ISTB. We truck it. It takes us about 4 to 5 days to get it down there and we see no problem with that. We are very pleased with the total packaging arrangement on the engine; it is very serviceable, and easily refurbishable. There are certainly a lot of welds in the engine but with the procedures that have been worked out, we can take it apart and put it together very quickly. Chairman FUQUA. Is that about the meat of it, Bob? CURRENT WEIGHT STATUS CEI VALUE DESIGN GOAL __________ 100 ~` ____ HTGRO ____________________ 5 SLOPE EQUATE fH+H+ftftftth ~o 4 LB PER W)NTII I-H-I-I-ti iH-1H-F I ________ ~94~ ___ 93 AHEAD 92 RELEASE CDR _______ 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1000 YEAR CURRENT ENGINE WEIGHT:~46 POUNDS PREDICTED ENGINE WEIGHT AT FFC: < 6446 POUNDS FIGURE 10 Mr. THOMPSON. I think so-figure 10-just a quick statement on where we stand on weight. I indicated earlier some of the fabrication problems we have had with the nozzle. We have recently, over the last 3 months, added some weight in the nozzle, primarily to assist manufacturing. This is our control limit on our specification * weight. I think we are in pretty good shape in this area. Chairman FUQUA. You said you put a girdle on the main combus- tion chamber. Is that just temporary? PAGENO="0724" 722 FACILITY STATUS SANTA SUSANA * COCA 4 (PREBURNERS, COMBUSTION CHAMBERS, NOZZLES) - FACILITY COMPLETE AND ACTIVATED. - TESTING UNDERWAY. * COCA 1 (POWERHEADS, TURBOMACHINERY, HEAT EXCHANGERS) - FACILITY COMPLETE AND ACTIVATED. - TESTING UNDERWAY. NSTL * A-i (SEA LEVEL ENGINE POSITION) - FACILITY COMPLETE AND ACTIVATED. - TESTING UNDERWAY. * A-2 (ALTITUDE ENGINE POSITION) - FACILITY COMPLETE. - ACTIVATION NEARING COMPLETION. - TESTING SCHEDULED FOR LATE FEBRUARY. FIG1JRE 11 Mr. THOMPSON. That is just temporary for the first two units. (Fig. 11): Our facility status-I had indicated that we were in test on all positions. We will be in test during the next month on the A-2 test position at NSTL. All construction is complete. PAGENO="0725" 723 TOP PROBLEMS * MAJOR TECHNICAL ISSUES: * HIGH PRESSURE FUEL TURBOPUMP BALANCE PISTON PERFORMANCE. * ENGINE TRANSITION DEVELOPMENT - ENCOURAGING RECENT RESULTS, MORE WORK REQUIRED. * HIGH PRESSURE OXIDIZER TURBOPUMP PERFORMANCE. * HIGH PRESSURE OXIDIZER TTJRBOPUMP SEAL DEVELOPMENT. * IMPROVEMENTS STiLL REQUIRED IN MANUFACTURING, PARTICULARLY WELDING. * PROGRAMMATIC: * PROJECT COSTS VERY TIGHT FOR REMAINDER OF PERIOD A. CHANGES BEING DEFERRED MAXIMUM EXTENT POSSIBLE. SCHEDULE ACHIEVEMENT - DOWN SEVERAL WEEKS OVER 6-MONTH PERIOD. FIGURE 12 (Fig. 12): Just a moment on our top problems. We do have some technical problems in the project. The high pressure fuel turbopump- we have to work out the proper balance on the balance piston in that pump. We haven't accomplished that yet and that is pretty much what has held us back in achieving the rated power level conditions there. Engine transition development-although I think our recent development tests have been very encouraging-we still have to achieve the rated power level condit